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首页 国家与社会:社会等级和政治集权的出现

国家与社会:社会等级和政治集权的出现.pdf

国家与社会:社会等级和政治集权的出现

zgyjc
2009-06-08 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《国家与社会:社会等级和政治集权的出现pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

sidhavkaacoverpbjpgSTATEANDSOCIETYONEWORLDARCHAEOLOGYSeriesEditor:PJUckoAnimalsintoArtHMorphy(ed),volArchaeologicalApproachestoCulturalIdentitySJShennan(ed),volArchaeologicalHeritageManagementintheModernWorldHFCleere(ed),volArchaeologyandtheInformationAge:aglobalperspectivePReillySRahtz(eds),volTheArchaeologyofAfrica:food,metalsandtownsTShaw,PSinclair,BAndahAOkpoko(eds),volCentreandPeriphery:comparativestudiesinarchaeologyTCChampion(ed),volConflictintheArchaeologyofLivingTraditionsRLayton(ed),volDominationandResistanceDMiller,MJRowlandsCTilley(eds),volTheExcludedPast:archaeologyineducationPStoneRMacKenzie(eds),volForagingandFarming:theevolutionofplantexploitationDRHarrisGCHillman(eds),volFromtheBaltictotheBlackSea:studiesinmedievalarchaeologyDAustinLAlcock(eds),volHuntersoftheRecentPastLBDaviesBOKReeves(eds),volTheMeaningsofThings:materialcultureandsymbolicexpressionIHodder(ed),volTheOriginsofHumanBehaviourRAFoley(ed),volThePoliticsofthePastPGathercoleDLowenthal(eds),volSacredSites,SacredPlacesDLCarmichael,JHubert,BReevesASchanche(eds),volSignifyingAnimals:humanmeaninginthenaturalworldRGWillis(ed),volSocialConstructionofthePast:representationaspowerGCBondAGilliam(eds),volTropicalArchaeobotany:applicationsanddevelopmentsJGHather(ed),volTheWalkingLarder:patternsofdomestication,pastoralism,andpredationJCluttonBrock(ed),volWhatisanAnimalTIngold(ed),volWhat’sNewAcloserlookattheprocessofSEVanderLeeuwRTorrence(eds),volWhoneedsthePastIndigenousvaluesandarchaeologyRLayton(ed),voliiSTATEANDSOCIETYTheemergenceanddevelopmentofsocialhierarchyandpoliticalcentralizationEditedbyJohnGledhill,BarbaraBenderDepartmentofAnthropology,UniversityCollegeLondonandMogensTrolleLarsenCentreforResearchintheHumanities,CopenhagenUniversityLondonandNewYorkFirstpublishedbyUnwinHymanLtdThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcouk”PaperbackeditionpublishedbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEESimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeWestthStreet,NewYork,NYSelectionandeditorialmatter©,JGledhill,BBender,MTLarsenIndividualchapters©thecontributorsAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookhasbeenrequestedISBNXMasterebookISBNISBN(PrintEdition)ListofcontributorsJohnBaines,OrientalInstitute,Oxford,UKJI(Hans)Bakker,DepartmentofSociologyandAnthropology,UniversityofGuelph,Ontario,CanadaThomasBargatzky,InstitutfürVölkerkundeundAfrikanistik,UniversitätMunchen,FDRBBender,DepartmentofAnthropology,UniversityCollegeLondon,UKBrigitteBoehmdeLameiras,CentrodeEstudiosAnthropologicosdelColegiodeMichoacán,Zamora,MexicoLaurenceMarshallCarruci,DepartmentofSociology,MontanaStateUniversity,USAPJDarling,DepartmentofHistory,BayeroUniversity,Kano,NigeriaStephenTDriscoll,DepartmentofArchaeology,GlasgowUniversity,UKJohnWFox,DepartmentofSociologyandAnthropology,SocialWorkandGerontology,BaylorUniversity,Texas,USAChristineWardGailey,DepartmentofSociologyandAnthropology,NortheasternUniversity,Boston,USAJohnGledhill,DepartmentofAnthropology,UniversityCollegeLondon,UKHumbertoGonzálezChávez,InstitutodeInvestigacionessobreelTrabajo,UniversidaddeGuanajuato,MexicoMichaelHarbsmeier,CentreforResearchintheHumanities,CopenhagenUniversity,DenmarkCGHarfield,DepartmentofArchaeology,UniversityofSouthampton,UKABernardKnapp,DepartmentofArchaeology,UniversityofSydney,NSW,AustraliaMogensTrolleLarsen,CentreforResearchintheHumanities,CopenhagenUniversity,DenmarkMargaretRNieke,ArchaeologicalUnitforNorthEastEngland,UniversityofNewcastleuponTyne,UKThomasCPatterson,DepartmentofAnthropology,TempleUniversity,Philadelphia,Pennsylvania,USATaliaShay,OverseasProgramme,HaifaUniversity,IsraelMatthewSpriggs,DepartmentofAnthropology,UniversityofHawaiiatManoa,Honolulu,Hawaii,USAviForewordThisbookisoneofamajorseriesofmorethanvolumesresultingfromtheWorldArchaeologicalCongressheldinSouthampton,England,inSeptemberTheseriesreflectstheenormousacademicimpactoftheCongress,whichwasattendedbypeoplefrommorethancountries,andattractedmanyadditionalcontributorsfromotherswhowereunabletoattendinpersonTheOneWorldArchaeologyseriesistheresultofadeterminedandhighlysuccessfulattempttobringtogetherforthefirsttimenotonlyarchaeologistsandanthropologistsfrommanydifferentpartsoftheworld,aswellasacademicsfromahostofcontingentdisciplines,butalsononacademicsfromawiderangeofculturalbackgrounds,whocouldlendtheirownexpertisetothediscussionsattheCongressManyofthelatter,accustomedtobeingtreatedasthe‘subjects’ofarchaeologicalandanthropologicalobservation,hadneverbeforebeenadmittedasequalparticipantsinthediscussionoftheirown(cultural)pastorpresent,withtheirownparticularlyvitalcontributiontomaketowardsglobal,crossculturalunderstandingTheCongressthereforereallyaddressedworldarchaeologyinitswidestsenseCentraltoaworldarchaeologicalapproachistheinvestigationnotonlyofhowpeoplelivedinthepastbutalsoofhow,andwhy,changestookplaceresultingintheformsofsocietyandculturewhichexisttodayContrarytopopularbelief,andthearchaeologyofsomeyearsago,worldarchaeologyismuchmorethanthemererecordingofspecifichistoricalevents,embracingasitdoesthestudyofsocialandculturalchangeinitsentiretyAllthebooksintheOneWorldArchaeologyseriesaretheresultofmeetingsanddiscussionswhichtookplacewithinacontextthatencouragedafeelingofselfcriticismandhumilityintheparticipantsabouttheirowninterpretationsandconceptsofthepastManyparticipantsexperiencedanewselfawareness,aswellasadegreeofaweaboutpastandpresenthumanendeavours,allofwhichisreflectedinthisuniqueseriesTheCongresswasorganizedaroundmajorthemesSeveralofthesethemeswerebasedonthediscussionoffulllengthpaperswhichhadbeencirculatedsomemonthspreviouslytoallwhohadindicatedaspecialinterestinthemOthersessions,includingsomedealingwithareasofspecializationdefinedbyperiodorgeographicalregion,werebasedonoraladdresses,oracombinationofprecirculatedpapersandlecturesInallcases,theentiresessionswererecordedoncassette,andallcontributorswerepresentedwiththerecordingsofthediscussionoftheirpapersAmajorpartofthethinkingbehindtheCongresswasthatameetingofmanyhundredsofparticipantsthatdidnotleavebehindapublishedrecordofitsacademicdiscussionswouldbelittlemorethananexerciseintourismThus,fromtheverybeginningofthedetailedplanningfortheWorldArchaeologicalCongressin,theintentionwastoproducepostCongressbookscontainingaselectiononlyofthecontributions,revisedinthelightofdiscussionsduringthesessionsthemselvesaswellasduringsubsequentconsultationswiththeacademiceditorsappointedforeachbookFromtheoutset,contributorstotheCongressknewthatiftheirpaperswereselectedforpublication,theywouldhaveonlyafewmonthstorevisethemaccordingtoeditorialspecifications,andthattheywouldbecomeauthorsinanimportantacademicvolumescheduledtoappearwithinareasonableperiodfollowingtheSouthamptonmeetingThepublicationoftheseriesreflectstheintenseplanningwhichtookplacebeforetheCongressNotonlywereallcontributorsawareofthesubsequentproductionschedules,butalsosessionorganizerswerealreadyplanningtheirbooksbeforeandduringtheCongressTheeditorswereentitledtocommissionadditionalchaptersfortheirbookswhentheyfeltthatthereweresignificantgapsinthecoverageofatopicduringtheCongress,orwherediscussionattheCongressindicatedaneedforadditionalcontributionsOneofthemainthemesoftheCongresswasdevotedto‘ComparativeStudiesintheDevelopmentofComplexSocieties’Thethemewasbasedondiscussionofprecirculatedfulllengthpapers,coveringthreeandahalfdays,andwasundertheoverallcontrolofDrTimChampion,SeniorLecturerintheDepartmentofArchaeology,UniversityofSouthampton,andDrMichaelRowlands,ReaderintheDepartmentofAnthropology,UniversityCollegeLondonThechoiceofthistopicforamajorthemearosefromadesiretoexplore,fromaworldwideandinterdisciplinaryperspective,theassumptionsthatareembodiedinthecommonusebyarchaeologistsandothersofconceptssuchas‘complexsocieties’,asupposedstageinsocialdevelopmentoftenalsoassumedtobemarkedbytheinventionandwideusageofliteracyThisawarenessofthedangersofassumingthatarchaeologicalterminologyisapreciselanguageconsistingoftermswhichhaveasingleacceptedmeaning,withwellauthenticatedqualitativeconnotations,derived,atleastinpart,fromlessonslearntfromthelastmajorinterdisciplinaryconsiderationofurbanizationin(Uckoetal)AtthattimediscussionledStuartPiggott(inUckoetal,pp–)tostressthatwemustavoidsemanticconfusionwhenweusecertainwordsandnamesforthingsWeusetheword‘town’or‘city’,andintheclassicalworldthiswaspolisorurbs,andwhatwehavetoconsideriswhetherwearefallingintothatwellknowntrapofconfusingnameswithactualthings,andwhileusingthenameembodyingmodernconcepts,weforgetthattheseconceptswerenotthoseofliterateantiquity,andthereforebyreasonableassumptionnotofnonliterateantiquityConsiderforinstancethatLatinuseofurbsinrelationtotheCelticpopulationofbarbarianEuropeWhatdidaLatinwriterreallymeanwhenhecalledahillfort,urbs,asindeedonoccasiontheydidviiiItdidnotmeanitwaslikeRome,althoughheusedthesamewordforthecity,theImperialCity,ashewouldforthisbarbarianearthworkenclosure,thefunctionsofwhich,orthefunctionsofanyhillfort,weveryimperfectlyunderstandLetusavoidtheancientbeliefinthemagicpowerofwords,whichcanmakeusturnnamesintorealthings,andsofulfilaprimitiveconvictionthatwhenyouhavegivenathinganameyouhaveacommandoverit,likeknowingsomeone’ssecretnameItispossibletopersuadeoneselfthathavingnamedaconcept,therefore,itactuallyexistsandcanbedealtwithaccordinglyTheoverallthemethereforetookasitsstartingpointtheassumptionthattheconceptofsocialcomplexityneededtobereexaminedandprobablyrefinedAnarrowparochialapproachtothepast,whichsimplyassumesaEuropeandevelopmenttourbanizationandliteracyasthevalidcriterionfordefiningacomplexsociety,totallyignoresthecomplexityofnonliteratecivilizationsandculturessuchastheIncaofPeruorthatofBenininNigeriaHowever,aworldarchaeologicalapproachtoaconceptsuchasthatofsocialcomplexityfocusesattentiononpreciselythosefeatureswhicharchaeologistsalltoooftentakeforgrantedDiscussionsduringtheCongressweregroupedaroundfivemainheadingsandhaveledtothepublicationofthreebooksThefirstsubtheme,organizedbyBarbaraBender,DepartmentofAnthropology,UniversityCollegeLondon,wasconcernedwith‘TheDevelopmentofComplexity’thesecond,underthecontrolofDanielMiller,alsooftheDepartmentofAnthropology,UniversityCollegeLondon,andChristopherTilleyofTrinityHall,Cambridge,wason‘ModesofDomination’,andthethird,organizedbyMichaelRowlands,wason‘EuropeanExpansionandtheArchaeologyofCapitalism’Contributionsfromthesethreesubthemes,whichwerediscussedontwodifferentdays,formthebookDominationandresistance,editedbyDMiller,MRowlands,andCTilleyThefourthsubthemeon‘CentrePeripheryRelations’whichwasdiscussedforonedayiseditedbyitsorganizer,TimothyChampion,underthetitleCentreandperipheryMorethanadaywasdevotedtothefifthsubtheme,‘StateandSocietytheEmergence,DevelopmentandTransformationofFormsofSocialHierarchy,ClassRelationsandPoliticalCentralization’whichhasbeeneditedbyitsorganizerstocreatethisvolumeTheapproachadoptedwithintheoverallthemeof‘ComparativeStudiesintheDevelopmentofComplexSocieties’wasbasedonaconsiderationoftheprocessesinvolvedinthecreationandestablishmentoftheelementsofsocialorganization,andsocialactivities,whicharchaeologistsandotherscommonlyclaimtobethevisibleendresultsoftheactivitiesofcomplexsocietiesInacomparativecontext,attentionisfocusedonthereasonswhy,andmechanismsbywhich,thenonliteratecivilizationsof,forexample,theIncaofPeru,builtandmaintainedsomekmof‘roads’andwhattheirfunctionwaswithinthesociopoliticalstatesystemofsome–millionpeopleswithdiversebackgroundsandidentitieswholivedinenvironmentalconditionsasdifferentasthedesertandtheHighAndesWithinthenonliterateIncastate,politicalixcontrolofheterogeneoussocialgroupswasachievedbyanhierarchicalsystemofregionaladministrativecentreswithaninevitablecomplexityofrelationsexistingbetweencentresandthehinterlandGiventhiscomplexity,whichexistsintheabsenceofliteracyintheIncastate,thetraditionalfocusofthestudyofcomplexsocietiesonthebetterknownliterate‘civilizations’oftheOldWorldappearsoddandmisguidedIfthetraditionalassumptionsabout‘complexity’canthusbediscarded,sotoocantheequallytraditional,andvirtuallyexclusive,emphasisondevelopmentandevolutionTheconventionalconcernwithdeterminingwhereandwhen‘state’and‘class’originatedgiveswaytomorefundamentalquestionsabouttheprocessesoflongtermsocialchangeandtheverycomplexrelationshipswhichexistbetweensocialandculturalidentityandperception,order,anddevelopmentKeyconceptsinsuchanapproach,essentialtoourunderstandingoftherelevantsocialprocesses,arethoseof‘authority’and‘power’Contributorstothethemeon‘ComparativeStudiesoftheDevelopmentofComplexSocieties’examinedbothconceptsinanattempttodisentangleanyEurocentricassumptionsembeddedinthetermsthemselves,andalsotodescribepreciselytheformswhichpowerandauthoritymaytakeinothersocieties,bothtodayandinthepastInherentinallofthecontributionsistheassumptionthatsocialrelationshaveneverbeenanymoreequalandsymmetricalinsocietiesinthepastthantheyareincontemporarysocietiesManyoftheperspectivesadoptedinthesebooksexplorethedetailsoftheseasymmetricalrelations,consideringnotonlythevarietyofformsthathavebeenadoptedoverdifferenttimesandindifferentpartsoftheworld,butalsothedifferentmechanismswhichhavebeenemployedtobolsterandreinforcesuchinequalitiesWithsuchinequalitiesinthedistributionofpower,andinaccesstoknowledge,comeequallyvariedformsofcontroloversymbolism,ritual,religiouscults,andevenliteracyAparticularfocusofinterestthereforeliesinthedetailedexplorationofthedifferentformsandfunctionsofliteracyindifferentsocieties,anexplorationthatclearlyrevealsthatthesewereinnowayuniformandthatliteracy,initself,cannotbeusedasaclearmarkerofsocialqualitativedevelopment(seeWhoneedsthepast,editedbyRLayton)tobeabletoreadandwriteisnot,initself,tobeamemberofaqualitativelycomplexsocietyAnotherformofinherentasymmetryinhumansocietiesderivesfromcentreperipheryrelationsThepresenceattheCongressofsomanyparticipantsfromthesocalledThirdandFourthWorldsmadeitpossibletoexamineindetailtheserelationsinaverywidevarietyofforms,inparticularthosefrequentlyglossedoverinthearchaeologicalliteratureunderrubricssuchas‘civilized’‘barbarian’,‘urban’‘nonurban’,sedentarynomadic,andagriculturalistpastoralistInfocusingonthenatureofthevaryingrelationshipsthatcandevelopbetweencentreandperiphery,oneisledinevitablytodetailedquestionsaboutimperialism,colonialism,andacculturationInparttheseformsofrelationshipsareamatterofideology(of‘empire’,of‘nation’andofethnicgroups),butitisthemechanismsofexpansion,incorporationandmaintenancewhichareclearlyvitaltoourunderstandingofthepastandpresent,andwhichareexaminedbyseveralcontributorsxThemainthemesinStateandsocietyhavebeendiscussedindetailinitseditorialintroductionMyaiminwhatfollowsistoexamineafewofthepointswhichhavestruckmeasbeingofparticularnoteorfascinationInthisbookJohnGledhill,BarbaraBender,MogensLarsen,andtheircontributorssetouttoexaminethenatureofsocialhierarchiesandpoliticalcentralizationinaspeciallychosensetofexamplesTheirmaterialembraceswhatwouldtraditionallybecalled‘ranked’societies(orchiefdoms),ancient‘civilizations’,EuropeancolonialstatesandamodernnationalstatefromtheThirdWorldInallthesecasesitisclearthatwithoutthesophisticatedunderstandinganduseofterminologyandconceptsderivingprimarilyfromsociologyandsocialanthropologydealingnotonlywithkinshipandpoliticsbutwithsocialstratificationingeneralarchaeologistsmustinevitablybeguiltyofthemostgrossoversimplificationsintheirtreatmentofother(past)societiesItisnotsurprisingthatStateandsocietyshouldbeintimatelylinkedinitssubjectmatterandtreatmenttothetwootherbooksintheseriesderivingfromthesamethematicpartoftheCongress,DominationandresistanceandCentreandperipheryIndeedseveralofthediscussionsinStateandsocietycentreonthewaythatthestabilityofthestatedependsonthedominationoftheperipheryAparticularlyfascinatingarchaeologicalexampleoftheneedforsophisticationintheanalysisofcentreperipheryrelationsconcernsthedevelopmentoftheScottishstateandtherelativeimportanceoftheVikings,aninvestigationofsocialprocessechoingmuchofthediscussionoftheearlierPictishstateandtherôle(orlackofrôle)ofRomaninterventioninitMoresurprisingperhapsisthelinkagebetweenStateandsocietyandArchaeologicalapproachestoculturalidentity,editedbyStephenShennan,forseveral

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