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首页 罗素《西方哲学史》英文版A History of Western Philosophy

罗素《西方哲学史》英文版A History of Western Philosophy.pdf

罗素《西方哲学史》英文版A History of Wester…

抚琴湘君_859
2009-06-19 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《罗素《西方哲学史》英文版A History of Western Philosophypdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

BERTRANDRUSSELLAHISTORYOFWESTERNPHILOSOPHYAndItsConnectionwithPoliticalandSocialCircumstancesfromtheEarliestTimestothePresentDaySIMONANDSCHUSTER,NEWYORKALLRIGHTSRESERVEDINCLUDINGTHERIGHTOFREPRODUCTIONINWHOLEORINPARTINANYFORMCOPYRIGHT,,BYBERTRANDRUSSELLPUBLISHEDBYSIMONANDSCHUSTER,INCROCKEFELLERCENTER,SIXTHAVENUENEWYORK,NYFourthPrintingMANUFACTUREDINTHEUNITEDSTATESOFAMERICABYAMERICANBOOKSTRATFORDPRESS,INC,NYTABLEOFCONTENTSPrefacebyAuthorixIntroductionxiiiBOOKONEANCIENTPHILOSOPHYPartIThePreSocraticsChapterITheRiseofGreekCivilizationChapterIITheMilesianSchoolChapterIIIPythagorasChapterIVHeraclitusChapterVParmenidesChapterVIEmpedoclesChapterVIIAthensinRelationtoCultureChapterVIIIAnaxagorasChapterIXTheAtomistsChapterXProtagorasPartIISocrates,Plato,andAristotleChapterXISocratesChapterXIITheInfluenceofSpartaChapterXIIITheSourcesofPlato'sOpinionsChapterXXIIIAristotle'sPhysicsChapterXXIVEarlyGreekMathematicsandAstronomyPartIIIAncientPhilosophyafterAristotleChapterXXVTheHellenisticWorldChapterXXVICynicsandScepticsChapterXXVIITheEpicureansChapterXXIXStoicismChapterXXIXTheRomanEmpireinRelationtoCultureChapterXXXPlotinusBOOKTWOCATHOLICPHILOSOPHYIntroductionPartITheFathersChapterITheReligiousDevelopmentoftheJewsChapterIIChristianityDuringtheFirstFourCenturiesChapterIIIThreeDoctorsoftheChurchChapterIVSaintAugustine'sPhilosophyandTheologyChapterVTheFifthandSixthCenturiesChapterVISaintBenedictandGregorytheGreatPartIITheSchoolmenChapterVIIThePapacyintheDarkAgesChapterVIIIJohntheScotChapterIXEcclesiasticalReformintheEleventhCenturyChapterXMohammedanCultureandPhilosophyviChapterXITheTwelfthCenturyChapterXIITheThirteenthCenturyChapterXIIISaintThomasAquinasChapterXIVFranciscanSchoolmenChapterXVTheEclipseofthePapacyBOOKTHREEMODERNPHILOSOPHYPartIFromtheRenaissancetoHumeChapterIGeneralCharacteristicsChapterIITheItalianRenaissanceChapterIIIMachiavelliChapterIVErasmusandMoreChapterVTheReformationandCounterReformationChapterVITheRiseofScienceChapterVIIFrancisBaconChapterVIIIHobbes'sLeviathanChapterIXDescartesChapterXSpinozaChapterXILeibnizChapterXIIPhilosophicalLiberalismChapterXIIILocke'sTheoryofKnowledgeChapterXIVLocke'sPoliticalPhilosophyChapterXXIVSchopenhauerChapterXXVNietzscheChapterXXVITheUtilitariansChapterXXVIIKarlMarxChapterXXVIIIBergsonChapterXXIXWilliamJamesChapterXXXJohnDeweyChapterXXXIThePhilosophyofLogicalAnalysisIndexPREFACEMANYhistoriesofphilosophyexist,andithasnotbeenmypurposemerelytoaddonetotheirnumberMypurposeistoexhibitphilosophyasanintegralpartofsocialandpoliticallife:notastheisolatedspeculationsofremarkableindividuals,butasbothaneffectandacauseofthecharacterofthevariouscommunitiesinwhichdifferentsystemsflourishedThispurposedemandsmoreaccountofgeneralhistorythanisusuallygivenbyhistoriansofphilosophyIhavefoundthisparticularlynecessaryasregardsperiodswithwhichthegeneralreadercannotbeassumedtobefamiliarThegreatageofthescholasticphilosophywasanoutcomeofthereformsoftheeleventhcentury,andthese,inturn,wereareactionagainstpreviouscorruptionWithoutsomeknowledgeofthecenturiesbetweenthefallofRomeandtheriseofthemedievalPapacy,theintellectualatmosphereofthetwelfthandthirteenthcenturiescanhardlybeunderstoodIndealingwiththisperiod,aswithothers,IhaveaimedatgivingonlysomuchgeneralhistoryasIthoughtnecessaryforthesympatheticcomprehensionofphilosophersinrelationtothetimesthatformedthemandthetimesthattheyhelpedtoformOneconsequenceofthispointofviewisthattheimportancewhichitgivestoaphilosopherisoftennotthatwhichhedeservesonaccountofhisphilosophicmeritFormypart,forexample,IconsiderSpinozaagreaterphilosopherthanLocke,buthewasfarlessinfluentialIhavethereforetreatedhimmuchmorebrieflythanLockeSomemenforexample,RousseauandByronthoughnotphilosophersatallintheacademicsense,havesoprofoundlyaffectedtheprevailingphilosophictemperthatthedevelopmentofphilosophycannotbeunderstoodiftheyareignoredEvenpuremenofactionaresometimesofgreatimportanceinthisrespectveryfewphilosophershaveinfluencedphilosophyasmuchasAlexandertheGreat,Charlemagne,orNapoleonLycurgus,ifonlybehadexisted,wouldhavebeenastillmorenotableexampleInattemptingtocoversuchavaststretchoftime,itisnecessarytohaveverydrasticprinciplesofselectionIhavecometotheconclusion,fromreadingstandardhistoriesofphilosophy,thatveryshortaccountsconveynothingofvaluetothereaderIhavethereforeomittedaltogether(withfewexceptions)menwhodidnotseemtometodeserveafairlyfulltreatmentInthecaseofthemenwhomIhavediscussed,IhavementionedwhatseemedrelevantasregardstheirlivesandtheirsocialsurroundingsIhaveevensometimesrecordedintrinsicallyunimportantdetailswhenIconsideredthemillustrativeofamanorofhistimesFinally,IoweawordofexplanationandapologytospecialistsonanypartofmyenormoussubjectItisobviouslyimpossibletoknowasmuchabouteveryphilosopherascanbeknownabouthimbyamanwhosefieldislesswideIhavenodoubtthateverysinglephilosopherwhomIhavementioned,withtheexceptionofLeibniz,isbetterknowntomanymenthantomeIf,however,thiswereconsideredasufficientreasonforrespectfulsilence,itwouldfollowthatnomanshouldundertaketotreatofmorethansomenarrowstripofhistoryTheinfluenceofSpartaonRousseau,ofPlatoonChristianphilosophyuntilthethirteenthcentury,oftheNestoriansontheArabsandthenceonAquinas,ofSaintAmbroseonliberalpoliticalphilosophyfromtheriseoftheLombardcitiesuntilthepresentday,aresomeamongthethemesofwhichonlyacomprehensivehistorycantreatOnsuchgroundsIasktheindulgenceofthosereaderswhofindmyknowledgeofthisorthatportionofmysubjectlessadequatethanitwouldhavebeeniftherebadbeennoneedtoremember"time'swingedchariot"ThisbookowesitsexistencetoDrAlbertCBarnes,havingbeenoriginallydesignedandpartlydeliveredaslecturesattheBarnesFoundationinPennsylvaniaAsinmostofmyworkduringthelastthirteenyears,Ihavebeengreatlyassisted,inresearchandinmanyotherways,bymywife,PatriciaRussellBERTRANDRUSSELLINTRODUCTIONTHEconceptionsoflifeandtheworldwhichwecall"philosophical"areaproductoftwofactors:one,inheritedreligiousandethicalconceptionstheother,thesortofinvestigationwhichmaybecalled"scientific,"usingthiswordinitsbroadestsenseIndividualphilosophershavedifferedwidelyinregardtotheproportionsinwhichthesetwofactorsenteredintotheirsystems,butitisthepresenceofboth,insomedegree,thatcharacterizesphilosophy"Philosophy"isawordwhichhasbeenusedinmanyways,somewider,somenarrowerIproposetouseitinaverywidesense,whichIwillnowtrytoexplainPhilosophy,asIshallunderstandtheword,issomethingintermediatebetweentheologyandscienceLiketheology,itconsistsofspeculationsonmattersastowhichdefiniteknowledgehas,sofar,beenunascertainablebutlikescience,itappealstohumanreasonratherthantoauthority,whetherthatoftraditionorthatofrevelationAlldefiniteknowledgesoIshouldcontendbelongstosciencealldogmaastowhatsurpassesdefiniteknowledgebelongstotheologyButbetweentheologyandsciencethereisaNoMan'sLand,exposedtoattackfrombothsidesthisNoMan'sLandisphilosophyAlmostallthequestionsofmostinteresttospeculativemindsaresuchassciencecannotanswer,andtheconfidentanswersoftheologiansnolongerseemsoconvincingastheydidinformercenturiesIstheworlddividedintomindandmatter,and,ifso,whatismindandwhatismatterIsmindsubjecttomatter,orisitpossessedofindependentpowersHastheuniverseanyunityorpurposeIsitevolvingtowardssomegoalAretherereallylawsofnature,ordowebelieveinthemonlybecauseofourinnateloveoforderIsmanwhatheseemstotheastronomer,atinylumpofimpurecarbonandwaterimpotentlycrawlingonasmallandunimportantplanetOrishewhatheappearstoHamletIsheperhapsbothatonceIsthereawayoflivingthatisnobleandanotherthatisbase,orareallwaysoflivingmerelyfutileIfthereisawayoflivingthatisnoble,inwhatdoesitconsist,andhowshallweachieveitMustthegoodbeeternalinordertodeservetobevalued,orisitworthseekingeveniftheuniverseisinexorablymovingtowardsdeathIstheresuchathingaswisdom,oriswhatseemssuchmerelytheultimaterefinementoffollyTosuchquestionsnoanswercanbefoundinthelaboratoryTheologieshaveprofessedtogiveanswers,alltoodefinitebuttheirverydefinitenesscausesmodernmindstoviewthemwithsuspicionThestudyingofthesequestions,ifnottheansweringofthem,isthebusinessofphilosophyWhy,then,youmayask,wastetimeonsuchinsolubleproblemsTothisonemayanswerasahistorian,orasanindividualfacingtheterrorofcosmiclonelinessTheanswerofthehistorian,insofarasIamcapableofgivingit,willappearinthecourseofthisworkEversincemenbecamecapableoffreespeculation,theiractions,ininnumerableimportantrespects,havedependedupontheirtheoriesastotheworldandhumanlife,astowhatisgoodandwhatisevilThisisastrueinthepresentdayasatanyformertimeTounderstandanageoranation,wemustunderstanditsphilosophy,andtounderstanditsphilosophywemustourselvesbeinsomedegreephilosophersThereishereareciprocalcausation:thecircumstancesofmen'slivesdomuchtodeterminetheirphilosophy,but,conversely,theirphilosophydoesmuchtodeterminetheircircumstancesThisinteractionthroughoutthecenturieswillbethetopicofthefollowingpagesThereisalso,however,amorepersonalanswerSciencetellsuswhatwecanknow,butwhatwecanknowislittle,andifweforgethowmuchwecannotknowwebecomeinsensitivetomanythingsofverygreatimportanceTheology,ontheotherhand,inducesadogmaticbeliefthatwehaveknowledgewhereinfactwehaveignorance,andbydoingsogeneratesakindofimpertinentinsolencetowardstheuniverseUncertainty,inthepresenceofvividhopesandfears,ispainful,butmustbeenduredifwewishtolivewithoutthesupportofcomfortingfairytalesItisnotgoodeithertoforgetthequestionsthatphilosophyasks,ortopersuadeourselvesthatwehavefoundindubitableanswerstothemToteachhowtolivewithoutcertainty,andyetwithoutbeingparalyzedbyhesitation,isperhapsthechiefthingthatphilosophy,inourage,canstilldoforthosewhostudyitPhilosophy,asdistinctfromtheology,beganinGreeceinthesixthcenturyBCAfterrunningitscourseinantiquity,itwasagainsubmergedbytheologyasChristianityroseandRomefellItssecondgreatperiod,fromtheeleventhtothefourteenthcenturies,wasdominatedbytheCatholicChurch,exceptforafewgreatrebels,suchastheEmperorFrederickII()ThisperiodwasbroughttoanendbytheconfusionsthatculminatedintheReformationThethirdperiod,fromtheseventeenthcenturytothepresentday,isdominated,morethaneitherofitspredecessors,bysciencetraditionalreligiousbeliefsremainimportant,butarefelttoneedjustification,andaremodifiedwhereverscienceseemstomakethisimperativeFewofthephilosophersofthisperiodareorthodoxfromaCatholicstandpoint,andthesecularStateismoreimportantintheirspeculationsthantheChurchSocialcohesionandindividualliberty,likereligionandscience,areinastateofconflictoruneasycompromisethroughoutthewholeperiodInGreece,socialcohesionwassecuredbyloyaltytotheCityStateevenAristotle,thoughinhistimeAlexanderwasmakingtheCityStateobsolete,couldseenomeritinanyotherkindofpolityThedegreetowhichtheindividual'slibertywascurtailedbyhisdutytotheCityvariedwidelyInSpartahehadaslittlelibertyasinmodernGermanyorRussiainAthens,inspiteofoccasionalpersecutions,citizenshad,inthebestperiod,averyextraordinaryfreedomfromrestrictionsimposedbytheStateGreekthoughtdowntoAristotleisdominatedbyreligiousandpatrioticdevotiontotheCityitsethicalsystemsareadaptedtothelivesofcitizensandhavealargepoliticalelementWhentheGreeksbecamesubject,firsttotheMacedonians,andthentotheRomans,theconceptionsappropriatetotheirdaysofindependencewerenolongerapplicableThisproduced,ontheonehand,alossofvigourthroughthebreachwithtradition,and,ontheotherhand,amoreindividualandlesssocialethicTheStoicsthoughtofthevirtuouslifeasarelationofthesoultoGod,ratherthanasarelationofthecitizentotheStateTheythuspreparedthewayforChristianity,which,likeStoicism,wasoriginallyunpolitical,since,duringitsfirstthreecenturies,itsadherentsweredevoidofinfluenceongovernmentSocialcohesion,duringthesixandahalfcenturiesfromAlexandertoConstantine,wassecured,notbyphilosophyandnotbyancientloyalties,butbyforce,firstthatofarmiesandthenthatofciviladministrationRomanarmies,Romanroads,Romanlaw,andRomanofficialsfirstcreatedandthenpreservedapowerfulcentralizedStateNothingwasattributabletoRomanphilosophy,sincetherewasnoneDuringthislongperiod,theGreekideasinheritedfromtheageoffreedomunderwentagradualprocessoftransformationSomeoftheoldideas,notablythosewhichweshouldregardasspecificallyreligious,gainedinrelativeimportanceothers,morerationalistic,werediscardedbecausetheynolongersuitedthespiritoftheageInthiswaythelaterpaganstrimmedtheGreektraditionuntilitbecamesuitableforincorporationinChristiandoctrineChristianitypopularizedanimportantopinion,alreadyimplicitintheteachingoftheStoics,butforeigntothegeneralspiritofantiquityImean,theopinionthataman'sdutytoGodismoreimperativethanhisdutytotheStateThisopinionthat"weoughttoobeyGodratherthanMan,"asSocratesandtheApostlessaidsurvivedtheconversionofConstantine,becausetheearlyChristianemperorswereAriansorinclinedtoArianismWhentheemperorsbecameorthodox,itfellintoabeyanceIntheByzantineEmpireitremainedlatent,asalsointhesubsequentRussianEmpire,whichderiveditsChristianityfromConstantinople*ButintheWest,wheretheCatholicemperorswerealmostimmediatelyreplaced(except,inpartsofGaul)byhereticalbarbarianconquerors,thesuperiorityofreligioustopoliticalallegiancesurvived,andtosomeextentstillsurvivesThebarbarianinvasionputanend,forsixcenturies,tothecivilizationofwesternEuropeItlingeredinIrelanduntiltheDanesdestroyeditintheninthcenturybeforeitsextinctionthereitproducedonenotablefigure,ScotusErigenaIntheEasternEmpire,Greekcivilization,inadesiccatedform,survived,asinamuseum,tillthefallofConstantinoplein,butnothingofimportancetotheworldcameoutofConstantinopleexceptanartistictraditionandJustinian'sCodesofRomanlawDuringtheperiodofdarkness,fromtheendofthefifthcenturytothemiddleoftheeleventh,thewesternRomanworldunderwentsomeveryinterestingchangesTheconflictbetweendutytoGodanddutytotheState,whichChristianityhadintroduced,tooktheformofaconflictbetweenChurchandkingTheecclesiasticaljurisdictionofthePopeextendedoverItaly,France,andSpain,Great*ThatiswhythemodernRussiandoesnotthinkthatweoughttoobeydialecticalmaterialismratherthanStalinBritainandIreland,Germany,Scandinavia,andPolandAtfirst,outsideItalyandsouthernFrance,hiscontroloverbishopsandabbotswasveryslight,butfromthetimeofGregoryVII(lateeleventhcentury)itbecamerealandeffectiveFromthattimeon,theclergy,throughoutwesternEurope,formedasingleorganizationdirectedfromRome,seekingpowerintelligentlyandrelentlessly,andusuallyvictorious,untilaftertheyear,intheirconflictswithsecularrulersTheconflictbetweenChurchandStatewasnotonlyaconflictbetweenclergyandlaityitwasalsoarenewaloftheconflictbetweentheMediterraneanworldandthenorthernbarbariansTheunityoftheChurchechoedtheunityoftheRomanEmpireitsliturgywasLatin,anditsdominantmenweremostlyItalian,Spanish,orsouthernFrenchTheireducation,wheneducationrevived,wasclassicaltheirconceptionsoflawandgovernmentwouldhavebeenmoreintelligibletoMarcusAureliusthantheyweretocontemporarymonarchsTheChurchrepresentedatoncecontinuitywiththepastandwhatwasmostcivilizedinthepresentThesecularpower,onthecontrary,wasinthehandsofkingsandbaronsofTeutonicdescent,whoendeavouredtopreservewhattheycouldoftheinstitutionsthattheyhadbroughtoutoftheforestsofGermanyAbsolutepowerwasalientothoseinstitutions,andsowaswhatappearedtothesevigorousconquerorsasadullandspiritlesslegalityThekinghadtosharehispowerwiththefeudalaristocracy,butallalikeexpectedtobeallowedoccasionaloutburstsofpassionintheformofwar,murder,pillage,orrapeMonarchsmightrepent,fortheyweresincerelypious,and,afterall,repentancewasitselfaformofpassionButtheChurchcouldneverproduceinthemthequietregularityofgoodbehaviourwhichamodernemployerdemands,andusuallyobtains,ofhisemployeesWhatwastheuseofconqueringtheworldiftheycouldnotdrinkandmurderandloveasthespiritmovedthemAndwhyshouldthey,withtheirarmiesofproudknights,submittotheordersofbookishmen,vowedtocelibacyanddestituteofarmedforceInspiteofecclesiasticaldisapproval,theypreservedtheduelandtrialbybattle,andtheydevelopedtournamentsandcourtlyloveOccasionally,inafitofrage,theywouldevenmurdereminentchurchmenAllthearmedforcewasonthesideofthekings,andyettheChurchwasvictoriousTheChurchwon,partlybecauseithadalmostam

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罗素《西方哲学史》英文版A History of Western Philosophy

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