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首页 【德里达】签名、事件、上下文

【德里达】签名、事件、上下文.pdf

【德里达】签名、事件、上下文

九月虺
2009-07-05 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【德里达】签名、事件、上下文pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

SignatureEventContextJacquesDerridafromMARGINSofPhilosophyTranslated,withAdditionalNotesbyAlanBassTheUniversityofChicagoPress,AcommicationtotheCongresinternationaldesSocietesdephilosophiedelanguefancaise,Montreal,AugustThethemeofthecolloquiumwas"Communication"Stillconfiningourselves,forsimplicity,tospokenutteranceAustin,HowtoDoThingswithWords,pllnIsitcertainthattherecorrespondstothewordcommunicationaunique,univocalconcept,aconceptthatcanberigorouslygraspedandtransmitted:acommunicableconceptFollowingastrangefigureofdiscourse,onefirstmustaskwhetherthewordorsignifier"communication"communicatesadeterminedcontent,anidentifiablemeaning,adescribablevalueButinordertoarticulateandtoproposethisquestion,Ialreadyhadtoanticipatethemeaningofthewordcommunication:Ihavehadtopredeterminecommunicationasthevehicle,transport,orsiteofpassageofameaning,andofameaningthatisoneIfcommunicationhadseveralmeanings,andifthispluralitycouldnotbereduced,thenfromtheoutsetitwouldnotbejustifiedtodefinecommunicationitselfasthetransmissionofameaning,assumingthatwearecapableofunderstandingoneanotherasconcernseachofthesewords(transmission,meaning,etc)Now,thewordcommunication,whichnothinginitiallyauthorizesustooverlookasaword,andtoimpoverishasapolysemicword,opensasemanticfieldwhichpreciselyisnotlimitedtosemantics,semiotics,andevenlesstolinguisticsTothesemanticfieldofthewordcommunicationbelongsthefactthatitalsodesignatesnonsemanticmovementsHereatleastprovisionalrecoursetoordinarylanguageandtotheequivocalitiesofnaturallanguageteachesusthatonemay,forexample,communicateamovement,orthatatremor,ashock,adisplacementofforcecanbecommunicatedthatis,propagated,transmittedItisalsosaidthatdifferentordistantplacescancommunicatebetweeneachotherbymeansofagivenpassagewayoropeningWhathappensinthiscase,whatistransmittedorcommunicated,arenotphenomenaofmeaningorsignificationInthesecaseswearedealingneitherwithasemanticorconceptualcontent,norwithasemioticoperation,andevenlesswithalinguisticexchangeNevertheless,wewillnotsaythatthisnonsemioticsenseofthewordcommunication,suchasitisatworkinordinarylanguage,inoneorseveralofthesocallednaturallanguages,constitutestheproperorprimitivemeaning,andthatconsequentlythesemantic,semiotic,orlinguisticmeaningcorrespondstoaderivation,anextensionorareduction,ametaphoricdisplacementWewillnotsay,asonemightbetemptedtodo,thatsemiolinguisticcommunicationismoremetaphoricoentitled"communication,"becausebyanalogywith"physical"or"real"communicationitgivespassage,transports,transmitssomething,givesaccesstosomethingWewillnotsayso:becausethevalueofliteral,propermeaningappearsmoreproblematicalthanever,becausethevalueofdisplacement,oftransport,etc,isconstitutiveoftheveryconceptofmetaphorbymeansofwhichoneallegedlyunderstandsthesemanticdisplacementwhichisoperatedfromcommunicationasanonsemiolinguisticphenomenontocommunicationasasemiolinguisticphenomenon(Inoteherebetweenparenthesesthatinthiscommunicationtheissuewillbe,alreadyis,theproblemofpolysemiaandcommunication,ofdisseminationwhichIwillopposetopolysemiaandcommunicationInamoment,acertainconceptofwritingisboundtointervene,inordertotransformitself,andperhapsinordertotransformtheproblematic)Itseemstogowithoutsayingthatthefieldofequivocalitycoveredbythewordcommunicationpermitsitselftobereducedmassivelybythelimitsofwhatiscalledacontext(andIannounce,againbetweenparentheses,thattheissuewillbe,inthiscommunication,theproblemofcontext,andoffindingoutaboutwritingasconcernscontextingeneral)Forexample,inacolloquiumofphilosophyintheFrenchlanguage,aconventionalcontext,producedbyakindofimplicitbutstructurallyvagueconsensus,seemstoprescribethatonepropose"communications"oncommunication,communicationsindiscursiveform,colloquial,oralcommunicationsdestinedtobeunderstoodandtoopenorpursuedialogueswithinthehorizonofanintelligibilityandtruthofmeaning,suchthatinprincipleageneralagreementmayfinallybeestablishedThesecommunicationsaretoremainwithintheelementofadetermined"natural"language,whichiscalledFrench,andwhichcommandscertainveryparticularusesofthewordcommunicationAboveall,theobjectofthesecommunicationsshouldbeorganized,bypriorityorbyprivilege,aroundcommunicationasdiscourse,orinanyeventassignificationWithoutexhaustingalltheimplicationsandtheentirestructureofan"event"likethisone,whichwouldmeritaverylongpreliminaryanalysis,theprerequisiteIhavejustrecalledappearsevidentandforanyonewhodoubtsthis,itwouldsufficetoconsultourscheduleinordertobecertainofitButaretheprerequisitesofacontexteverabsolutelydeterminableFundamentally,thisisthemostgeneralquestionIwouldliketoattempttoelaborateIstherearigorousandscientificconceptofthecontextDoesnotthenotionofcontextharbor,behindacertainconfusion,verydeterminedphilosophicalpresuppositionsTostateitnowinthemostsummaryfashion,Iwouldliketodemonstratewhyacontextisneverabsolutelydeterminable,orratherinwhatwayitsdeterminationisnevercertainorsaturatedThisstructuralnonsaturationwouldhaveasitsdoubleeffect:amarkingofthetheoreticalinsufficiencyoftheusualconceptof(thelinguisticornonlinguistic)contextsuchasitisacceptedinnumerousfieldsofinvestigation,alongwithalltheotherconceptswithwhichitissystematicallyassociatedarenderingnecessaryofacertaingeneralizationandacertaindisplacementoftheconceptofwritingThelattercouldnolonger,henceforth,beincludedinthecategoryofcommunication,atleastifcommunicationisunderstoodintherestrictedsenseofthetransmissionofmeaningConversely,itiswithinthegeneralfieldofwritingthusdefinedthattheeffectsofsemanticcommunicationwillbeabletobedeterminedasparticular,secondary,inscribed,supplementaryeffectsWritingandTelecommunicationIfonetakesthenotionofwritinginitsusuallyacceptedsensewhichabovealldoesnotmeananinnocent,primitive,ornaturalsenseoneindeedmustseeitasameansofcommunicationOnemustevenacknowledgeitasapowerfulmeansofcommunicationwhichextendsveryfar,ifnotinfinitely,thefieldoforalorgesturalcommunicationThisisbanallyselfevident,andagreementonthematterseemseasyIwillnotdescribeallthemodesofthisextensionintimeandinspaceOntheotherhandIwillpauseoverthevalueofextensiontowhichIhavejusthadrecourseWhenwesaythatwritingextendsthefieldandpowersofalocutionaryorgesturalcommunication,arewenotpresupposingakindof^homogenousspaceofcommunicationTherangeofthevoiceorofgesturecertainlyappearstoencounterafactuallimithere,anempiricalboundaryintheformofspaceandtimeandwriting,withinthesametime,withinthesamespace,managestoloosenthelimits,toopenthesamefieldtoamuchgreaterrangeMeaning,thecontentofthesemanticmessage,isthustransmitted,communicated,bydifferentmeans,bytechnicallymorepowerfulmediations,overamuchgreaterdistance,butwithinamilieuthatisfundamentallycontinuousandequaltoitself,withinahomogenouselementacrosswhichtheunityandintegrityofmeaningisnotaffectedinanessentialwayHere,allaffectionisaccidentalThesystemofthisinterpretation(whichisalsoinawaythesystemofinterpretation,orinanyeventofanentireinterpretationofhermeneutics),althoughitistheusualone,ortotheextentthatitisasusualascommonsense,hasbeenrepresentedintheentirehistoryofphilosophyIwillsaythatitiseven,fundamentally,theproperlyphilosophicalinterpretationofwritingIwilltakeasingleexample,butIdonotbelieveonecouldfind,intheentirehistoryofphilosophyassuch,asinglecounterexample,asingleanalysisthatessentiallycontradictstheoneproposedbyCondillac,inspired,strictlyspeaking,byWarburton,intheEssayontheOriginofHumanKnowledge(EssaisurI'originedesconnaissanceshumaines)Ihavechosenthisexamplebecauseanexplicitreflectionontheoriginandfunctionofthewritten(thisexplicitnessisnotencounteredinallphilosophy,andoneshouldexaminetheconditionsofitsemergenceoroccultation)isorganizedwithinaphilosophicaldiscoursewhichlikeallphilosophypresupposesthesimplicityoftheoriginandthecontinuityofeveryderivation,everyproduction,everyanalysis,thehomogeneityofallordersAnalogyisamajorconTNEssaisurI'originedesconnaissanceshumaines,withanintroductoryessaybyJacquesDerrida(Paris:Galilee,)ceptinCondillac'sthoughtIchoosethisexamplealsobecausetheanalysiswhich"retraces"theoriginandfunctionofwritingisplaced,inakindofnoncriticalway,undertheauthorityofthecategoryofcommunicationIfmenwriteitis()becausetheyhavesomethingtocommunicate()becausewhattheyhavetocommunicateistheir"thought,"their"ideas,"theirrepresentationsRepresentativethoughtprecedesandgovernscommunicationwhichtransportsthe"idea,"thesignifiedcontent()becausemenarealreadycapableofcommunicatingandofcommunicatingtheirthoughttoeachotherwhen,incontinuousfashion,theyinventthemeansofcommunicationthatiswritingHereisapassagefromchapterofpart("OnLanguageandOnMethod"),section("OntheOriginandProgressofLanguage"),(writingisthusamodalityoflanguageandmarksacontinuousprogressinacommunicationoflinguisticessence),section,"OnWriting":"Mencapableofcommunicatingthruthoughtstoeachotherbysoundsfeltthenecessityofimaginingnewsigns,apttoperpetuatethemandtomakethemknowntoabsentpersons"(Iitalicizevalueofabsence,which,ifnewlyreexamined,willriskintroducingacertainbreakinthehomogeneityofthesystem)Assoonasmenarecapableof"communicatingtheirthoughts,"andofdoingsobysounds(whichis,accordingtoCondillac,asecondarystage,articulatedlanguagecomingto"supplement"thelanguageofaction,theuniqueandradicalprincipleofalllanguage),thebirthandprogressofwritingwillfollowadirect,simple,andcontinuouslineThehistoryofwritingwillconformtoalawofmechanicaleconomy:togainthemostspaceandtimebymeansofthemostconvenientabbreviationitwillneverhavetheleasteffectonthestructureandcontentofthemeaning(ofideas)thatitwillhavetovehiculateThesamecontent,previouslycommunicatedbygesturesandsounds,henceforthwillbetransmittedbywriting,andsuccessivelybydifferentmodesofnotation,frompictographicwritinguptoalphabeticwriting,passingthroughthehieroglyphicwritingoftheEgyptiansandtheideographicwritingoftheChineseCondillaccontinues:"Imaginationthenwillrepresentbutthesameimagesthattheyhadalreadyexpressedbyactionsandwords,andwhichhad,fromthebeginnings,madelanguagefigurativeandmetaphoricThemostnaturalmeanswasthereforetodrawthepicturesofthingsToexpresstheideaofamanorahorsetheformofoneortheotherwillberepresented,andthefirstattemptatwritingwasbutasimplepainting"(pmyitalics)Therepresentativecharacterofwrittencommunicationwritingaspicture,reproduction,imitationofitscontentwillbetheinvariabletraitofalltheprogresstocomeTheconceptofrepresentationisindissociableherefromtheconceptsofcommunicationandexpressionthatIhaveunderlinedinCondillac'stextRepresentation,certainly,willbecomplicated,willbegivensupplementarywaystationsandstages,willbecometherepresentationofrepresentationinRousseau'stheoryoflanguageandwritingisalsoproposedunderthegeneralrubriiofcommunication("OntheVariousMeansofCommunicatingOurThoughts"isthetitleofthefirstchapteroftheEssayontheOriginofLanguages)hieroglyphicandideographicwriting,andtheninphoneticalphabeticwriting,buttherepresentativestructurewhichmarksthefirststageofexpressivecommunication,theideasignrelationship,willneverbesuppressedortransformedDescribingthehistoryofthekindsofwriting,theircontinuousderivationonthebasisofacommonradicalwhichisneverdisplacedandwhichprocuresakindofcommunityofanalogicalparticipationbetweenalltheformsofwriting,Condillacconcludes(andthisispracticallyacitationofWarburton,asisalmosttheentirechapter):"ThisisthegeneralhistoryofwritingconveyedbyasimplegradationfromthestateofpaintingthroughthatoftheletterforlettersarethelaststepswhichremaintobetakenaftertheChinesemarks,whichpartakeofletterspreciselyashieroglyphspartakeequallyofMexicanpaintingsandofChinesecharactersThesecharactersaresoclosetoourwritingthatanalphabetsimplydiminishestheconfusionoftheirnumber,andistheirsuccinctabbreviation"(pp)Havingplacedinevidencethemotifoftheeconomic,homogenous,andmechanicalreduction,letusnowcomebacktothenotionofabsencethatInotedinpassinginCondillac'stextHowisitdeterminedFirst,itistheabsenceoftheaddresseeOnewritesinordertocommunicatesomethingtothosewhoareabsentTheabsenceofthesender,theaddresser,fromthemarksthatheabandons,whicharecutofffromhimandcontinuetoproduceeffectsbeyondhispresenceandbeyondthepresentactualityofhismeaning,thatis,beyondhislifeitself,thisabsence,whichhoweverbelongstothestructureofallwritingandIwilladd,furtheron,ofalllanguageingeneralthisabsenceisneverexaminedbyCondillacTheabsenceofwhichCondillacspeaksisdeterminedinthemostclassicalfashionasacontinuousmodification,aprogressiveextenuationofpresenceRepresentationregularlysupplementspresenceButthisoperationofsupplementation("Tosupplement"isoneofthemostdecisiveandfrequentlyemployedoperativeconceptsonCondillac'sEssai)isnotexhibitedasabreakinpresence,butratherasareparationandacontinuous,homogenousmodificationofpresenceinrepresentationHere,Icannotanalyzeeverythingthatthisconceptofabsenceasamodificationofpresencepresupposes,inCondillac'sphilosophyandelsewhereLetusnotemerelythatitgovernsanotherequallydecisiveoperativeconcept(hereIamclassically,andforconvenience,opposingoperativetothematic)oftheEssai:totraceandtoretraceLiketheconceptofsupplementing,theconceptoftracecouldbedeterminedotherwisethaninthewayCondillacdeterminesitAccordingtohim,totracemeans"toexpress,""torepresent,""torecall,""tomakepresent"("inalllikelihoodpaintingowesitsorigintothenecessityofthustracingourthoughts,andthisnecessityhasdoubtlesscontributedtoconservingthelanLanguagesupplementsactionorperception,articulatedlanguagesupplementsthelanguageofaction,writingsupplementsarticulatedlanguage,etcguageofaction,asthatwhichcouldpaintthemosteasily,"p)Thesignisbornatthesametimeasimaginationandmemory,atthemomentwhenitisdemandedbytheabsenceoftheobjectforpresentperception("Memory,aswehaveseen,consistsonlyinthepowerofremindingourselvesofthesignsofourideas,orthecircumstanceswhichaccompaniedthemandthiscapacityoccursonlybyvirtueoftheanalogyofsigns(myitalicsthisconceptofanalogy,whichorganizesCondillac'sentiresystem,ingeneralmakescertainallthecontinuities,particularlythecontinuityofpresencetoabsence)thatwehavechosen,andbyvirtueoftheorderthatwehaveputbetweenourideas,theobjectsthatwewishtoretracehavetodowithseveralofourpresentneeds"(p)ThisistrueofalltheordersofsignsdistinguishedbyCondillac(arbitrary,accidental,andevennaturalsigns,adistinctionwhichCondillacnuances,andoncertainpoints,putsbackintoquestioninhisLetterstoCramer)ThephilosophicaloperationthatCondillacalsocalls"toretrace"consistsintravelingback,bywayofanalysisandcontinuousdecomposition,alongthemovementofgeneticderivationwhichleadsfromsimplesensationandpresentperceptiontothecomplexedificeofrepresentation:fromoriginalpresencetothemostformallanguageofcalculationItwouldbesimpletoshowthat,essentially,thiskindofanalysisofwrittensignificationneitherbeginsnorendswithCondillacIfwesaynowthatthisanalysisis"ideological,"itisnotprimarilyinordertocontrastitsnotionsto"scientific"concepts,orinordertorefertotheoftendogmaticonecouldalsosay"ideological"usemadeofthewordideology,whichtodayissorarelyexaminedforitspossibilityandhistoryIfIdefinenotionsofCondillac'skindasideological,itisthatagainstthebackgroundofavast,powerful,andsystematicphilosophicaltraditiondominatedbytheselfevidenceoftheidea(eidos,idea),theydelineatethefieldofreflectionoftheFrench"ideologues"who,inCondillac'swake,elaboratedatheoryofthesignasarepresentationoftheidea,whichitselfrepresentstheperceivedthingCommunication,hence,vehiculatesarepresentationasanidealcontent(whichwillbecalledmeaning)andwritingisaspeciesofthisgeneralcommunicationAspecies:acommunicationhavingarelativespecificitywithinagenusIfweaskourselvesnowwhat,inthisanalysis,istheessentialpredicateofthisspecificdifference,weonceagainfindabsenceHereIadvancethefollowingtwopropositionsorhypotheses:Sinceeverysign,asmuchinthe"languageofaction"asinarticulatedlanguage(evenbeforetheinterventionofwritingintheclassicalsense),supposesacertainabsence(tobedetermined),itmustbebecauseabsenceinthefieldofwritingisofanoriginalkindifanyspecificitywhatsoeverofthewrittensignistobeacknowledgedIf,perchance,thepredicatethusassumedtocharacterizetheabsencepropertowritingwereitselffoundtosuiteveryspeciesofsignandcommunication,therewouldfollowageneraldisplacement:writingnolongerwouldbeaspeciesofcommunication,andalltheconceptstowhosegeneralitywritingwassubordinated(theconceptitselfasmeaning,idea,orgraspofmeaningandidea,theconceptofcommunication,ofsign,etc)wouldappearasnoncritical,illformedconcepts,orratherasconceptsdestinedtoensuretheauthorityandforceofacertainhistoricdiscourseLetusattemptthen,whilecontinuingtotakeourpointofdeparturefromthisclassicaldiscourse,tocharacterizetheabsencewhichseemstointerveneinafashionspecifictothefunctioningofwritingAwrittensignisprofferedintheabsenceoftheaddresseeHowisthisabsencetobequalifiedOnemightsaythatatthemomentwhenI

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【德里达】签名、事件、上下文

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