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首页 【德里达】结构、符号和游戏

【德里达】结构、符号和游戏.pdf

【德里达】结构、符号和游戏

九月虺
2009-07-05 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【德里达】结构、符号和游戏pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

JacquesDerrida:"Structure,Sign,andPlayintheDiscourseoftheHumanSciences",iJacquesDerrida,WritingandDifference,transAlanBassLondon,RoutledgeInnholdsfortegnelseInnholdsfortegnelseNotatomlayout"Structure,Sign,andPlayintheDiscourseoftheHumanSciences"KildeNotatomlayoutArtikkelenergjengittpånettsidenutensidetall,bortsettfrakildehenvisningenistartenHerertekstenbeholdtidenformjegfantdenpånettsiden,inkludertcopyrightnoticeforormingenavnettsiden,somfinneshelttilsluttiartikkelenHHJ"Structure,Sign,andPlayintheDiscourseoftheHumanSciences"JacquesDerrida,WritingandDifference,transAlanBassLondon:Routledge,ppPerhapssomethinghasoccurredinthehistoryoftheconceptofstructurethatcouldbecalledan"event,"ifthisloadedworddidnotentailameaningwhichitispreciselythefunctionofstructuralorstructuralistthoughttoreduceortosuspectButletmeusetheterm"event"anyway,employingitwithcautionandasifinquotationmarksInthissense,thiseventwillhavetheexteriorformofaruptureandaredoublingItwouldbeeasyenoughtoshowthattheconceptofstructureandeventheword"structure"itselfareasoldastheepistemethatistosay,asoldaswesternscienceandwesternphilosophyandthattheirrootsthrustdeepintothesoilofordinarylanguage,intowhosedeepestrecessestheepistemeplungestogatherthemtogetheroncemore,makingthempartofitselfinametaphoricaldisplacementNevertheless,upuntiltheeventwhichIwishtomarkoutanddefine,structureorratherthestructuralityofstructurealthoughithasalwaysbeeninvolved,hasalwaysbeenneutralizedorreduced,andthisbyaprocessofgivingitacenterorreferringittoapointofpresence,afixedoriginThefunctionofthiscenterwasnotonlytoorient,balance,andorganizethestructureonecannotinfactconceiveofanunorganizedstructurebutabovealltomakesurethattheorganizingprincipleofthestructurewouldlimitwhatwemightcallthefreeplayofthestructureNodoubtthatbyorientingandorganizingthecoherenceofthesystem,thecenterofastructurepermitsthefreeplayofitselementsinsidethetotalformAndeventodaythenotionofastructurelackinganycenterrepresentstheunthinkableitselfNevertheless,thecenteralsoclosesoffthefreeplayitopensupandmakespossibleQuacenter,itisthepointatwhichthesubstitutionofcontents,elements,ortermsisnolongerpossibleAtthecenter,thepermutationorthetransformationofelements(whichmayofcoursebestructuresenclosedwithinastructure)isforbiddenAtleastthispermutationhasalwaysremainedinterdicted(Iusethisworddeliberately)Thusithasalwaysbeenthoughtthatthecenter,whichisbydefinitionunique,constitutedthatverythingwithinastructurewhichgovernsthestructure,whileescapingstructuralityThisiswhyclassicalthoughtconcerningstructurecouldsaythatthecenteris,paradoxically,withinthestructureandoutsideitThecenterisatthecenterofthetotality,andyet,sincethecenterdoesnotbelongtothetotality(isnotpartofthetotality),thetotalityhasitscenterelsewhereThecenterisnotthecenterTheconceptofcenteredstructurealthoughitrepresentscoherenceitself,theconditionoftheepistemeasphilosophyorscienceiscontradictorilycoherentAnd,asalways,coherenceincontradictionexpressestheforceofadesireTheconceptofcenteredstructureisinfacttheconceptofafreeplaybasedonafundamentalground,afreeplaywhichisconstituteduponafundamentalimmobilityandareassuringcertitude,whichisitselfbeyondthereachofthefreeplayWiththiscertitudeanxietycanbemastered,foranxietyisinvariablytheresultofacertainmodeofbeingimplicatedinthegame,ofbeingcaughtbythegame,ofbeingasitwerefromtheverybeginningatstakeinthegameFromthebasisofwhatwethereforecallthecenter(andwhich,becauseitcanbeeitherinsideoroutside,isasreadilycalledtheoriginastheend,asreadilyarchéastelos),therepetitions,thesubstitutionsthetransformations,andthepermutationsarealwaystakenfromahistoryofmeaningsensthatis,ahistory,periodwhoseoriginmayalwaysberevealedorwhoseendmayalwaysbeanticipatedintheformofpresenceThisiswhyonecouldperhapssaythatthemovementofanyarcheology,likethatofanyeschatology,isanaccompliceofthisreductionofthestructuralalityofstructureandalwaysattemptstoconceiveofstructurefromthebasisofafullpresencewhichisoutofplayIfthisisso,thewholehistoryoftheconceptofstructure,beforetheruptureIspokeof,mustbethoughtofasaseriesofsubstitutionsofcenterforcenter,asalinkedchainofdeterminationsofthecenterSuccessively,andinaregulatedfashion,thecenterreceivesdifferentformsornamesThehistoryofmetaphysics,likethehistoryoftheWest,isthehistoryofthesemetaphorsandmetonymiesItsmatrixifyouwillpardonmefordemonstratingsolittleandforbeingsoellipticalinordertobringmemorequicklytomyprincipalthemeisthedeterminationofbeingaspresenceinallthesensesofthiswordItwouldbepossibletoshowthatallthenamesrelatedtofundamentals,toprinciples,ortotheIcenterhavealwaysdesignatedtheconstantofapresenceeidos,arche,telos,energeia,ousia(essence,existence,substance,subject)aletheiatruth,transcendentality,consciousness,orconscience,God,man,andsoforthTheeventIcalledarupture,thedisruptionalludedtoatthebeginningofthispaper,wouldpresumablyhavecomeaboutwhenthestructuralityofstructurehadtobegintobethought,thatistosay,repeated,andthisiswhyIsaidthatthisdisruptionwasrepetitioninallofthesensesofthiswordFromthenonitbecamenecessarytothinkthelawwhichgoverned,asitwere,thedesireforthecenterintheconstitutionofstructureandtheprocessofsignificationprescribingitsdisplacementsanditssubstitutionsforthislawofthecentralpresencebutacentralpresencewhichwasneveritself,whichhasalwaysalreadybeentransportedoutsideitselfinitssurrogateThesurrogatedoesnotsubstituteitselfforanythingwhichhassomehowpreexisteditFromthenonitwasprobablynecessarytobegintothinkthattherewasnocenter,thatthecentercouldnotbethoughtintheformofabeingpresent,thatthecenterhadnonaturallocus,thatitwasnotafixedlocusbutafunction,asortofnonlocusinwhichaninfinitenumberofsignsubstitutionscameintoplayThismomentwasthatinwhichlanguageinvadedtheuniversalproblematicthatinwhich,intheabsenceofacenterororigin,everythingbecamediscourseprovidedwecanagreeonthiswordthatistosay,wheneverythingbecameasystemwherethecentralsignified,theoriginalortranscendentalsignified,isneverabsolutelypresentoutsideasystemofdifferencesTheabsenceofthetranscendentalsignifiedextendsthedomainandtheinterplayofsignificationadinfinitumWhereandhowdoesthisdecentering,thisnotionofthestructuralityofstructure,occurItwouldbesomewhatnaivetorefertoanevent,adoctrine,oranauthorinordertodesignatethisoccurrenceItisnodoubtpartofthetotalityofanera,ourown,butstillithasalreadybeguntoproclaimitselfandbeguntoworkNevertheless,ifIwishedtogivesomesortofindicationbychoosingoneortwo"names,"andbyrecallingthoseauthorsinwhosediscoursesthisoccurrencehasmostnearlymaintaineditsmostradicalformulation,IwouldprobablycitetheNietzscheancritiqueofmetaphysics,thecritiqueoftheconceptsofbeingandtruth,forwhichweresubstitutedtheconceptsofplay,interpretation,andsign(signwithouttruthpresent)theFreudiancritiqueofselfpresence,thatis,thecritiqueofconsciousness,ofthesubject,ofselfidentityandofselfproximityorselfpossessionand,moreradically,theHeideggereandestructionofmetaphysics,ofontotheology,ofthedeterminationofbeingaspresenceButallthesedestructivediscoursesandalltheiranaloguesaretrappedinasortofcircleThiscircleisuniqueItdescribestheformoftherelationshipbetweenthehistoryofmetaphysicsandthedestructionofthehistoryofmetaphysicsThereisnosenseindoingwithouttheconceptsofmetaphysicsinordertoattackmetaphysicsWehavenolanguagenosyntaxandnolexiconwhichisalientothishistorywecannotutterasingledestructivepropositionwhichhasnotalreadyslippedintotheform,thelogic,andtheimplicitpostulationsofpreciselywhatitseekstocontestTopickoutoneexamplefrommany:themetaphysicsofpresenceisattackedwiththehelpoftheconceptofthesignButfromthemomentanyonewishesthistoshow,asIsuggestedamomentago,thatthereisnotranscendentalorprivilegedsignifiedandthatthedomainortheinterplayofsignificationhas,henceforth,nolimit,heoughttoextendhisrefusaltotheconceptandtothewordsignitselfwhichispreciselywhatcannotbedoneForthesignification"sign"hasalwaysbeencomprehendedanddetermined,initssense,assignof,signifierreferringtoasignified,signifierdifferentfromitssignifiedIfoneerasestheradicaldifferencebetweensignifierandsignified,itisthewordsignifieritselfwhichoughttobeabandonedasametaphysicalconceptWhenLeviStrausssaysintheprefacetoTheRawandtheCookedthathehas"soughttotranscendtheoppositionbetweenthesensibleandtheintelligiblebyplacinghimselffromtheverybeginningatthelevelofsigns,"thenecessity,theforce,andthelegitimacyofhisactcannotmakeusforgetthattheconceptofthesigncannotinitselfsurpassorbypassthisoppositionbetweenthesensibleandtheintelligibleTheconceptofthesignisdeterminedbythisopposition:throughandthroughoutthetotalityofitshistoryandbyitssystemButwecannotdowithouttheconceptofthesign,wecannotgiveupthismetaphysicalcomplicitywithoutalsogivingupthecritiquewearedirectingagainstthiscomplicity,withouttheriskoferasingdifferencealtogetherintheselfidentityofasignifiedreducingintoitselfitssignifier,or,whatamountstothesamething,simplyexpellingitoutsideitselfFortherearetwoheterogenouswaysoferasingthedifferencebetweenthesignifierandthesignified:one,theclassicway,consistsinreducingorderivingthesignifier,thatistosay,ultimatelyinsubmittingthesigntothoughttheother,theoneweareusinghereagainstthefirstone,consistsinputtingintoquestionthesysteminwhichtheprecedingreductionfunctioned:firstandforemost,theoppositionbetweenthesensibleandtheintelligibleTheparadoxisthatthemetaphysicalreductionofthesignneededtheoppositionitwasreducingTheoppositionispartofthesystem,alongwiththereductionAndwhatIamsayinghereaboutthesigncanbeextendedtoalltheconceptsandallthesentencesofmetaphysics,inparticulartothediscourseon"structure"ButtherearemanywaysofbeingcaughtinthiscircleTheyareallmoreorlessnaive,moreorlessempirical,moreorlesssystematic,moreorlessclosetotheformulationoreventotheformalizationofthiscircleItisthesedifferenceswhichexplainthemultiplicityofdestructivediscoursesandthedisagreementbetweenthosewhomakethemItwaswithinconceptsinheritedfrommetaphysicsthatNietzsche,Freud,andHeideggerworked,forexampleSincetheseconceptsarenotelementsoratomsandsincetheyaretakenfromasyntaxandasystem,everyparticularborrowingdragsalongwithitthewholeofmetaphysicsThisiswhatallowsthesedestroyerstodestroyeachotherreciprocallyforexample,HeideggerconsideringNietzsche,withasmuchlucidityandrigorasbadfaithandmisconstruction,asthelastmetaphysician,thelast"Platonist"OnecoulddothesameforHeideggerhimself,forFreud,orforanumberofothersAndtodaynoexerciseismorewidespreadWhatistherelevanceofthisformalschemawhenweturntowhatarecalledthe"humansciences"OneofthemperhapsoccupiesaprivilegedplaceethnologyOnecaninfactassumethatethnologycouldhavebeenbornasascienceonlyatthemomentwhenadecentennghadcomeabout:atthemomentwhenEuropeancultureand,inconsequence,thehistoryofmetaphysicsandofitsconceptshadbeendislocated,drivenfromitslocus,andforcedtostopconsideringitselfasthecultureofreferenceThismomentisnotfirstandforemostamomentofphilosophicalorscientificdiscourse,itisalsoamomentwhichispolitical,economic,technical,andsoforthOnecansayintotalassurancethatthereisnothingfortuitousaboutthefactthatthecritiqueofethnocentrismtheveryconditionofethnologyshouldbesystematicallyandhistoricallycontemporaneouswiththedestructionofthehistoryofmetaphysicsBothbelongtoasingleandsameeraEthnologylikeanysciencecomesaboutwithintheelementofdiscourseAnditisprimarilyaEuropeanscienceemployingtraditionalconcepts,howevermuchitmaystruggleagainstthemConsequently,whetherhewantstoornotandthisdoesnotdependonadecisiononhisparttheethnologistacceptsintohisdiscoursethepremisesofethnocentrismattheverymomentwhenheisemployedindenouncingthemThisnecessityisirreducibleitisnotahistoricalcontingencyWeoughttoconsiderverycarefullyallitsimplicationsButifnobodycanescapethisnecessity,andifnooneisthereforeresponsibleforgivingintoit,howeverlittle,thisdoesnotmeanthatallthewaysofgivingintoitareofanequalpertinenceThequalityandthefecundityofadiscourseareperhapsmeasuredbythecriticalrigorwithwhichthisrelationshiptothehistoryofmetaphysicsandtoinheritedconceptsisthoughtHereitisaquestionofacriticalrelationshiptothelanguageofthehumansciencesandaquestionofacriticalresponsibilityofthediscourseItisaquestionofputtingexpresslyandsystematicallytheproblemofadiscoursewhichborrowsfromaheritagetheresourcesnecessaryofthatheritageitselfAproblemofeconomyandstrategyIfInowgoontoemployanexaminationofthetextsofLeviStraussasanexample,itisnotonlybecauseoftheprivilegeaccordedtoethnologyamongthehumansciences,noryetbecausethethoughtofLeviStraussweighsheavilyonthecontemporarytheoreticalsituationItisaboveallbecauseacertainchoicehasmadeitselfevidentintheworkofLeviStraussandbecauseacertaindoctrinehasbeenelaboratedthere,andpreciselyinamoreorlessexplicitmanner,inrelationtothiscritiqueoflanguageandtothiscriticallanguageinthehumansciencesInordertofollowthismovementinthetextofLeviStrauss,letmechooseasoneguidingthreadamongotherstheoppostionbetweennatureandcultureInspiteofallitsrejuvenationsanditsdisguises,thisoppositioniscongenitaltophilosophyItisevenolderthanPlatoItisatleastasoldastheSophistsSincethestatementoftheoppositionPhysisnomos,physistechnenatureculture,natureartormakingithasbeenpassedontousbyawholehistoricalchainwhichopposes"nature"tothelaw,toeducation,toart,totechnicsandalsotoliberty,tothearbitrary,tohistory,tosociety,tothemind,andsoonFromthebeginningsofhisquestandfromhisfirstbook,TheElementaryStructuresofKinship,LeviStrausshasfeltatoneandthesametimethenecessityofutilizingthisoppositionandtheimpossibilityofmakingitacceptableIntheElementaryStructures,hebeginsfromthisaxiomordefinition:thatbelongstonaturewhichisuniversalandspontaneous,notdependingonanyparticularcultureoronanydeterminatenormThatbelongstoculture,ontheotherhand,whichdependsonasystemofnormsregulatingsocietyandisthereforecapableofvaryingfromonesocialstructuretoanotherThesetwodefinitionsareofthetraditionaltypeBut,intheveryfirstpagesoftheElementaryStructures,LeviStrauss,whohasbeguntogivetheseconceptsanacceptablestanding,encounterswhathecallsascandal,thatistosay,somethingwhichnolongertoleratesthenaturecultureoppositionhehasacceptedandwhichseemstorequireatoneandthesametimethepredicatesofnatureandthoseofcultureThisscandalistheincestprohibitionTheincestprohibitionisuniversalinthissenseonecouldcallitnaturalButitisalsoaprohibition,asystemofnormsandinterdictsinthissenseonecouldcallitculturalLetusassumethereforethateverythinguniversalinmanderivesfromtheorderofnatureandischaractenzedbyspontaneity,thateverythingwhichissubjecttoanormbelongstocultureandpresentstheattributesoftherelativeandtheparticularWethenfindourselvesconfrontedbyafact,orratheranensembleoffacts,which,inthelightoftheprecedingdefinitions,isnotfarfromappeanogasascandal:theprohibitionofincestpresentswithouttheleastequivocation,andindissolublylinkedtogether,thetwocharacteristicsinwhichwerecognizedthecontradictoryattributesoftwoexclusiveordersTheprohibitionofincestconstitutesarule,butarule,aloneofallthesocialrules,whichpossessesatthesametimeauniversalcharacterObviously,thereisnoscandalexceptintheinteriorofasystemofconceptssanctioningthedifferencebetweennatureandcultureInbeginninghisworkwiththefactumoftheincestprohibition,LeviStraussthusputshimselfinapositionentailingthatthisdifference,whichhasalwaysbeenassumedtobeselfevident,becomesobliteratedordisputedFor,fromthemomentthattheincestprohibitioncannolongerbeconceivedwithinthenaturecultureopposition,itcannolongerbesaidthatitisascandalousfact,anucleusofopacitywithinanetworkoftransparentsignificationsTheincestprohibitionisnolongerascandalonemeetswithorcomesupagainstinthedomainoftraditionalconceptsitissomethingwhichescapestheseconceptsandcertainlyprecedesthemprobablyastheconditionoftheirpossibilityItcouldperhapsbesaidthatthewholeofphilosophicalconceptualization,systematicallyrelatingitselftothenaturecultureopposition,isdesignedtoleaveinthedomainoftheunthinkabletheverythingthatmakesthisconceptualizationpossible:theoriginoftheprohibitionofincestIhavedealttoocursorilywiththisexample,onlyoneamongsomanyothers,buttheexampleneverthelessrevealsthatlanguagebearswithinitselfthenecessityofitsowncritiqueThiscritiquemaybeundertakenalongtwotracks,intwo"manners"Oncethelimitofnaturecultureoppositionmakesitselffelt,onemightwanttoquestionsystema

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【德里达】结构、符号和游戏

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