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首页 初中英语全程知识点总结及练习

初中英语全程知识点总结及练习.doc

初中英语全程知识点总结及练习

zyyzyyzyy
2009-06-30 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《初中英语全程知识点总结及练习doc》,可适用于小学教育领域

初一年级(上)【知识梳理】I重点短语SitdownondutyinEnglishhaveaseatathomelooklikelookathavealookcomeonatworkatschoolputonlookaftergetupgoshoppingII重要句型helpsbdosthWhatabout…Let’sdosthIt’stimetodosthIt’stimefor…What’s…Itis…It’s…Whereis…It’s…HowoldareyouI’m…WhatclassareyouinI’min…Welcometo…What’s…plus…It’s…Ithink…Who’sthisThisis…Whatcanyousee?Icansee…Thereis(are)…Whatcolourisit(arethey)It’s(They’re)…Whose…isthisIt’s…WhattimeisitIt’s…III交际用语Goodmorning,MissMr…Hello!Hi!NicetomeetyouNicetomeetyou,tooHowareyouI’mfine,thankyouthanksAndyouSeeyouSeeyoulaterThankyou!You’rewelcomeGoodbye!Bye!What’syournameMynameis…HereyouareThisway,pleaseWho’sondutytodayLet’sdoLetmeseeIV重要语法动词be的用法人称代词和物主代词的用法名词的单复数和所有格的用法冠词的基本用法Therebe句型的用法。【名师讲解】inon在表示空间位置时in表示在某个空间的范围以内on表示在某一个物体的表面之上。例如:Thereisabirdinthetree树上有只鸟。Thereisapictureonthewall墙上有张图。thisthatthesethose()this常常用来指在时间、地点上更接近讲话人的人和事these是this的复数形式。that常常用来指在时间、地点上离讲话人更远一点的人和事those时that的复数形式。例如:YoulookinthisboxandI’lllookinthatoneoverthere你看看这个盒子我去看那边的那个盒子。Iwantthiscar,notthatcar我想要这辆小汽车不是那一辆。Takethesebookstohisroom,please请把这些书拿到他房间去。Thisisminethat’syours这个是我的那个是你的。Theseareapplesthoseareoranges这些是苹果那些是橘子。()在打电话的用语中this常常指的是我that常常指的是对方。例如:ThisisMaryspeakingWho’sthat我是玛丽。你是谁?TherebehaveTherebe"有"其确切含意为"某处或某时存在某人或某物。"其结构是:Therebe某人或某物表示地点或时间的状语。Therebe后面的名词实际上是主语be动词的形式要和主语在数上保持一致be动词后面的名词是单数或不可数名词时用is名词是复数时用are。例如:()Thereisabigbottleofcokeonthetable桌上有一大瓶子可乐。()Thereisadollinthebox那个盒子里有个娃娃。()Therearemanyapplesonthetree那树上有许多苹果。总之Therebe结构强调的是一种客观存在的"有"。have表示"拥有占有具有"即:某人有某物(sbhavehassth)。主语一般是名词或代词与主语是所属关系。例如:()Ihavetwobrothersandonesister我有两个兄弟一个姐姐。()Thathousehasfourrooms那所房子有四个房间。lookseewatch()look表示“看、瞧”着重指认真看强调看的动作表示有意识地注意看但不一定看到以提醒对方注意。如:Look!Thechildrenareplayingcomputergames瞧!孩子们在玩电脑游戏。Look!What’sthatoverthere看!那边那个是什么?单独使用是不及物动词如强调看某人物其后接介词at才能带宾语如:He’slookingatme。他正在看着我。()see强调“看”的结果着重的是look这个动作的结果意思是“看到”see是及物动词后面能直接跟宾语。如:Whatcanyouseeinthepicture你能在图上看到什么?LookattheblackboardWhatdidyouseeonit看黑板!你看到了什么?()watch“观看注视”侧重于场面表示全神贯注地观看、观察或注视某事务的活动强调过程常用于“看电视、看足球、看演出”等。如:YesterdaywewatchedafootballmatchonTV昨天我们从电视上看了一场足球比赛。putoninputon意为“穿上戴上”。主要指“穿上”这一动作,后面接表示服装、鞋帽的名词。in是介词表示“穿着”强调状态。在句中可以做定语、标语和状语。如:It’scoldoutside,putonyourcoat外面冷穿上你的外衣。Heputsonhishatandgoesout 他戴上帽子走了出去。ThewomaninawhiteblouseisJohn’smother穿白色衬衣的那个妇女是John的妈妈。househomefamilyhouse:“房子”指居住的建筑物Home:“家”指一个人同家人共同经常居住的地方Family:“家庭““家庭成员”。例如:Pleasecometomyhousethisafternoon今天下午请到我家来。Heisnotathome他不在家。Myfamilyallgetupearly我们全家都起得很早。fine,nice,good,well四者都可用作形容词表示"好"之意但前三者既可作表语又可作定语而后者仅用作表语。主要区别在于:()fine指物时表示的是质量上的"精细"形容人时表示的是"身体健康"也可以用来指"天气晴朗"。例如:Yourparentsareveryfine你父母身体很健康。That'safinemachine那是一台很好的机器。It'safinedayforawalktoday今天是散步的好时候。()nice主要侧重于人或物的外表有"美好""漂亮"的意思也可用于问候或赞扬别人。例如:Lucylooksnice露西看上去很漂亮。Thesecoatsareverynice那些裙子很好看。Nicetomeetyou见到你很高兴。It'sveryniceofyou你真好。()good形容人时指"品德好"形容物时指"质量好"是表示人或物各方面都好的普通用语。例如:Hersonisagoodstudent她儿子是一个好学生。Theredcarisverygood那辆红色小汽车很好。()well只可用来形容人的"身体好"但不能作定语它也能用作副词作状语多放在所修饰的动词之后。例如:I'mverywell,thanks我身体很好谢谢。Myfriendssingwell我的朋友们歌唱得好。【考点扫描】中考考点在本单元主要集中在:动词be的用法人称代词和物主代词的用法名词的单复数和所有格的用法冠词的基本用法Therebe句型的用法。本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型本单元学过的日常交际用语。考试形式可以是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空、完成句子。【中考范例】(年北京市中考试题)Mary,pleaseshowyourpictureAmyBmineCIDme【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是人称代词和物主代词的用法。本题中动词show后面跟双宾语空白处应填入人称代词的宾格me作宾语。(年上海市徐汇区中考试题)orangeonthedeskisforyou,MikeAABAnCDThe【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是冠词的基本用法。因为是特指课桌上的那个橘子所以用定冠词the。(年哈尔滨市中考试题)WhatthenumberofthegirlsinyourclassAbouttwentyAisBamCareDbe【解析】答案:A。该题考查的是动词be的用法和主谓一致。thenumber作主语应该是单数第三人称动词be变为is。(年陕西省中考试题)ThereafootballmatchonTVthiseveningAwillhaveBisgoingtobeChasDisgoingtohave【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是Therebe…句型和动词have用法区别。Therebe句型本身就表示“在某个地方存在某个人或物”不能和动词have混在一起用。【满分演练】一单项填空WhatcolouristhebikeIt’sorangeAanBaCDtheThatisn’therbagIt’sAmyBICmineDmeOh,yourkiteisveryniceAThat’srightBNo,it’snotniceCYes,itisDThankyouThewomanissixty,butsheyoungAisBseesClooksDwatchesIt’stimelunchLet’sgohomeAtoBinCforDonisyourcoatTheblackoneAWhatBWhereCWhichDHowisthetoyIt’sonthebedAWhoBWhereCWhatDWhoseTheshoesaretoooldPutoverthereAitBtheyCtheirDthemExcusemeCanyoumywatch,pleaseAlookBlooklikeClookafterDlookatLooktheblackboardandlistentheteacherABattoCafterDonafterWhosedressisthisIt’sALucyBLucy’sCJimDJim’sThegirlthepurplecoatishissisterAatBinConDwithThereisabirdthetreeAinBonCtoDofTherearemanyinourschoolAwomanteachersBwomanteacherCwomenteacherDwomenteachersIsthereaballunderthedeskAYes,itisBYes,there’sCNo,thereisn’tDNo,thereisTheresomebooksandapencilonthedeskAamBisCareDbeLetmehelpyouAYou’rewelcomeBThanksverymuchCDon’tworryDYes,thanksoldmanisEnglishteacherATheanBAnanCThetheDAaWhatfiveplussixIt’selevenAamBisCareDWhatyouseeinthepictureIcanseesomeflowersAmustBcanCareDdo二完形填空ThisisapictureofKat’sWhatcanweinthepictureLookit,pleaseThemantheblackcoatisKate’sfather,MrGreenTheintheredsweaterisMrsGreenTheyyoungThebabyisKateThelittleboyisKate’s,JimthemanbehindMrsGreenOh,he’sbrother,MrReadHeyoung,tooAfamiliesBfamilyCparentsDbrothersAlookBdoCseeDputAatBafterCforDupAonBofCinDtoAmanBgirlCwomenDwomanAareBisClooklikeDlookingAsisterBbrotherCfatherDauntAWhat’sBWhere’sCWho’sDHowisAhisBherCourDtheirAlooksBamClookDvery三在B栏中找出A栏英语句子的正确答语(A)(B)HowareyouAIaminRowCanyouspellit,pleaseBFine,thankyouHowdoyoudoCYes,book,bookWhatrowareyouinDItistenWhat’stwopluseightENicetomeetyou,tooNicetomeetyouFIamHowoldareyouGWangPingisWho’snothereHIt’shereWhereisthebagIIt’sabookWhatisthisinEnglishJHowdoyoudo四完成对话:在对话后面的句子中选出正确的填入空白处Jim:Excuseme,AnnWhoseblackdogisthisIsityoursAnn:LetmehavealookIthinkit’sSam’sMydogisbrownJim:Sam,lookatthedogbehindthetreeSam:Sorry,itisn’tmineMydogisblackandwhiteIthinkitlookslikeMary’sJim:Sam:She’smyfriendLook!She’soverthereLet’sgoandaskherJim:Sam:Hi,Mary!IsthatdogyoursMary:Sam:It’salovelydog!Don’tloseit!Mary:Yes,thankyouAWho’sMaryBOK,let’sgoCOh,noit’snotmineDOh,yesIt’smineEIsityours五用所给单词的适当形式填空(He)penisin(I)pencilbox(You)shoes(be)underthebed(Who)newruleristhisArethesetrousers(you)No,theyaren’t(we)It’stime(go)andplaygamesThisismypenPleasegiveitto(I)Ihavetwo(baby)Look!Thatisa(China)carItis(myteacher)sweaterNowher(parent)areinAmerica六阅读理解(A)BobwasborninabigandrichfamilyHisfatherisauniversityprofessorHeteachesAmericanhistoryHismotherisaverycapablewomanSheisthemanagerofabigcompanySheearnsalotofmoney,ofcourseBobhastwosistersandabrotherHiseldersister,Jenny,isfourteenShestudiesinamiddleschoolHisyoungersister,Ann,istenShestudiesinaprivateprimaryschoolShehasaverygoodmemorySheiscleverHisyoungerbrother,Dick,isonlysixHehasjuststartedgoingtoschoolBobgetsonwellwithhisfamilyHeisongoodtermsnotonlywithhisparents,butalsowithhissistersandbrother(haveafriendlyrelationshipwithsb)Heis,inaword,anappleintheireyes根据短文的内容判断下列句子的正误:正确地答“A”错误的答“B”。BobwasborninasmallandrichfamilyHehastwobrothersandasisterTherearefivepeopleinhisfamilyDickisonlysixHestudiesinaprivateprimaryschool“Heisanappleintheireyes”means“Theylovehimverymuch”(B)Lookattheclotheslineinthetwins'bedroomTherearesomeclothesonitYoucanseeagreenblouseandayellowskirtThetrousersontheclotheslineareblackTheyarenotnewbutcleanAretheyLily'sclothesNoIknowtheyareLucy'sLily'sclothesareonaclothestreenearthewindowHertrousersarebrown,herblouseiswhiteandherskirtisblueThereisanewhatontheclothestree,butit'snotLily's,it'sLucy'sThereisanoldhatonLucy'sbedintheroom,it'sLily'sTherearenoclothesontheotherbed,thebedisLily'sWhatcanyouseeinthebedroomIcanseeAaclotheslineBatreeCabedWhatcolourareLucy'strousersTheyareAgreenBblackCbrownWhereisLucy'shatIt'sonAtheclothestreeBtheclotheslineClily'sbedHowmanybedsarethereintheroomAonlyoneBthreeCtwoArethereanythingsonLily'sbedAYes,thereisahatonitBNo,thereisnotanythingonitCSorry,Idon'tknow(C)It'safineSundaymorningAnnandhermotherareinabigbusTherearemanypeopleinitSomeofthemcomefromAmerica,andsomecomefromEnglandandCanadaTheyarealltheirfriendsTheyaregoingtotheGreatWallTherearetwoChineseinthebusOneiswomanSheisdrivingthebusTheotherisayoungmanHespeaksgoodEnglishHeisnowtalkingabouttheGreatWallTheotherpeoplearealllisteningtohimTheyliketheGreatWallTheywanttoseeitverymuchAnnandmotheraregoingtotheGreatWallAbybikeBbycarCbyplaneDbybusThereareAonlyoneChineseinthebusBonlytwoChineseinthebusConlytwoChineseonthebikeDonlyoneChineseinthecarThedriverisAamanBawomanCaCanadianDanAmericanThepeopleAaresingingBaretalkingCarelisteningDarelookingatthewallTheyAcanseetheGreatWallBcanspeakEnglishverywellCwanttotalkwiththemanverymuchDwanttoseetheGreatWallverymuch初一年级(下)【知识梳理】I重点短语abottleofalittlealot(of)alldaybefrombeovercomebackcomefromdoone’shomeworkdotheshoppinggetdowngethomegettogetupgoshoppinghaveadrinkofhavealookhavebreakfasthavelunchhavesupperlistentonot…atallput…awaytakeoffthrowitlikethatwouldlikeinthemiddleofthedayinthemorningafternooneveningonafarminafactoryII重要句型LetsbdosthCouldsbdosthwouldlikesthwouldliketodosthWhataboutsomethingtoeatHowdoyouspell…MayIborrow…III交际用语Thanksverymuch!You'rewelcomePutitthemawayWhat'swrongIthinksoIdon'tthinksoIwanttotakesomebookstotheclassroomGivemeabottleoforangejuice,pleasePleasegiveitthembacktomorrowOKWhat'syourfavouritesportDon'tworryI’m(not)goodatbasketballDoyouwantagoThat'srightThat‘sallrightAllrightDoyouhaveadictionaryanydictionariesYes,IdoNo,Idon’tWeTheyhavesomeCDsWeTheydon’thaveanyCDsWhatdayisittodaytomorrowIt’sMondayMayIborrowyourcolourpens,pleaseCertainlyHereyouareWhereareyoufromFromBeijingWhat'syourtelephonenumberinNewYorkDoyoulikehotdogsYes,Ido(AlittleAlotVerymuch)No,Idon't(Idon'tlikethematall)WhatdoesyourmotherlikeShelikesdumplingsandvegetablesverymuchWhendoyougotoschooleverydayIgotoschoolat:everydayWhattimedoeshegotobedintheeveningHegoestobedat:IV重要语法人称代词的用法祈使句现在进行时的构成和用法.动词have的用法.一般现在时构成和用法.可数名词和不可数名词的构成和用法【名师讲解】That'srightThat‘sallrightAllrightThat’sright意为“对的”表示赞同对方的意见、看法或行为肯定对方的答案或判断。例如:"Ithinkwemusthelptheoldman""我想我们应该帮助这位老人。""That'sright"或"You'reright""说得对"。That’sallright意为“不用谢”、“没关系”用来回答对方的致谢或道歉。例如:"Manythanks""That'sallright""SorryIt'sbroken""That'sallright"Allright意为“行了”、“可以”表示同意对方的建议或要求。有时还可以表示“身体很好”"Pleasetellmeaboutit""请把此事告诉我。""Allright""好吧。"Isyourmotherallright你妈身体好吗makedo这两个词都可以解释为“做”但含义却不同不能混用。make指做东西或制东西do指做一件具体的事。Canyoumakeapaperboatforme你能为我做个纸船吗?He’sdoinghishomeworknow他正在做他的作业。sayspeaktalktellsay:是最口语化的最普通的一个词意为“说出”、“说道”着重所说的话。如:“Iwanttogotherebybus”,hesaid他说“我要坐汽车到那里去。”PleasesayitinEnglish请用英语说。speak:“说话”着重开口发声不着重所说的内容一般用作不及物动词(即后面不能直接接宾语)。如:Canyouspeakabouthim你能不能说说他的情况?Idon’tliketospeaklikethis我不喜欢这样说话。speak作及物动词解时只能和某种语言等连用表达在对话中恰当使用词汇的能力。如:ShespeaksEnglishwell她英语说得好。talk:与speak意义相近也着重说话的动作而不着重所说的话因此一般也只用作不及物动词不过talk暗示话是对某人说的有较强的对话意味着重指连续地和别人谈话。如:Iwouldliketotalktohimaboutit我想跟他谈那件事。Oldwomenliketotalkwithchildren老年妇女喜欢和孩子们交谈。tell:“告诉”除较少情况外一般后面总接双宾语。如:He’stellingmeastory他在给我讲故事。tellalie撒谎tellsbtodosthtellsbnottodosthMissZhaooftentellsustostudyharddocookingdothecookingdocooking作“做饭”解属泛指。dothecooking特指某一顿饭或某一家人的饭。cooking为动名词不能用作复数但前面可用some,much修饰。从dosomecooking可引出许多类似的短语:dosomewashing洗些衣服dosomeshopping买些东西dosomereading读书dosomewriting写些东西dosomefishing钓鱼从以上短语可引申出另一类短语不能用some,much或定冠词。goshopping去买东西gofishing去钓鱼goboating去划船goswimming去游泳likedoingsthliketodosthlikedoingsth与liketodosth意思相同但用法有区别。前者强调一般性的爱好或者表示动作的习惯性和经常性后来表示一次性和偶然性的动作。例如:Helikesplayingfootball,buthedoesn‘tliketoplayfootballwithLiMing他喜欢踢足球但是他不喜欢和李明踢。otherotherstheotheranotherother表其余的别的Haveyouanyotherquestions你还有其他问题吗others别的人别的东西IntheroomsomepeopleareAmerican,theothersareFrench在屋子里一些人是美国人,其他的是法国人。theother表另一个(二者之中)one…theother…OneofmytwobrothersstudiesEnglish, theotherstudiesChinese我两个哥哥中的一个学习英文,另一个学中文。another表三者以上的另一个另一些Thereisroomforanotherfewbooksontheshelf书架上还可以放点书。inthetreeonthetreeinthetree与onthetree译成中文均为"在树上"但英语中有区别。inthetree表示某人、某事(不属于树本身生长出的别的东西)落在树上表示树的枝、叶、花、果等长在树上时要使用onthetree如:Therearesomeapplesonthetree那棵树上有些苹果。Thereisabirdinthetree那棵树上有只鸟。someany()some和any既可修饰可数名词也可修饰不可数名词。但有以下两点需要注意。some常用于肯定句中any常用于否定句和疑问句中。如:ThereissomewaterintheglassIsthereanywaterintheglassThereisn'tanywaterintheglass()在说话者希望得到肯定答复的一般疑问句中或在表示请求邀请的疑问句中我们依然用some。如:Wouldyoulikesometeatallhigh()说人动物树木等有生命的东西主要用tall不用high例如atallwoman一个高个子妇女atallhorse一个高大的马()说一个不与地面接触的人和物的高时要用high而不用tall比如人站在桌子上时飞机飞上天时例如:Heishighupinthetree他高高地爬在树上。Theplaneissohighinthesky飞机在空中这么高。()指建筑物、山时要tall或high都可以不过high的程度比tall高。()high可作副词tall不能。()tall的反义词为short,high的反义词为lowcancould()can表示体力和脑力方面的能力或根据客观条件能做某种动作的"能力"。例如:Canyourideabike?你会骑自行车吗?WhatcanIdoforyou?要帮忙吗?Canyoumakeacake?你会做蛋糕吗?()can用在否定句和疑问句中时有时表示说话人的"怀疑""猜测"或不肯定。例如:Wherecanhebe?他会在什么地方呢?Canthenewsbetrue?这个消息会是真的吗?Itsurelycan'tbesixo'clockalready?不可能已经六点钟了吧?Youcan'tbehungrysosoonTomyou'vejusthadlunch汤姆你不可能饿得这么快你刚吃过午饭。Whatcanhemean?他会是什么意思?在日常会话中can可代替may表示"允许"may比较正式。例如:Youcancomeinanytime你随时都可以来。CanIuseyourpen?我能用你的钢笔吗?Ofcourseyoucan当然可以。YoucanhavemyseatI'mgoingnow我要走了你坐我的座位吧。()couldcould是can的过去式表示过去有过的能力和可能性(在否定和疑问句中)。例如:Thedoctorsaidhecouldhelphim(能力)医生说他能帮助他。Lilycouldswimwhenshewasfouryearsold(能力)当丽丽四岁的时候她就会游泳。Atthattimewethoughtthestorycouldbetrue(可能性)那时我们以为所说的可能是真的。could可代替can表示现在时间的动作但语气较为婉转。例如:CouldIspeaktoJohnplease?我能和约翰说话吗?Couldyou?在口语中表示请求对方做事。例如:Couldyouwaithalfanhour?请你等半个小时好吗?Couldyoupleaseringagainatsix?六点钟请你再打电话好吗?()can的形式只有现在式can和过去式could两种形式。能表示一般现在和一般过去两种时态有时也能表示将来。所有其他时态(包括将来时)须用beableto加动词不定式来表示。例如:TheyhavenotbeenabletocometoBeijing他们没有能到北京来。lookforfindlookfor意为“寻找”而find意为“找到发现”前者强调“找”这一动作并不注重“找”的结果而后者则强调“找”的结果。例如:Shecan’tfindherruler她找不到她的尺子啦。Tomislookingforhiswatchbuthecan’tfindit汤姆正在寻找他的手表但没能找到。besleepingbeasleepbesleeping表示动作意思是“正在睡觉”beasleep表示状态意思是“睡着了”。如:Whatarethechildrendoingintheroom孩子们在房间里做什么?Theyaresleeping他们正在睡觉。Thechildrenareasleepnow现在孩子们睡着了。oftenusuallysometimesoften表示"经常"sometimes表示"有时候"在表示发生频率上often要高于usuallyusually要高于sometimes。这三个词表示的是经常性一般性的动作或情况常与一般现在时连用常位于主要谓语动词的前面其他谓语动词(be动词情态动词和助动词)的后面有时也可位于句尾。如果要加强语气则放在句首。Weusuallyplaybasketballafterschool我们通常放学后打篮球。SometimesIgotobedearly有时我睡觉很早。HeoftenreadsEnglishinthemorn

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