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首页 《美国药物分析手册》 Handbook of Forensic Drug Analysis

《美国药物分析手册》 Handbook of Forensic Drug Analysis

《美国药物分析手册》 Handbook of Forensic…

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2009-07-01 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《《美国药物分析手册》 Handbook of Forensic Drug Analysispdf》,可适用于自然科学领域

HANDBOOKOFFORENSICDRUGANALYSISHANDBOOKOFFORENSICDRUGANALYSISEditor:FrederickPSmith,PhDWithcontributionsby:SotirisAAthanaselis,PhDMaciejJBogusz,MD,DrScJohnTCody,PhD,DFTCBJohnHugelDavidAKidwellDavidCLankin,PhDJohnMarioJohnAMeyersRobertBPalmer,PhD,DABATCharlesTindall,PhD,DABCJaneSCTsai,PhD,FACBSeriesEditor:JayASiegelAmsterdam•Boston•Heidelberg•London•NewYork•OxfordParis•SanDiego•SanFrancisco•Singapore•Sydney•TokyoAcquisitionsEditorMarkListewnikProjectManagerSarahHajdukAssociateAcquisitionsEditorJenniferSoucyDevelopmentalEditorPamelaChesterMarketingManagerChristianNolinCoverDesignDickHannusCompositionSNPBestSetPrinterTheMapleVailBookManufacturingGroupElsevierAcademicPressCorporateDrive,Suite,Burlington,MA,USABStreet,Suite,SanDiego,California,USATheobald’sRoad,LondonWCXRR,UKThisbookisprintedonacidfreepaperCopyright©,ElsevierIncAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,includingphotocopy,recording,oranyinformationstorageandretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublisherPermissionsmaybesoughtdirectlyfromElsevier’sScienceTechnologyRightsDepartmentinOxford,UK:phone:(),fax:(),email:permissionselseviercomukYoumayalsocompleteyourrequestonlineviatheElsevierhomepage(http:elseviercom),byselecting“CustomerSupport”andthen“ObtainingPermissions”LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataAPPLICATIONSUBMITTEDBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBN:ForallinformationonallElsevierAcademicPresspublicationsvisitourWebsiteatwwwacademicpressbookscomorwwwbooksElseviercomPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaAcquisitionsEditorMarkListewnikProjectManagerSarahHajdukAssociateAcquisitionsEditorJenniferSoucyDevelopmentalEditorPamelaChesterMarketingManagerChristianNolinCoverDesignDickHannusCompositionSNPBestSetPrinterTheMapleVailBookManufacturingGroupElsevierAcademicPressCorporateDrive,Suite,Burlington,MA,USABStreet,Suite,SanDiego,California,USATheobald’sRoad,LondonWCXRR,UKThisbookisprintedonacidfreepaperCopyright©,ElsevierIncAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,includingphotocopy,recording,oranyinformationstorageandretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublisherPermissionsmaybesoughtdirectlyfromElsevier’sScienceTechnologyRightsDepartmentinOxford,UK:phone:(),fax:(),email:permissionselseviercomukYoumayalsocompleteyourrequestonlineviatheElsevierhomepage(http:elseviercom),byselecting“CustomerSupport”andthen“ObtainingPermissions”LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataAPPLICATIONSUBMITTEDBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBN:ForallinformationonallElsevierAcademicPresspublicationsvisitourWebsiteatwwwacademicpressbookscomorwwwbooksElseviercomPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaCONTENTSFOREWORDixPREFACExiABOUTTHEAUTHORSxviCHAPTEROVERVIEWOFFORENSICDRUGANALYSISDrugClassificationsCollectionofEvidenceinDrugCases(Documentation,Safety,Packaging,Custody)LaboratoryCapabilitiesandAccreditationDefinitionofTermsReferenceCHAPTERIMMUNOASSAYTECHNOLOGIESFORDRUGSOFABUSETESTINGIntroductionRadioimmunoassay(RIA)EnzymeImmunoassay(EMIT,ELISA,CEDIA,andotherEIAs)FluorescencePolarizationImmunoassay(FPIA)KineticInteractionofMicroparticlesinSolution(KIMS)Onsite(PointofCollection)ImmunoassaysPerformanceCharacteristicsandQualityManagementofImmunoassaysSummaryReferencesCHAPTERCANNABIS:METHODSOFFORENSICANALYSISQualitativeSeizedDrugAnalysisofCannabis,Hash,andHashOil:CurrentandHistoricalPerspectivesProfilingProvenanceImmunoassaysfortheDetectionofCannabinoidsinBiologicalMatricesConfirmation(ConfirmatoryTest)ofCannabinoidsinUrineSpecimensReferencesCHAPTERANALYSISOFTHEHALLUCINOGENSPARTI:INFRARED(IR)SPECTROSCOPY:TheoreticalBasisInfraredSpectrometerInstrumentationInfraredSpectroscopyofLysergicAcidDiethylamide(LSD)InfraredSpectroscopyofPhenylalkylaminesInfraredSpectroscopyofPhencyclidineandAnalogsInfraredSpectroscopyofTryptaminesFurtherReadingPARTII:MASSSPECTROMETRY:TheoreticalBasisMassSpectroscopyofLysergicAcidDiethlyamide(LSD)MassSpectroscopyofPhenylalkylaminesMassSpectroscopyofPhencyclidineandAnalogsMassSpectroscopyofTryptaminesFurtherReadingAcknowledgmentReferencesPARTIII:NUCLEARMAGNETICRESONANCESPECTROSCOPY:TheoreticalBasisTheNMRExperimentPhencyclidineandRelatedSubstancesMDAandAnalogsErgotandOtherIndoleAlkaloidsTryptaminesReferencesCHAPTERCOCAINE:METHODSOFFORENSICANALYSISIntroductionOriginofCocaineSamplesNoninstrumentalMethodsforDetectionofCocaineTraceandInstrumentalAnalysisConclusionsReferencesCHAPTEROPIOIDS:METHODSOFFORENSICANALYSISIntroductionPreliminaryMethodsforOpiateDetectionIsolationofOpiatesfromBiosamplesPapaverSomniferumasaSourceofOpiatesHeroinandAssociatedIllicitOpiateFormulationsOtherOpiateAgonistsSummaryCONTENTSviAbbreviationsReferencesCHAPTERAMPHETAMINES:METHODSOFFORENSICANALYSISIntroductionDetectionQualitativeMethodsofAnalysisQuantitativeMethodsofAnalysisComparativeAnalysisandProfilingConclusionReferencesCHAPTERILLICITDRUGMANUFACTURE(WITHANEMPHASISONCLANDESTINEMETHAMPHETAMINEPRODUCTION):SYNTHETICMETHODSANDLAWENFORCEMENTCONCERNSRangeofOperationsinClandestineLaboratoriesManufactureofMethamphetamineLawEnforcementConcludingRemarksReferencesINDEXCONTENTSviiFOREWORDAglanceatthepublicationslistofmostlargepublishersindicatesthatbooksonthesubjectofforensicscienceareflourishingArecentsearchofthebooksforsaleonthetopicofdrugandpharmaceuticalanalysisatAmazoncomhadentries!Why,then,dotheeditorsofthisHandbookofForensicDrugAnalysisbelievethatanotherentryinthisfieldisneededThereasonisthatthereisagapintheavailableworksondruganalysis:acomprehensive,detailed,uptodateworkaimedatdrugchemistsandotherscientistswhoneedtoanalyzeabuseddrugsManybooksdiscussdruganalysisandevenpresentafewmethodsinsomedetail,butthereisnovolumethatcoversalloftheimportantmethodsofanalysisonthemostcommonlyabuseddrugsinacomprehensivewayThereareliterallyhundredsofdrugsthatarecommonlyabused,andmanyofthesearelegallysanctionedbymanycountriesIntheUnitedStates,theUniformDrugControlActcoversmanyofthemostcommonillicitdrugsButifonelooksatwhatdrugsshowupinforensicdruglaboratoriesdayafterdayallovertheworld,onefindsreallyonlyahandfulofcommononesTheHandbookofForensicDrugAnalysiscoversthesefew,mostimportantillicitdrugsTheyincludemarijuana,cocaine,themajoropiates,thecommonhallucinogens,andamphetaminesBeyondthesedrugs,theHandbookalsoexploresthesubjectofclandestinelaboratories,whicharebecominganepidemicintheUnitedStates,especiallymethamphetaminelabsDetailedmethodsforhandlingandanalyzingthedrugsandothermaterialsseizedfromtheselabsarepresentedThereisalsoamajorchapteronimmunoassaytechnologiesappliedtoillicitdrugsVeryfewworksondruganalysisevenmentionimmunoassaymethods,letalonedescribethemindetail,yettheyarewidelyusedinworkplacedrugtestinganddrugscreeningsTheHandbookofForensicDrugAnalysisisnotmeantforthecasualreaderinterestedingaininganoverviewofillicitdrugsThisbookisfortheseriousscientistwhoneedstohavethelatestcomprehensiveinformationontheanalysisofthemostcommonillicitdrugsTheeditorofthisvolumeisDrFrederickPSmithattheUniversityofNewHaven,WestHaven,ConnecticutDrSmithhasspenthiscareerinresearch,publishing,andteachingintheareaofforensicdrugchemistryandisrecognizedasoneofthemostqualifiedUSscientistsinthefieldHehasassembledaveritablewho’swhoofexpertsinthisfieldtocontributetheirspecialinsightsandknowledgeaboutcontrolledsubstancesReadersandusersofthishandbookwillfindthemostcurrentandcomprehensiveinformationavailableonthesubjectoftheanalysisofillicitdrugsJaySiegelDirector,ForensicandInvestigativeSciencesProgramIndianaUniversity,PurdueUniversity,IndianapolisIndianapolis,IndianaFOREWORDxPREFACEForensicdruganalystsandtoxicologistsutilizemethodsandtechniquesthatcontinuetodeveloprapidlyTothisend,forensicscientistsneedcomprehensiveinformationconcerningdruganalysisManyhavefounditdifficulttofindindepthinformationondruganalysisinoneplaceAlthoughthefieldisconstantlychanging,thisbookattemptstocompilecurrentinformationontheanalysisofillicitdrugs,condensedanddistilledtoprovideanalyticalapplicationsappropriatetodiverseneeds,inhopesofmakingthisinformationreadilyaccessibleOfparticularvaluethroughoutaretheauthors’commentsconcerningtherelativevalueoftheanalyticalmethodsforeachofthedrugclassesIhopethiswillbeusefulnotonlytoforensicdruganalystsandtoxicologistsbutalsotoadvancedstudentsofforensicscience,attorneysinvolvedindruganalysislitigation,scientistsworkinginmethodsresearchanddevelopment,techniciansemployedindrugtestinglaboratories,andotherswhoseworkrequiressubstantivepenetrationofcomplexdruganalysisproblemsWhilemanydifferentdrugsaresubjecttoabuse,cannabis,hallucinogens,cocaine,opioids,andamphetaminescomprisethecommondrugsofabuseclassesThesedrugsvarywidelyinorigin,fromplantmaterialtosemisyntheticplantderivativestopurelysyntheticdrugsDuetothedistinctchemicalpropertiesofthesedrugs,theanalyticalmethodspresentedinthisbookprovidenotonlyimmediatelyusefulsolutionstoforensicpractitionersbutalsomodelsforfuturedruganalysisproblemsasthefieldevolvesTheprevalenceofillicitdruguseintoday’ssocietyensurestheanalysisofthesesubstancesapermanentplaceinmodernforensiclaboratoriesInadditiontothemajoremphasisonmethodsavailablefortheanalysisofthemajorcategoriesofmisuseddrugs,therapidgrowthofmethamphetaminesynthesiswarrantsspecialconsiderationLowcostmethodsincludecolor(orspot)tests,thinlayerchromatography(TLC),sprayvisualizationmethods,andmicrocrystaltestsTraditionalinstrumentalmethods,suchasgaschromatography(GC),GCmassspectrometry(GCMS),infrared(IR)spectroscopy,andultraviolet(UV)spectroscopy,comprisemoderatecostinstrumentaltechniquesthatoftenrequireextractionand,withGC,derivatizationBothlowcostandhighercostmethodsofanalysisareaddressedTheexplosivegrowthinclandestinedruglaboratoriesworldwide,particularlyinvolvingmethamphetamine,warrantstheextensiveconsiderationgiventhistopicinaseparatechapter(Chapter)ThisisdesignedtoassistlawenforcementandforensicdruganalystsinthenumerouschallengestheyfacedealingwithillicitdrugmanufactureImmunoassay(IA)methodscanbeappliedtosoliddosageanalysisofcontrolledsubstanceseasily,withoutextensiveextractionandpurificationForthisreason,forensictoxicologistsfindthesemethodsindispensableforanalyzingbiologicalspecimensforabuseddrugsChapterprovidesaconcisereviewofimmunoassaytechnologyfordrugsofabusetestingStartingwithhistoricalandtheoreticalbackgroundinformation,thischapterexplainsclearlyeachimmunoassayclass:radioimmunoassay(RIA),enzymeimmunoassay(EIA),enzymemultipliedimmunoassaytechnique(EMIT),enzymelinkedimmunosorbenttechnique(ELISA),fluorescentpolarizationimmunoassay(FPIA),andkineticinteractionofmicroparticlesinsolution(KIMS)Onsite(pointofcollection)immunoassaysaredescribednextThefinalsectionsummarizestheimportantsubjectofperformancecharacteristicsusedforevaluationandqualitymanagementChapterisanextensivelyreferencedtreatisethatprovidesthescientificunderpinningforthehistory,extraction,derivatization,anddeterminationofcannabinoidsTheauthorshavecrimelaboratory,academic,andindustryexpertisewithcannabisTheirchaptercontainsathoroughevaluationofthebackgroundandanalysisofcannabisandrelatedmaterialsTheybeginwithausefuldiscussionofwhylawenforcementofficersperformqualitativefieldtests,howlaboratorypersonnelanalyzecannabis,andhowthecourtsinterpretanalyticalresultsIntheirreviewoffieldandlaboratorytestingtheycomparecurrentfieldtestsforplantmaterial,resin,andliquidcannabisproductsTheircomprehensiveliteraturereviewshowshowvariousauthorshaveevaluatedlaboratoryteststoidentifycannabiswithforensicallyacceptablecertaintyusingcombinationsofwetchemical,microscopic,chromatographic,andspectroscopicmethodsInaddition,theydiscusstracecannabisresiduesondruguseparaphernaliaTheauthorscoverbotanicalfeatures,bothmacroscopicandmicroscopicLikewise,thearrayofcannabinoidsspecifictocannabispreparationsaredescribedinthecontextoftheiridentificationbyTLC,liquidchromatography(LC),andGCMSTestmethodsaredescribedindetail,withappropriatecautionsconcerningthestrengthsandlimitationsofanalyticalresultsThechapterincludestherecommendationsforcannabisidentificationmadebyprofessionalorganizations,includingtheUnitedNationsDrugControlProgram(UNDCP),theScientificWorkingGroupforSeizedDrugPREFACExiiAnalysis(SWGDRUG),theInternationalAssociationofOfficialAnalyticalChemists(AOAC),andtheAmericanBoardofCriminalists(ABC),aswellasthoseofseniorscientistsofnationallaboratorysystemsintheUnitedStates,Britain,Australia,andHollandAsanadditionalinvestigativetool,theauthorsshowhow“profiling”cannabinoidscouldassistlawenforcementwithtacticalintelligenceSpecificcannabinoidimmunoassaysoccupyanentiresection,wheretheyarecomparedandevaluatedSeparately,DNAtypingofcannabisisdescribedasanovel,nonchromatographicapproachWhileunusuallybroadinscope,thischapterprovidesthedepthrequisitetounderstandingdiverseresultsfromcannabisanalysesChapter,onhallucinogens,providesadifferentandveryusefulapproachtoforensicdruganalysisTheauthorsexplainthetheoryandpracticalapplicationofmajorinstruments,includingIR,Fouriertransforminfrared(FTIR),massspectrometry,andnuclearmagneticresonance(NMR)Whileeachinstrumenthasspecialapplicationstohallucinogens(lysergicaciddiethylamineLSD,tryptamines,phencyclidinePCP,andphenylalkylaminesMDMA),theauthors’approachassiststheforensicanalystwithhelpfulbackgroundfortheuseoftheseinstrumentalmethodswithotherdrugsGeneroususeofspectraandrelatedfiguresclearlyillustratethetechniquesChapterreviewstheforensicanalysisofcocaineBecausecocaineabuseprevalencetranscendseconomicboundaries,theauthorspresentarangeofanalyticalapproachesTheauthorsexplainsimple,lowcost,noninstrumentaltechniques(ie,microcrystaltests,spottests,andthinlayerchromatography)PhotomicrographsofthecrystaltestsprovideusefulillustrationsnotreadilyavailableelsewhereCocainerelatedimmunoassaysarecomparedandevaluatedAwiderangeofinstrumentaltechniquesaredescribed,includingseverallesscommonlyemployedinaforensicsettingaswellasthosethatfindwideapplication,suchasgaschromatographywithnitrogenphosphorousdetection(GCNPD),highperformanceliquidchromatography(HPLC),capillaryzoneelectrophoresis(CZE),ionmobilitymassspectrometry(IMS),GCMS,tandemmassspectrometry(MSMS),IRandFouriertransforminfraredspectroscopy(FTIR),Ramaninfraredspectroscopy,andNMRThemeaningfulevaluationspresentedexplainthestrengthsandlimitationsofthesetests,therebyenhancingtheforensicutilityofthischapterChapter,onopioidsanalysis,drawsontheauthor’sexpertisetoshedvaluableinsightsontheinterpretationofresults,includingsubtletiessuchasmonoacetylmorphine(MAM)measurementsFirst,preliminarytestsincludethosesuitableforfieldtestsonthestreetdrugsthemselves(colortestsandimmunologicallybasedtests)andindividualswhomayhaveconsumedthem(onsitetests)Concerningotherinitialorpresumptivetests,thescreeningtestPREFACExiiisectionpresentsvariousopiatespecificimmunoassays,commonadulterants,andcountermeasureslaboratoriesusetodefeatadulterationandsampletamperingParticularlyusefulisthepracticalinformationdevotedtospecimenextraction,glucuronideseparation,derivatization,andanalysis(routinelybyGCMS)ThetextaddresseseffortstodiscernopiatesconsumedinadvertentlyfromfoodstuffssuchaspoppyseedcakeBecausethepracticeofheroinsmokinghasincreased,theinclusionofpyrolysisproductresearchhadincreasedrelevanceSpecificanalyticaltreatmentisgiventoeachmajorbiologicalfluid(urine,blood,andalternativematrices)Theauthorsdiscusstherapeuticusesofnumerousopioids,includingcodeinerelateddrugs,buprenorphine,methadone,tramadol,ketoopioids,fentanylrelateddrugs,ketobemidone,butorphanol,anddextromethorphanFinally,thetextcritiquesmethodsforcomparing(or“profiling”)illicitheroinsamplesChapter,ontheanalysisofamphetamines,reviewsthecommonanalyticalmethodsinforensiclaboratoryandonsitetestingTheseincludeimmunoassays(bothinstrumentalandonsite)andTLCThetextaddressesmatrixissuesinherentinsaliva,hair,sweat,andmeconiumanalyses,withattentiontoenvironmentalexposureBecausechiralconsiderationsimpactforensicinterpretationsofamphetaminesanalyses,theauthorcitesnumerousreferencestoillustrateapproachestakentoseparateandquantifyamphetamineclassenantiomersTheauthorhighlightsthepotentialofunderutilizedmethods,suchasLCandLCMSWhilenotw

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