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首页 【德里达】书写与差异(英文)

【德里达】书写与差异(英文).pdf

【德里达】书写与差异(英文)

九月虺
2009-07-05 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【德里达】书写与差异(英文)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

JacquesDerridaWritingandDifferenceTranslated,withanintroductionandadditionalnotes,byAlanBassLondonandNewYorkISBN(hbk)ISBN(pbk)Letoutsansnouveauttqu'unespacementdelalectureMallarm,PrefacetoUncoupdedesFirstpublishedbyEditionsduSeuilThistranslationfirstpublishedinGreatBritainbyRoutledgeKeganPaulLtdFirstpublishedinRoutledgeClassicsbyRoutledgeiiNewFetterLane,LondonECPEEReprintedRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylora(FrancisGroupTranslation©TheUniversityofChicagoTypesetinJoannabyRefineCatchLimited,Bungay,SuffolkPrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyTJInternationalLtd,Padstow,CornwallAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryifCONTENTSTRANSLATOR'SINTRODUCTIONForceandSignificationCogitoandtheHistoryofMadnessEdmondJabsandtheQuestionoftheBookViolenceandMetaphysics:AnEssayontheThoughtofEmmanuelLevinas'GenesisandStructure'andPhenomenologyLaparolesouffleeFreudandtheSceneofWritingTheTheaterofCrueltyandtheClosureofRepresentationFromRestrictedtoGeneralEconomy:AHegelianismwithoutReserveStructure,Sign,andPlayintheDiscourseoftheHumanSciencesEllipsisNOTESSOURCESITRANSLATOR'SINTRODUCTION"Parladatedecestextes,nousvoudrionsmarquerqu'al'instant,pourlesrelier,delesrelire,nousnepouvonsnousteniraegaledistancedechacund'euxCequiresteiciledeplacementdunequestionformecertesunsystemeParquelquecoutureinterpretative,nounaurionssuaprescoupledessinerNousn'enavonsrienlaisseparaitrequelepointille,ymenageantonyabandonnantcesblancssanslesquelsaucuntextejamaisneseproposecommetelSitexteventdiretissu,tonscesessaisenoutobstinementdefinilacouturecommefaufilure(Decembre)"ThisnoteoriginallyappearedappendedtothebibliographyofL'ecritureetladifference,acollectionofDerrida'sessayswrittenbetweenandandpublishedasavolumeinthelatteryearAglanceatthelistofsources(pbelow)willshowthatalthoughDerridahasarrangedtheessaysinorderoftheiroriginalpublication,theessaythatoccupiestheapproximatemiddleofthevolumewasactuallywrittenin,andthereforeprecedestheothersBeforetranslatingthenoteinfactoneofthemostdifficultpassagesinthebooktotranslateletuslookatwhatDerridasaidaboutthechronologyofhisworksuptoinaninterviewwithHenriRonsepublishedinLettresfrangaises,Decemberandentitled"Implications"(Thisinterview,alongwithtwoothers,hasbeencollectedinasmallvolumeentitledPositions,Paris:EditionsdeMinuit,)HopefullythisdiscussionofchronologyXTRANSLATOR'SINTRODUCTIONTRANSLATOR'SINTRODUCTIONwillservetoorientthereadingofWritingandDifference,andtoclarifywhytheessaythatisinmanyrespectsthefirstone"'GenesisandStructure'andPhenomenology"occupiesthemiddleofthevolumeTheyearmarksDerrida'semergenceasamajorfigureincontemporaryFrenchthoughtLavoixetlephenomene(translatedbyDavidAllisonasSpeechandPhenomena,Evanston:NorthwesternUniversityPress,),aworkdevotedtoanalyzingHusserl'sideasaboutthesign,andDelagrammatologie(translatedbyGayatriSpivakasOfGrammatology,Baltimore:JohnsHopkinsUniversityPress,),devotedmainlytoRousseau's"EssayontheOriginonLanguages"seeninthelightofthehistoryoftheideaofthesign,bothappearedin,alongwithL'ecritureetIndifferenceInresponsetoRonse'squestionabouthowtoreadthesethreebookspublishedoneontheheelsoftheother,DerridafirstsaysthatDeIngrammatologiecanbeconsideredabipartiteworkinthemiddleofwhichonecouldinsertL'ecritureetIndifferenceByimplication,thiswouldmakethefirsthalfofDelagrammatologieinwhichDerridademonstratesthesystemofideaswhichfromancienttomoderntimeshasregulatedthenotionofthesigntheprefacetoL'ecritureetIndifferenceItwouldbeusefultokeepthisinmindwhilereadingL'ecritureetladifference,forwhiletherearemanyreferencesthroughouttheessaystothehistoryofthenotionofthesign,thesereferencesarenowhereinthisvolumeasfullyexplicatedastheyareinthefirsthalfofDelagrammatologieDerridaexplicitlystatesthattheinsertionofL'ecritureetladifferenceintoDeIngrammatologiewouldmakethesecondhalfofthelatter,devotedtoRousseau,thetwelfthessayofL'ecritureetladifferenceInversely,Derridagoesontosay,DelagrammatologiecanbeinsertedintothemiddleofL'ecritureetIndifference,forthefirstsixessayscollectedinthelatterworkprecededenfaitetendroit(defactoanddejuareafavoriteexpressionofDerrida's)thepublication,intwoissuesofCritique(DecemberandJanuary),ofthelongessaywhichwasfurtherelaboratedintothefirstpartofDeIngrammatologieourprefacebyimplicationtoL'ecritureetladifferenceThelastfiveessaysofL'ecritureetladifference,Derridastates,aresituatedorengagedin"l'ouverturegrainmatologique,"thegrammatologicalopening(Positions,p)AccordingtoDerrida'sstatementsabitlaterintheinterview,thisgrammatologicalopening,"whosetheoreticalmatrixiselaboratedinthefirsthalfofDeIngrammatologiewhich,torestate,systematizestheideasaboutthesign,writingandmetaphysicswhicharescatteredthroughoutL'ecritureetIndifferencecanbedefinedasthe"deconstruction"ofphilosophybyexamininginthemostfaithful,rigorouswaythe"structuredgenealogy"ofallofphilosophy'sconceptsandtodosoinordertodeterminewhatissuesthehistoryofphilosophyhashidden,forbidden,orrepressedThefirststepofthisdeconstructionofphilosophy,whichattemptstolocatethatwhichispresentnowhereinphilosophyie,thatwhichphilosophymusthideinordertoremainphilosophy,ispreciselytheexaminationofthenotionofpresenceasundertakenbyHeideggerHeidegger,saysDerrida,recognizedinthenotionofpresencethe"destinyofphilosophy,"andthereferencetotheHeideggereandeconstructionofpresenceisaconstantthroughoutDerrida'sworks(Indeed,thereaderunfamiliarwithHeideggermaywellbemystifiedbyDerrida'sfrequentreferencestothenotionofpresenceasthecentraltargetinthedeconstructionofphilosophy)Thegrammatological(fromtheGreekgrammameaningletterorwriting)openingconsistsintheexaminationofthetreatmentofwritingbyphilosophy,asa"particularlyrevelatorysymptom"(Positions,p)bothofhowthenotionofpresencefunctionsinphilosophyandofwhatthisnotionservestorepressDerridaarrivedatthispositionthroughaclosescrutinyofthephilosophicalgenealogyoflinguistics,especiallythephilosophicaltreatmentofthesignFromPlatotoHeideggerhimself,Derridademonstrates,thereisapersistentexclusionofthenotionofwritingfromthephilosophicaldefinitionofthesignSincethisexclusioncanalwaysbeshowntobemadeinthenameofpresencethesignallegedlybeingmostpresentinspokendiscourseDerridausesitasa"symptom"whichrevealstheworkingsofthe"repressive"logicofpresence,whichdeterminesWesternphilosophyassuchDerrida'sdivisionofL'ecritureetladifferenceintotwoparts,then,servestoremindthereaderthatbetweenthesixthandseventhessaysa"theoreticalmatrix"waselaboratedwhoseprinciplesaretosomeextentderivedfromthefirstsixessaysandaremoresystematicallyputtoworkinthelastfiveHowever,Iwouldliketoproposeanotherdivisionofthebook,adivisionbetweenthefifth("'GenesisandStructure'andPhenomenology")andsixthessaysMyreasonforplacingthedivisionatthispointstemsfromwhatDerridasaysaboutLavoixetlephenomene,XIITRANSLATOR'SINTRODUCTIONTRANSLATOR'SINTRODUCTIONXIIItheotherworkpublishedinlikethislatterwork"'GenesisandStructure'andPhenomenology"isdevotedtoHusserlIna"classicalphilosophicalarchitecture,"Derridasaysofthethreebookspublishedin,LavoixetIephenomenewouldhavetobereadfirst,forinitisposed,atapointwhichhecalls"decisive,"the"questionofthevoiceandofphoneticwritinginitsrelationshipstotheentirehistoryoftheWest,suchasitmayberepresentedinthehistoryofmetaphysics,andinthemostmodern,criticalandvigilantformofmetaphysics:Husserl'stranscendentalphenomenology"(Positions,p)ThusLavoixetephenomenecouldbeboundtoeitherDelagrammatologieorL'ecritureetIndifference,Derridasays,asalongnoteWherewoulditbeappendedtoL'ecritureetIndifferenceInthesameparagraphoftheinterviewDerridareferstoanotherofhisessaysonHusserl,hisintroductiontohisowntranslationofHusserl'sTheOriginofGeometry,publishedinHesaysthattheintroductiontoTheOriginofGeometryisthecounterpartofLavoixetlephenomene,forthe"problematicofwritingwasalreadyinplaceintheformer,assuch,andboundtotheirreduciblestructureoftheverb'differeitodifferandtodefer,or,grosslyput,differenceinspaceandintimeinitsrelationshipstoconsciousness,presence,science,historyandthehistoryofscience,thedisappearanceordeferraloftheorigin,etc"(p)Derridamighthavesaidthatthisproblematicwasalreadyinplacein,forapassagefrom"'GenesisandStructure'andPhenomenology"posesthequestionofwriting,againinrelationtoTheOriginofGeometry,inthesametermsemployedintheinterview,ie,intermsofwritinganddifference:"Reason,Husserlsays,isthelogoswhichisproducedinhistoryIttraversesBeingwithitselfinsight,inordertoappeartoitself,thatis,tostateitselfandhearitselfaslogosItemergesfromitselfinordertotakeholdofitselfwithinitself,inthe'livingpresent'ofitsselfpresenceInemergingfromitself,logosashearingoneselfspeakconstitutesitselfasthehistoryofreasonthroughthedetourofwritingThusitdiffersfromitselfinordertoreappropriateitselfTheOriginofGeometrydescribesthenecessityofthisexpositionofreasoninaworldlyinscriptionAnexpositionindispensabletotheconstitutionoftruthbutwhichisalsothedangertomeaningfromwhatisoutsidethesignie,isneithertheacousticmaterialusedasthesignifier,northesignifiedconceptthesignreferstoInthemomentofwriting,thesigncanIalways'empty'itselfIfLavoixetlephenomene,then,isthecounterparttotheintroductiontoTheOriginofGeometry,andifitcanbeattachedtoL'ecritureetIndifferenceasalongnote,itseemsthatthiswouldbetheplacetodoso,forherethegeneralconditionsforadeconstructionofmetaphysicsbasedonthenotionsofwritinganddifference,andfirstarrivedatthroughareadingofhowthenotionofthesignfunctionsinHusserlianphenomenology,areexplicitlystatedThiswouldmakeLavoixetlephenomenethesixthessayofahypotheticaltwelveinL'ecritureetladifference,butintheformofalongfootnoteattachedtothemiddleofthevolumeChronologically,ofcourse,Derrida'sdivisionofL'ecritureetIndifferenceisreferencestoKantandLeibnizintheanalysisofliteraryformalisminthefirstessay,"ForceandSignification"TheconclusionofthisbriefdiscussionofchronologywiththemetaphoroffollowingathreadthroughatextbringsustothetranslationofthenoteoriginallyappendedtothelistofsourcesinL'ecritureetladifferenceThetranslationisimpossiblewithoutcommentary,whichwillbeplacedinbrackets:"Bymeansofthedatesofthesetexts,wewouldliketoindicatemarquer:tomarkthatinordertobindthemtogetherrelier:toputbetweencoversthepagesformingawork,originallybysewing,inrereadingthemrelire:relierandrelireareanagrams,wecannotmaintainanequaldistancefromeachofthemWhatremainsherethedisplacementofaquestioncertainlyformsasystemWithsomeinterpretivesewingcouturewecouldhavesketchedthissystemafterwardaprescoupinGermannachtrdglichCE"FreudandtheSceneofWriting"fortheanalysisofthisnotionWehaveonlypermittedisolatedpointslepointille:originallyameansofengravingbypointsofthesystemtoappear,deployingorabandoninginitthoseblankspacesblancs:Derrida'sanalysisofMallarme,whichwastobewrittenin,focusesontheroleofthebluntinthetextseealsotheepigraphtothisvolumewhichreferstoMallarme'snotionofespacement:"thewholewithoutnoveltyexceptaspacingofreading"Fortheanalysisoftheblancandespacementsee"Ladoubleseance"inLadissemination,Paris:Seuil,withoutwhichnotextisproposedassuchIftexttextemeanscloth(tissu),thewordtexte,isderivedfromtheLatintextus,meaningcloth(tissu),andfromtexere,toweave(tisser)inEnglishwehavetextandtextileDerridacommentsonthisderivationattheoutsetofLapharmaciedePlatonalsoinLadissemination,alltheseessayshaveobstinatelydefinedsewingcoutureasbastingfaufilure:thefaux,"false,"infaufilure,or"falsestringing,"isactuallyanalterationoftheearlierformoftheword,farfrlerorfourfiler,fromtheLatinfors,meaningoutsideThusbastingissewingontheoutsidewhichdoesnotbindthetextiletightly(December)"TheessaysofWritingandDifference,then,areless"bound"than"basted"togetherInturn,eachessayis"basted"tothematerialoftheothertextsitanalyzes,for,ashehasstated,Derrida'swritingis"entirelyconsumedinthereadingofothertexts"IfonereadsWritingandDifferenceonlyinordertoextractfromitasystemofdeconstructionwhichhasbeenourfocussofaronewouldoverlookthepersistentimportofWritingandDifferenceTorepeatDerrida'sterms,theseessaysalwaysaffirmthatthe"texture"oftextsmakesanyassemblageofthema"basted"one,ie,permitsonlythekindofforesewingthatemphasizesthenecessaryspacesbetweeneventhefineststitchingInpracticalterms,Iwouldsuggesta"basted,"wellspacedreadingofWritingandDifferenceInsteadofreadingthroughthebookasaunified,wellsewnvolume,onecouldfollowbothitsargumentsanditsdesigninawaythatwouldmakethemmorecomprehensiblebychoosinganyoftheessaystostartwith,andbyreadingthemajorworksitrefersto(IhaveprovidedallpossiblereferencestoEnglishtranslationsoftheworksinquestion)Derridaisdifficulttoreadnotonlybyvirtueofhisstyle,butalsobecauseheseriouslywishestochallengetheideasthatgovernthewaywereadHistextsaremoreeasilygraspedifwereadtheminthewayheimplicitlysuggestswhichisnotalwaysthewayweareusedtoreadingThequestionarisesanditisaseriousonewhethertheseessayscanbereadinalanguageotherthanFrenchItisnoexaggerationtosaythatmostofthecrucialpassagesofL'ecritureetladifferencerequirethesamekindofcommentaryaswasjustgivenforabibliographicalnoteSomeofthedifficultiescanberesolvedbywarningthereaderthatDerridaoftenrefersbacktohisownworks,andanticipatesothers,withoutexplicitlysayingsosomeoftheseinstanceshavebeenannotatedThisdifficulty,however,iscompoundedbyfrequentuseoftheterminologyofclassicalphilosophy,againwithoutexplicitexplanationorreferenceIwillindicatebelowsomeofthetermsthatappearmostfrequentlyinWritingandDifferencethroughoutthetextIhaveannotatedtranslationsthatpresentedproblemsforspecificessays,andhavealsoprovidedsomereferencesnotprovidedbyDerridatoworksunderdiscussionwithoutspecificallybeingcitedMoreimportant,however,arethegeneralissuesraisedbythequestionoftranslatabilityDerridaalwayswriteswithcloseattentiontotheresonancesandpunninghumorofetymologyOccasionally,whentheGreekandLatininheritancesofEnglishandFrenchcoincide,thisaspectofDerrida'sstylecanbecapturedmoreoftenitrequiresthekindoflaboriousannotation(impossibleinavolumeofthissize)providedaboveThetranslator,constantlyawareofwhatheissacrificing,isoftentemptedtousealanguagethatXVITRANSLATOR'SINTRODUCTIONisacompromisebetweenEnglishasweknowitandEnglishashewouldlikeittobeinordertocaptureasmuchoftheoriginaltextaspossibleThiscompromiseEnglish,however,isusuallycomprehensibleonlytothosewhoreadthetranslationalongwiththeoriginalMoreover,despiteDerrida'softendenseandellipticalstyle,hecertainlydoesnotwriteacompromiseFrenchIthasbeenmyexperiencethathoweversyntacticallycomplexorlexicallyrich,thereisnosentenceinthisbookthatisnotperfectlycomprehensibleinFrenchwithpatienceTherefore,IhavechosentotrytotranslateintoEnglishasweknowitSometimesthishasmeantbreakingupandrearrangingsomeverylongsentencesAtothertimesithasbeenpossibletorespecttheoriginalsyntaxandtomaintainsomeverylong,complexsentencesSomeetymologicalwordplayhasbeenlost,somehasbeenannotated,andsometranslatedTheseempiricaldifficultiesoftranslationare,ofcourse,tiedtothequestionofthesignitselfCananytranslationbemadetosignifythesamethingastheoriginaltextHowcrucialistheplayofthesignifiersetymologicalplay,stylisticplaytowhatissignifiedbythetextDerridahasaddressedhimselftothisquestioninthesecondinterviewinPositions(entitled"SemiologieetGrammatologie")Thecruxofthequestionistheinheritedconceptthatthesignconsistsofasignifierandasignified,thatis,ofasensible(ie,relatingtothesenses,mostoftenhearing)partwhichisthevehicletoitsintelligiblepart(itsmeaning)Derridastatesthatthehistoryofmetaphysicshasneverceasedtoimposeuponsemiology(thescienceofsigns)thesearchfora"transcendentalsignified,"thatis,aconceptindependentoflanguage(p)However,eveniftheinheritedoppositionbetweensignifierandsignifiedcanbeshowntobeprogrammedbythemeta

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【德里达】书写与差异(英文)

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