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首页 2008年12月六级真题试卷及参考答案(A卷) 完美word版本

2008年12月六级真题试卷及参考答案(A卷) 完美word版本

2008年12月六级真题试卷及参考答案(A卷) 完美word版本

bobozorro
2009-06-05 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《2008年12月六级真题试卷及参考答案(A卷) 完美word版本doc》,可适用于考试题库领域

本资料由爱思英语(wwwencom)收集整理转载请注明出自http:wwwencom爱思英语(原中国英语学习网)是国内最大的英语资讯、英语学习资源中心。免费提供英语学习工具交流英语学习方法共享英语学习教材为英语爱好者提供最新最全的英语资讯与学习资料。PartIwriting(minutes)注意:此部分试题在答题卡上PartIIReadingComprehension(Skimmingandscanning)(minutes)  SupersizesurpriseAskanyonewhythereisanobesityepidemicandtheywilltellyouthatit’saldowntoeatingtoomuchandburningtoofewcaloriesThatexplanationappealstocommonsenseandhasdominatedeffortstogettotherootoftheobesityepidemicandreverseityetobesityresearchersareincreasinglydissatisfiedwithitManynowbelievethatsomethingelsemusthavechangedinourenvironmenttoprecipitate(促成)suchdramaticrisesinobesityoverthepastyearsorsoNobodyissayingthatthe“bigtwo”–reducedphysicalactivityandincreasedavailabilityoffood–arenotimportantcontributorstotheepidemic,buttheycannotexplainitallEarlierthisyearareviewpaperbyobesityexpertssetoutthemostplausiblealternativeexplanationsfortheepidemicHeretheyareNotenoughsleepItiswidelybelievedthatsleepisforthebrain,notthebodyCouldashortageofshuteyealsobehelpingtomakeusfatSeverallargescalestudiessuggesttheremaybealinkPeoplewhosleeplessthanhoursanighttendtohaveahigherbodymassindexthanpeoplewhosleepmore,accordingtodatagatheredbytheUSNationalHealthandNutritionExaminationSurveySimilarly,theUSNurses’HealthStudy,whichtracked,womenforyears,foundthatthosewhosleptanaverageofhoursanightgainedmoreweightduringthestudyperiodthanwomenwhoslepthours,whointurngainedmorethanwhosewhosleptIt’swellknownthatobesityimpairssleep,soperhapspeoplegetfatfirstandsleeplessafterwardsButthenurses’studysuggeststhatitcanworkintheotherdirectiontoo:sleeplossmayprecipitateweightgainAlthoughgettingfiguresisdifficult,itappearsthatwereallyaresleepinglessInpeopleintheUSsleptanaverageofhourspernightApollbytheNationalSleepFoundationsuggeststhattheaveragehasfallentounderhours,andthedeclineismirroredbytheincreaseinobesityClimatecontrolWehumans,likeallwarmbloodedanimals,cankeepourcorebodytemperaturesprettymuchconstantregardlessofwhat’sgoingonintheworldaroundusWedothisbyalteringourmetabolic(新陈代新的)rate,shiveringorsweatingKeepingwarmandstayingcooltakeenergyunlessweareinthe“thermoneutralzone”,whichisincreasinglywherewechoosetoliveandworkThereisnodenyingthatambienttemperatures(环境温度)havechangedinthepastfewdecadesBetweenand,theaverageBritishhomewarmedfromachillyCtoCIntheUS,thechangeshavebeenattheotherendofthethermometerastheproportionofhomeswithairconditioningsrosefromtobetweenandInthesouthernstates–whereobesityratestendtobehighest–thenumberofhouseswithairconditioninghasshotuptofrominCouldairconditioninginsummerandheatinginwinterreallymakeadifferencetoourweightSadlythereissomeevidencethatitdoesatleastwithregardtoheatingStudiesshowthatincomfortabletemperaturesweuselessenergyLesssmokingBadnews:smokersreallydotendtobethinnerthantherestofus,andquittingreallydoespackonthepounds,thoughnooneisnsurewhyItprobablyhassomethingtodowiththefactthatnicotineisanappetitesuppressantandappearstoupyourmetabolicrateKatherineFlegalandcolleagresattheUSNationalCenterforHealthStatisticsinHyattsville,Maryland,havecalculatedthatpeoplekickingthehabithavebeenrespousibleforasmallbutsignificantportionoftheUSepidemicoffatnessFromdatacollectedaroudbytheUSNationalHealthandNutritionExaminationSurvey,theyworkedoutthatpeoplewhohadquitinthepreviousdecadeweremuchmorelikelytobeoverweightthansmokersandpeoplewhohadneversmokedAmongmen,forexample,nearlyhalfofquitterswereoverweightcomparedwithofnonsmokersandonlyofsmokersGeneticeffectsYourschancesofbecomingfatmaybeset,atleastinpart,beforeyouwereevenbornchildrenofboesemothersaremuchmorelikelytobecomeobestthemselveslaterinlifeOffspringofmicefedahighfatdietduringpregnancyaremuchmorelikelytobecomefatthantheoffspringofidenticalmicefedanormaldietIntriguingly,theeffectpersistsfortwoorthreegenerationsGrandchildrenofmicefedahighfatdietgrowupfateveniftheirownmotherisfednormallysoyoufatemayhavebeensealedevenbeforeyouwereconceivedAlittleolder…SomegroupsofpeoplejusthappentobefatterthanotherssurveyscarriedoutbytheUSnationalcenterforhealthstatistiesfoundthatadultsagedtowerearoundthreetimesaslikelytobeobeseasyoungerpeoplenonwhitefemalesalsotendtofallatthefatterendofthespectreum:Mexicanamericanwomenaremorelikelythanwhitewomentobeobsess,andblackwomenhavetwicetheriskIntheUS,thesegroupsaccountforanincreasingpercentageofthepopulationbetweenandtheUSpopulationagedtogrewbytheproportionofHispanicamericansalsogrew,fromundertoofthepopulation,whiletheproportionofblackAmericansincreasedfromtothesechangesmayaccountinpartfortheincreasedprevalenceofobesitymaturemumsMothersaroundtheworldaregettingolderintheUK,themeanageforavingafristchildis,comparedwithinmeanageatfristbirthintheUShasalsoincreased,risingfromintoinThiswouldbeneitherherenorthereifitwere’tfortheobservationthathavinganoldermotherseemstobeanindependentriskfactorforobesityResultsfromtheUSnationalheart,lungandbloodinstitute’sstudyfoundthattheoddsofachildbeingobeseincreaseforeveryfiveextrayearsoftheirmother’sage,thoughwhythisshouldbesoisnotentirelyclearMichaelSymondsattheuniversityofNottingham,UK,foundthatfirstbronchildrenhavemorefatthanyoungeronesAsfamilysizedecreases,firstbronsaccountforagreathershareofthepopulationIn,britishwomengavebirthtoanaverageofchildrenbythatfigurehadfallentointheUSin,ofwomanintheirshadonlyonechileinitwasthiscombinationofoldermothersandmoresinglechildrencouldbecontributingtotheobesityepidemicLikemarryinglikeJustaspeoplepairoffaccordingtolooks,sotheydoforsizeLeanpeoplearemorelikelytomarryleanandfatmorelikelytomarryfatOnitsown,likemarryinglikecannotaccountforanyincreaseinobesityButcombinedwithothersparticularlythefactthatobesityispartlygenetic,andthatheavierpeoplehavemorechildrenitamplifiestheincreaseformothercausesA)effectsofobesityonpeople’shealthB)thelinkbetweenlifestyleanobesityC)NewexplanationsfortheobesityepidemicD)possiblewaystocombattheobesityepidemicA)gainedtheleastweightB)wereinclinedtoeatlessC)foundtheirvigorenhancedD)werelesssusceptibletoillnessA)itmakesussleepyB)itcausessleeploss  C)itincreasesourappetite  D)itresultsfromlackofsleep  A)itmakesusstayindoorsmore  B)itacceleratesourmetabolicrate  C)itmakesusfeelmoreenergetic  D)itcontributestoourweightgain  A)itthreatenstheirhealth  B)itheightenstheirspirits  C)itsuppressestheirappetite  D)itslowsdowntheirmetabolism  A)heavysmokers  B)passivesmokers  C)thosewhoneversmoke  D)thosewhoquitsmoking  A)thegrowingnumberofsmokersamongyoungpeople  B)therisingproportionofminoritiesinitspopulation  C)theincreasingconsumptionofhighcaloriefoods  D)theimprovinglivingstandardsofthepoorpeople  accordingtotheUSNationalHeart,LungandBloodInstitute,thereasonwhyoldermothers’childrentendtobeobeseremainsnotentirelyclear  AccordingtoMichaelSymonds,onefactorcontributingtotheobesityepidemicisdecreaseoffamilysize  whentwoheavypeoplegetmarried,chancesoftheirchildrengettingfatincrease,becauseobesityispartygenetiz  PartIII ListeningComprehension  SectionA  A)Heisquiteeasytorecognize  B)heisanoutstandingspeaker  C)helookslikeamoviestar  D)helooksyoungforhisage  A)consultherdancingteacher  B)takeamoreinterestingclass  C)continueherdancingclass  D)improveherdancingskills  A)themandidnotbelievewhatthewomansaid  B)themanaccompaniedthewomantothehospital  C)thewomanmaybesufferingfromrepetitivestraininjury  D)thewomanmaynotfollowedthedoctor’sinstructions  A)theyarenotinstyleanymore  B)theyhavecosthimfartoomuch  C)theynolongersuithiseyesight  D)theyshouldbecleanedregularly  A)hespilledhisdrinkontothefloor  B)hehasjustfinishedwipingthefloor  C)hewascaughtinashoweronhiswayhome  D)herushedoutofthebathtoanswerthephone  A)fixingsomefurniture  B)repairingthetoytrain  C)readingtheinstructions  D)assemblingthebookcase  A)urgeJennytospendmoretimeonstudy  B)helpJennytoprepareforthecomingexams  C)acttowardsJennyinamoresensibleway  D)sendJennytoavolleyballtrainingcenter  A)Thebuildingofthedamneedsalargebudget  B)theproposedsiteisneartheresidentialarea  C)thelocalpeoplefelinsecureaboutthedam  D)thedamposesathreattothelocalenvironment  Questiontoarebasedontheconversationyouhavejustheard  AItsawtheendofitsboomingyearsworldwide  BItsproductionandsalesreachedrecordlevels  CItbecamepopularinsomeforeigncountries  DItsdomesticmarketstartedtoshrinkrapidly  ATheycostlessCTheywereinfashion  BTheytastedbetterDTheywerewidelyadvertised  AItissuretofluctuateCItwillremainbasicallystable  BItisboundtoreviveDItwillseenomoremonopoly  AOrganisingprotestsCActingasitsspokesman  BRecruitingmembersDSavingendangeredanimals  AAntianimalabusedemonstrationsBAntinuclearcampaigns  CSurveyingtheAtlanticOceanfloorDRemovingindustrialwaste  AByharassingthemCBytakinglegalaction  BByappealingtothepublicDByresortingtoforce  ADoubtfulCIndifferent  BReservedDSupportive  A,TheairbecomesstillCThecloudsblockthesun  BTheairpressureislowDTheskyappearsbrighter  AAncientpeoplewerebetteratforetellingtheweather  BSailors’sayingabouttheweatherareunreliable  CPeopleknewlongagohowtopredicttheweather  DItwaseasitertoforecasttheweatherintheolddays  AWeatherforecastisgettingmoreaccuratetoday  BPeoplecanpredicttheweatherbytheirsenses  CWhoaretherealespertsinweatherforecast  DWeatherchangesaffectpeople’sliferemarkably  ATheyoftenfeelinsecureabouttheirjobs  BTheyareunabletodecidewhattodofirst  CTheyarefeelburdenedwithnumeroustaskseveryday  Dtheyfeelburdenedwithnumeroustaskseveryday  AAnalyzethemrationallyCTurntoothersforhelp  BDrawadetailedtodolistDHandlethemonebyone  ATheyhaveaccomplishedlittleCTheyhaveworkedoutawaytorelax  BTheyfeelutterlyexhaustedDTheynolongerfeelanysenseofguilt  ATheirperformancemayimprove  BTheirimmunesystemmaybereinforced  CTheirbloodpressuremayriseallofasudden  DTheirphysicaldevelopmentmaybeenhanced  AImprovedmentalfunctioningCSpeedingupofbloodcirculation  BIncreasedsusceptibilitytodiseaseDReductionofstressrelatedhormones  APretendtobeinbettershapeCTurnmoreoftentofriendsforhelp  BHavemorephysicalexerciseDPaymoreattentiontobodilysensations  ADifferentapproachestocopingwithstress  BVariouscausesforserioushealthproblems  CTherelationshipbetweenstressandillness  DNewfindingofmedicalresearchonstress  PartIVReadingComprehension(ReadinginDepth)(minutes)  SectionA  Questionstoarebasedonthefollowingpassage  Oneofthemajorproducersofathleticfootwear,withsalesofover$billion,isacompanycalledNike,withcorporateheadquartersinBeaverton,OregonForbesmagazineidentifiedNike’spresident,PhilipKnight,astherdrichestmanintheworldinButNikehasnotalwaysbeenalargemultimilliondollarorganizationInfact,Knightstartedthecompanybysellingshoesfromthebackofhiscarattrackmeets  InthelatesPhilipKnightwasamiddledistancerunnerontheUniversityofOregontrackteam,coachedbyBillBowermanOneofthetoptrackcoachesintheUS,BowermanwasalsoknownforexperimentingwiththedesignofrunningshoesinanattempttomakethemlighterandmoreshockabsorbentAfterattendingOregon,KnightmovedontodograduateworkatStanfordUniversityhisMBAthesiswasonmarketingathleticshoesOncehereceivedhisdegree,KnighttraveledtoJapantocontacttheOnitsukaTigerCompany,amanufacturerofathleticshoesKnightconvincedthecompany’sofficialsofthepotentialforitsproductintheUSInhereceivedhisfirstshipmentofTigershoes,pairsintotal  In,KnightandBowermancontributed$eachtofromBlueRibbonSports,thepredecessorofNikeInthefirstfewyears,KnightdistributedshoesoutofhiscaratlocaltrackmeetsThefirstemployeeshiredbyKnightwereformercollegeathletesThecompanydidnothavethemoneytohire“experts”,andtherewasnoestablishedathleticfootwearindustryinNorthAmericafromwhichtorecruitthoseknowledgeableinthefieldInitsearlyyearstheorganizationoperatedinanunconventionalmannerthatcharacterizeditsinnovativeandentrepreneurialapproachtotheindustryCommunicationwasinformalpeoplediscussedideasandissuesinthehallways,onarun,oroverabeerTherewaslittletaskdifferentiationTherewerenojobdescriptions,rigidreportingsystems,ordetailedrulesandregulationsTheteamspiritandsharedvaluesoftheathletesonBowerman’steamscarriedoverandprovidedthebasisforthecollegialstyleofmanagementthatcharacterizedtheearlyyearsofNikes  Whileservingasatrackcoach,Bowermantriedtodesignrunningshoesthatwerelighterandmoreshockabsorbent  DuringhisvisittoJapan,KnightconvincedtheofficialsoftheOnitsukaTigerCompanythatitsproductwouldhavepotentialsintheUS  BlueRibbonSportsasunabletohireexpertsduetotheabsenceofestablishedathleticfootwearinNorthAmerica  IntheearlyyearsofNike,communicationwithinthecompanywasusuallycarriedoutinformally  WhatqualitiesofBowerman’steamsformedthebasisofNike’searlymanagementstyle  Theteamspiritandsharedvalvesoftheathlets  Passageone  questionstoarebasedonthefollowingpassage  sustainabledevelopmentisappliedtojustabouteberythingfromenergytocleanwaterandeconomicgrowth,andasaresultithasbecomedifficulttoquestioneitherthebasicassumptionsbehinditorthewaytheconceptisputtousethisisespeciallytrueinagriculture,wheresustainabledevelopmentisoftentakenasthesolemeasureofprogresswithoutaproperappreciationofhistrorcalandculturalperspectives  Tostartwith,itisimportanttorememberthatthenatureofagriculturehaschangedmarkedlythroughouthistory,andwillcontinuetodosomedievalagricultureinnorthernEuropefed,clothedandsheleredapredominantlyruralsocietywithamuchlowerpopulationdensitythanitistodayithadminimaleffectonbiodiversity,andanypollutionitcausedwastypicallylocalizedintermsofenergyuseandthenutrientscapturedintheproductitwasrelativelyinefficient  Contrastthiswithfarmingsincethestartoftheindustrialrevolutioncompetionfromoverseasledfarmerstospecializeandincreaseyieldsthroughoutthisperiodfoodbecamecheaper,safeandmorereliablehowever,thesechangeshavealsoledtohabitatlossandtodiminishingbiodiversity  What’smore,demandforanimalproductsindevelopingcountricsisgrowingsofastthatmeetingitwillrequireanextramilliontonsofgrainayearbyyetthegrowthofcitiesandindustryisreducingtheamountofwateravailableforagricultureinmanyregions  Allthismeansthatagricultureinthestcenturywillhavetobeverydifferentfromhowitwasintheththiswillrequireradicalthinkingforexample,weneedtomoveawayfromtheideathattraditionalpracticesareinevitablymoresustainablethannewoneswealsoneedtoabandonthenotionthatagriculturecanbe“zeroimpact”Thekeywillbetoabandontherathersimpleandstaticmeasuresofsustainability,whichcentreontheneedtomaintainproductionwithoutincreasingdamageinsteadweneedamoredynamicinterpretation,onethatlooksattheprosandconsofallthevariouswaylandisusedtherearemanydifferentwaystomeasureagriculturalperformancebesidesfoodyield:energyuse,environmentalcosts,waterpurity,carbonfootprintandbiodiversityItisclear,forexample,thatthecarbonoftransportingtomatoesfromspaintotheUK  IslessthanthatofproducingthemintheUKwithadditionalheatingandlightingbutwedonotknowwhetherlowercarbonfootprintswillalwaysbebetterforbiodiversity  Whatiscrucialisrecognizingthatsustainableagricultureisnotjustaboutsustainablefoodproduction  Howdopeopleofenmeasureprogressinagriculture  A)ByitsproductivityC)Byitsimpactontheenvironmet  B)ByitssustainabilityD)Byitscontributiontoeconomicgrowth  Specialisationandtheefforttoinceaseyieldshaveesultedin  A)LocalisedpollutionC)competitionfromoverseas  B)theshrinkingoffarmlandD)thedecreaseofbiodiversity  Whatdoestheauthorthinkoftraditionalfarmingpractices  A)Theyhaveremainedthesameoverthecenturies  B)Theyhavenotkeptpacewithpopulationgrowth  C)Theyarenotnecessarilysustainable  D)Theyareenvironmentallyfriendly  Whatwillagriculturebelikeinthestcentury  A)Itwillgothroughradicalchanges  B)Itwillsupplymoreanimalproducts  C)Itwillabandontraditionalfarmingpractices  D)Itwillcausezerodamagetotheenvironment  Whatistheauthor’spurposeinwritingthispassage  A)Toremindpeopleoftheneedofsustainabledevelopment  B)Tosuggestwaysofensuringsustainablefoodproduction  C)Toadancenewcriteriaformeasuringfarmingprogress  D)Tourgepeopletorethinkwhatsustainableagricultureis  PassageTwo  Questionstoarebasedonthefollowingpassage  Thepercentageofimmigrants(includingthoseunlawfullypresent)intheUnitedstateshasbeencreepingupwardforyearsAtpercent,itisnowhigherthanatanypointincethemids  WearenotabouttogobacktothedayswhenCongressopenlyworriedaboutinferiorracespolluingAmerica’sbloodstreamButonceagainwearewonderingwhetherwehavetoo

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2008年12月六级真题试卷及参考答案(A卷) 完美word版本

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