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首页 Three Lectures on English Literature teaching, w…

Three Lectures on English Literature teaching, wordsworth, and browning.pdf

Three Lectures on English Liter…

coco
2009-06-03 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Three Lectures on English Literature teaching, wordsworth, and browningpdf》,可适用于外语资料领域

BERKEIEYLIBRARYUNIVERSITYOfICALIFORNIAJ*^~^STHREELECTURESENGLISHLITERATURETHREELECTURESONbENGLISHLITERATUREBYWILLIAMSM'CORMICK,MALECTURERONENGLISHLANGUAGEANDLITERATUREINQUEENMARGARETCOLLEGE,GLASGOWALEXANDERGARDNERlUufclt'aijertojerfajegtptf)etueenPAISLEYANDPATERNOSTERROW,LONDONPREFACETHEfollowingLecturesformedpartofaSerieson"TheEnglishPoetsoftheNineteenthCentury,"deliveredtothestudentsoftheclassesofEnglishLanguageandLiteratureinQueenMargaretCollegeandinGlasgowUniversityduringtheSession,ThefirstLectureismainly(pp)anattempttoanswersomeoftheargumentsinanarticlebyProfessorFreemanintheContemporaryReviewofOctober,ItwouldnothavebeenpublishedhadIseensincethenanyprotestagainsttheusurpationbyPhiloPREFACElogyofthestudyofLiteratureinourUniversitiesTheLecturesonWordsworthandBrowningarenotEssaysAddressedfirsttostudentswhomitwasmyprovincetointroducetothestudyofthesepoets,theyarestillintendedforacorrespondingclassofreadersIhaveselectedthepoetryofWordsworthandofBrowning,asparallelillustrationsoftheoperationoftheContemplativeandthePenetrativeImaginationofourcenturyThepointsofaffinityintheircontrastedgeniusaresuggestiveoftheinfluenceonartofmodernreflectionandanalysisThesehavegiventobothpoetsanappositeoriginalityofmethodandsubjectTheidealizingfacultyofeachis,asitwere,turnedinuponitselfTheartistisnotcontenttopresenthiscreation:hemustatthesametimeanalyzeandPREFACEpresenttheveryactofcreationAsubtleconsciousnesshasusurpedtheplaceofinstinct'Thelightthatneverwas,onseaorland,"had,thoughitselfunseen,glorifiedthevisionofChaucer,Spenser,andMiltonInWordsworthwefinditforthefirsttimethesubjectofthepoet'ssongOnLearandMacbethwelook,aswelookonNatureInreadingTheRingandtheBookwearebroughtintothelaboratory,andareconstrainedtoadmirethechemist'sskillInthepoetryofWordsworthandofBrowningtranscendentalismisfrequentlymingledwith,ratherthanfusedin,thebarestrealismEachpoetseemstotakeaselfconsciousprideinhispowerofdrawinggoldoutofthemostrefractoryoreTheircreationoffictionoutoffactsisinconstantdangerPREFACEofbeingartificialItisdifficulttorecallthetact,directness,andspontaneityofthepastInstyle,asinconception,wefindinbotharemarkableinequalityTheirinspirationisbrokenbylevelreachesofproseIneachpoetwerecognizethepreacherthephilosophernay,theoptimistofhisgenerationButtheessentialvalueaswellasoriginalityofbothpoetslieinthefact,thattheyhaverevealed'worldsunrealized'inwhichwe*moveabout'theone,"Deepinthegeneralheartofmen,"theother,hiddenbeneath"Thismultifariousmassofwordsanddeeds,"CONTENTSENGLISHLITERATUREANDUNIVERSITYEDUCATION,'""''''V'"V"THEPOETRYOFWILLIAMWORDSWORTH,THEPOETRYOFROBERTBROWNING,EnglishLiteratureandUniversityEducationRnglishLiteratureandUniversityEducationIHAVEoftenwondered,ifIweretoputthequestiontoeachmemberofmyclass,"WhydoyoucometostudyEnglishliterature"andifitwerefranklyanswered,whattheanswerswouldbeIwillpresupposeinall,tobeginwith,anhonestdesiretoknowmoreofEnglishliteraturetounderstandandappreciateourEnglishauthorsmorefullyanddeeplyinshort,togetcultureforitsownsake,forthesakeofitsinfluenceinthegrowthoftheirintelligenceandtasteBut,whileadmittingthisastheirmainreason,IthinkImayfurtherassume,inmany,adesireforresultsmoreimmediatelytangibleandobviousthanselfimioENGLISHLITERATUREANDprovementandperhapsthemosttangibleandobviousoftheseatthepresentdayare,thediplomawhichisgainedbythepassingofanexamination,andtheneedfulequipmentforaplaceincultivatedsocietyBoththeseaimsare,intheirplace,legitimateExaminationsareanecessarytestofourqualificationsforcertainpostsorprofessions:theworld,forpublicuseatleast,requiressuchatestItisinnocentandevenlaudabletodesireaknowledgeofEnglishliteratureasasocialornamentstillmore,touseitasameansofsocialrefinementandelevationToraiseconversationfromthegutterofgossipandleaditbrightlyandnaturallytosuchsubjectsasimplyatleastthatwehavebrainsandsouls,issurelyaworthyaiminthestudyofliterature:anaimwhichwomenarespeciallyfittedtoachieve,andwhich,withsuchaid,theysomedaymayachieveThesetwoviewsofliterature,then,UNIVERSITYEDUCATIONasasubjectofexaminationandasasocialornament,areunimpeachable,providedthatwedonotsurrenderourfirstpositionMontesquieuhassaid:"Thefirstmotivewhichoughttoimpelustostudyisthedesiretoaugmenttheexcellenceofournatureandtorenderanintelligentbeingyetmoreintelligent"Now,whatIwishespeciallytopointouttodayisthepossibilityofthisprimarymotive,trueculture,beingovershadowedbyeitherofthetwosecondarymotivesAndIwishalsotoconsiderthedisastrousresultsofsuchapossibilitypedantryanddilettantism:resultswhichneither"augmenttheexcellenceofournature"nor"renderanintelligentbeingyetmoreintelligent'butreducebothexcellenceandintelligencetoalowerlevelthanbeforeWewilllookfirstatthedangerofDilettantismTheexcellenceofEnglishliteratureasasubjectofstudyexposesittoENGLISHLITERATUREANDabuseOfallsubjectsitisthemostgenerallyinteresting:ittouchesmorenearlythanmoststudiesournatureasmenandwomenoureverydaylifeandcharacterThisisareason,andagoodreason,foritspopularitybutthereisacorollarytoit,whichisalsoareasonandnotsogoodaoneEnglishliterature,itisthought,isan"easy"subjectThereisnonecessityforaninvolvedtrainofreasoning,orforprolongedapplication,orforathoroughgroundinginitsrudiments,asthereis,say,inmathematicsItisgenerallyunderstoodtobeasubjectwhichcanbetakenatoddtimesandinsmalldosesInstudyingAlgebraorGeometry,wecannotbegininthemiddleofatextbookandreadasentenceortwohereandachapterortwothereforwecannotunderstandapartwithoutmasteringallthathasgonebeforeButinLiterature,onecanunderstandsomuch,cangetsomuchbenefitwithoutthisdrudgeryanddifficulty,withoutanyregularUNIVERSITYEDUCATIONorconsecutivetraining,andreallywithoutmuchintellectualstraintospeakofIneednotillustratethispointatlength,forweareallfamiliarwiththistendencytoplayatstudying,toavoidthedifficultiesofasubjectandchoosethosepartsofitwhichseemeasiestandmostentertainingAndifdilettantismisespeciallydangerousinsuchasubjectasEnglishliterature,itisallthemoredangerousinthespecialsubjectweareenteringuponthissession,theliteratureofourowncenturyChaucer'sNonnesPrestesTaleandSpenser'sEpithalamium,Hooker'sEcclesiasticalPolityandMilton'sComus,aresubjectswhichwenaturallyfindsomedifficultyinleadinguptoatadinnertableEvenDryden'sAbsalomandAchitophel,orPope'sRapeoftheLock,orGoldsmith'sBee,isalittleoutofdateButBrowningandTennysonevenShelley,Lamb,andWordswortharetopicswhichamoderateamountoftactmayusetoadvantageIENGLISHLITERATUREANDDonotmisunderstandmeIdonotsaythatthisreasonhasbroughtanadditiontomyclassatQueenMargaretCollegethissessionfarlessdoIsay,that,ifitdid,thereasonwouldbequitesoconsciouslyrealisedorcrudelystatedAllthatIwishtosuggestis,thatconsideringthetoneofdillettantismwhichpervadesoursocialatmosphereitwouldbestrangeifQueenMargaretCollegewerealoneuntouchedbyitandthatthebestwaytoescapeitisnottoflatterourselvesinourownsecurity,buttorealizeourdangerIwouldhavehesitatedtochoosetheliteratureofourowncenturyforthesubjectofthissession'scourseoflectures,hadnotmanyofyou,perhapsthemajority,attendedalreadythecoursesontheliteratureofprecedingcenturies,andsome,thetutorialclassinphilologyandthehistoryofourlanguageWecannotunderstandwhatis,withoutsomeunderstandingofwhatwasTotakeuptheliteratureofourowntimealoneis,asitUNIVERSITYEDUCATIONwere,totakeupthethirdvolumeofanovelThestoryofliterature,asofhistoryoroflanguage,isonestoryifwewouldreaditintelligently,wemustbeginatthebeginningOurolderliteraturehasonepreeminentfeatureasameansofeducation,inthedifficultywefindinreadingitWecannotreaditbysentencesNowordmaybetakenforgrantedinalooseway,aswetreatourmodernEnglishAllmustpassathoroughscrutiny,demandingcloseattentionanddiscriminationTheverydifferencesofform,meaningoridiom,revealtheirfullsignificanceItisinsuchminutestudyofsomeclassicwork,sayChaucer'sCanterburyTales,wherethewordshaveallthefreshnessofmorningflowerswiththedewstillonthem,thatwefirstbegintodiscoverwhatwordsreallyare,andwhatreadingreallymeansThestudyofthehistoryofwords,andofthemeaningswithwhichthemastersofourliteraturehavechargedthem,isscholarENGLISHLITERATUREANDshipanditisastudy,perhapsequaltothestudyofthosemasters'thoughts,certainlyinseparablefromitinanyUniversitycurriculumIndiscipliningourminds,inenlargingoursympathies,ineducatingourtaste,andformingourjudgment,ourolderliteratureisundoubtedlyourbettertutorWegobacktothepastofChaucer,Spenser,Shakspeare,Bacon,Milton,Johnson,notbecauseitisbetterthanthepresent,butbecauseitisdifferentfromthepresentThechangedoesusgood:webraceourmindsintheirtimes,muchaswebraceourbodiesonforeignshoresTheatmosphereofthepastislargerandfreerThereisabouteverypresentanarrowness,aprovincialism,whichcanbecorrectedonlybyaknowledgeofthepastOnewhohasnotlivedoutofhiscenturyislikeonewhohasnotlivedoutofhisparishTravelshowsusothercountriesandothernations:inthestudyofapastliteraturewetravelthroughtimeaswellaslandsUNIVERSITYEDUCATIONThepastgivesusalsoasurerstandardoftasteandjudgmentIdonotsaythatthemastersofourolderliteraturearehigherthanthoseofourowntime,butthatthepositionofthesemastersissecureThehistoryofcontemporarycriticismisfullofinstancesofitsfallibilityitshowsushowdifficultamatterassayingis,andhowoftenthemostnotedassayersoftheiragehavetakengoldfortinsel,andtinselforgoldTimeisthebestofallcritics:intheend,theonlyinfalliblecriticAnditisamongthoseworksofartwhichhavestoodthetestoftime,thatwecanbestrefineourtasteandformourjudgmentThecompanyofthelivingcannotbutbemixedThenoblecompanyofthedeadisouronlypurearistocracyIntheirsocietywecanbestacquireastandardbywhichtoestimatethelivingButtoreturntothedangerofDilettantismNoproofisneeded,thatitsprevalenceaffordsscienceamainpointofattackonartattheiENGLISHLITERATUREANDpresentdayTosaythatourageisessentiallyacriticalage,isbutanotherwayofputtingitformorethanhalfourcriticismisnothingifitisnotdilettantismIthasbeenpartofmydutyinpreparationforthissession'scoursetoreadmanycriticalmagazinearticlesofrecentyears,andIamgladtohavethisopportunityofrevengingmyselfontheirwritersforthewastedhoursIhavespentoverthemThevastmajoritymightbecharacterisedbytheScottishword"haverin'"thatis,writingwithlittletosay,withnopointorapointsominuteastobeinvisibletoallbutthewriter,drawingdistinctionsandcomparisonstheimportanceofwhichisininverseratiototheirsubtlety,talkingsolongroundandroundaboutthesubjectthattheyrarelyreachitatallThegoodsucharticlesingeneraldois,Ithink,morethanbalancedbytheevilFirst,theyencourageustoreadaboutUNIVERSITYEDUCATIONliterature,ratherthantoreaditatfirsthandandsecondly,theygiveusoftenaveryfalsenotionofliterature,asastudymuchlesswidelyinstructivethanitreallyisTheirterminologyissotechnicalandremotefromobviousmeaningthat,ifwehaveindependenceenough,weoftenpausetothinkwhetherafterallitisourdulnessortheirwantofmeaningthatistoblameforthehazeinwhichtheyleaveusThereisanotherevidenceofdilettantismbesidesthedarkeningofcounselbyjargonItisasignificantfact,whichbooksellersandlibrarianscanattest,thatagreatwriter'sbiographyorhisreminiscencesistenfoldmorepopularthanhiswritingseverwereUnfriendlycriticsofthestudyofliteraturecallthis,loveofgossipOneofthoseused,theotherday,thephrase"chatteraboutShelley,"whichweadmittobeafairdescriptionofsomeofthedisquisitionsofwhichthatpoetisthesubjectandthesamecriticadds:"AENGLISHLITERATUREANDgooddealof'literary'talknowadaysseemshardlytoriseabovepersonalgossip,sometimespersonalscandal,aboutverymodernpersonagesindeed"xNowevenpersonalgossipisnottheworstformofdilettantismItisatleasthuman,natural,notartificialasotherformsofdillettantismusuallyareIthas"acertainveracity"underlyingitItisnotsoimportantthatweavoiditasthatweavoiditsbecomingbadintone,thatis,avoidscandalTheword"gossip"hasundergonechangeswhich,likemanyinourvocabulary,tellataleFrommeaning,firstofall,agodfatherorgodmother,itcametomeananintimateorafriendafterwardsitwasappliedtolightfamiliartalkbetweenintimatefriendsoraboutintimatefriendsHowittodaycomestobeusuallyappliedtoscandal,IwillleaveyoutoinferButthepointofthishisiProfessorFreemaninLanguageandLiterature,ContReview,HiUNIVERSITYEDUCATONtoryis,thatgossipwasnotessentiallyvenomousitwaspassingtalkandanecdoteaboutthosewhomweknewpersonally,whomwemostprobablylovedandrespected:amostnaturaloutcomeofourinterestinthem,discoveringsubtletraitsand,itmightbe,faults,confirmingorcorrectingourformerjudgments,which,sympatheticallyunderstoodinthelightofourfriendship,mightbemisunderstoodifheardbyothersAndsoofliterarygossipThosepersonallyfamiliarwithagreatauthorthroughhiswritingshavearighttotheanecdoteswhichbringtheminortraitsofhischaracterinitsexcellenceanddefectmorevividlybeforethem,whichhelptocompleteandillustratetheirformerconceptionsofhisgeniusYettoshowhowsuch"literary"gossipmay,farfromrevealing,altogetherhidetheauthor'struepersonalityandgreatness,wehavebuttomentionthegreatestBritishthinkerofthiscentury,ThomasCarlyle,^whosenamehasbeenENGLISHLITERATUREANDbandiedaboutbythosewhohaveneverthoroughlyunderstoodanypagehehaswritten,andwhoseemtobeunawarethatthesubjectoftheir"chatter"isamanwhoseshoestringstheyarenotworthytounlooseOneofthemaincausestowhichweowethisunsystematic,superficialplayingatstudyingliesatthedoornotsomuchofouruniversitiesasofourschools,andisthefaultnotsomuchofourschoolteachersasofourparents,especiallyourmothersThey,unlesstheyareexceptions,andwearenotnowdealingwithexceptions,donotexpendverymuchthoughtonthesubjectstowhichtheysetusInmostcasestheyfollowtheusualchoiceofotherfathersandmothersandinthiswayweallgetalittleEnglish,alittlehistory,alittlegeography,alittlearithmetic(usuallyaverylittleitistheonesubjectwhichrequiressomethinking),andthen,aswegrowolder,alittleFrenchorGerman,alittleplaying,andUNIVERSITYEDUCATIONalittlesingingAllthesearegoodItisimportantandbeneficialinoureducationthatweshouldknowalittleofasmanythingsaspossiblebutitisadmittedlyasimportantandbeneficialapartofoureducationthatweshouldknowmorethanalittleaboutsomethingIdonotinsistthatonsomeonesubjectoureducationshouldbesofullasifwewerepreparingourselvestoprofessitasacallingorbusinessoflifebutitshouldatleastbethoroughenoughforustorealizethefulldifficultiesandfullmeaningofthesubjecttheheightandbreadthanddepthofitasawholeWeshouldbesofirmlybasedinitsrudimentsatleast,thatstandingonthatpedestalwecanlookoutonascopebeyondourreach,andfollowwithoursympathyandappreciation,ifnotmorecloselywithourunderstanding,thosewhohavetravelledfurtherthanweAndthisintelligentsympathyoncegainedwouldnotbeconfinedtoonestudy,butwouldextendtoallENGLISHLITERATUREANDThisphaseofeducation"everythingaboutsomething"isnotenoughinsistedonwhiletheother"somethingabouteverything"hastoomuchprominenceOurcourseofstudyisthustoomuchanomniumgatherum^acollectionofoddsandendsarrangedonnorationalsystemEvengoodsoupcannotbemadeinthishaphazardwaySupposeourcookstoputinalittleofthisthing,andofthat,andofthatotherthing,justinsuchquantitiesascametohand,andfornoreasonatall,exceptthat(likelyitwilldonoharm'!Ifwemayridethisremoteanalogyonestagefurther,oureducationalsoupistoooftenwithout*stockItis,inshort,ageneralsortofsoup,nosoupinparticularAndtheresultisthatoureducationleavesusunlessbysomeaccidentoffortunewithnoindividuality,withnospecialinterestin,orholdon,life,becausewehavenospecialinterestinanybranchoflifepreparedtoseenodeepsignificanceUNIVERSITYEDUCATIONintheworldaroundus,aswehavecaughtglimpseofnoneinourstudiesnotnecessarilydull,perhapsevenclever,butcharacterlessmembersofthatlargeclassofwhichThackerayinTheNeivcomeshasdrawnafairlyrepresentativetypeinMissRoseyMackenzieSofarofthedangerofDilettantismLetuslookforamomentatthedangerofPedantry'Educationinitsderivativesense,meansa*drawingout,'a'developmentofourcharacteristicpowersasmenandwomenourcapacitiesofthoughtandfeeling,ourintelligenceandtasteExaminations,then,asatestofeducation,mustbeatestofthesepowers,asexercisedintheknowledgeofthesubjectinquestionNow,itiswellknown,thatexaminations,atleastasusuallyconducted,areabettertestofmemorythanofthoughtandjudgmentIfthemerepassingofanexaminationpaperisouronlyendandaim,orevenENGLISHLITERATUREANDourchiefendandaim,itisnotaltogetherillogicaltoreasonasfollows:"Whyshouldwetakethetroubleofthi

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Three Lectures on English Literature teaching, wordsworth, and browning

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