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首页 认知域与意象图式—Clausner & Croft

认知域与意象图式—Clausner & Croft.PDF

认知域与意象图式—Clausner & Croft

jesse
2009-06-01 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《认知域与意象图式—Clausner & Croftpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

Domainsandimageschemas*TIMOTHYCCLAUSNERandWILLIAMCROFTAbstractDespitedi€eringtheoreticalviewswithincognitivesemanticsthereappearstobeaconsensusoncertainfundamentaltheoreticalconstructs:(i)thebasicsemanticunitisamentalconcept(ii)conceptscannotbeunderstoodindependentofthedomaininwhichtheyareembedded(iii)conceptualstructuresrepresentaconstrualofexperience,thatis,anactivementaloperationand(iv)conceptcategoriesinvolveprototypesandareorganizedby(atleast)taxonomicrelationsAlthoughthebasicconstructsof‘‘concept’’,‘‘domain’’,‘‘construal’’,and‘‘categorystructure’’gobydi€erentnames,theyareessentiallythesameamongresearchersincognitivelinguisticsWeexamineafifththeoreticalconstruct,thatof‘‘imageschemas’’(recurringbasicconceptualstructures),andarguethatimageschemasareasubtypeofdomainWebeginwiththetheoryofdomainsproposedbyLangacker,whichissimilartoFillmore’stheoryofframesemanticsLangackerdistinguishestwotypesofdomains,locationalandconfigurationalwearguethatitisconceptsindomainsthatarelocationalorconfigurational,notthedomainsthemselvesWethenanalyzeimageschemasandshowhowtheyfunctionlikedomains,inwhicharefoundbothlocationalandconfigurationalconceptsKeywords:domainsimageschemastheoryofcognitionconceptualstructureIntroductionCognitivelinguistsandcognitivescientistsworkinginrelatedresearchtraditionshaveproposedanumberofbasictheoreticalconstructsforcognitivelinguistictheoriesofsemanticsAlthoughdi€erentcognitivelinguistsusedi€erentterms,thereareanumberofbasictheoreticalCognitiveLinguistics–(),–––#WalterdeGruyterconstructs,inparticular‘‘concepts’’,‘‘domains’’,‘‘construal’’,and‘‘categorystructure’’,whicharebasictoallcognitivelinguistictheoriesAfterbrieflypresentingthesefourconcepts,weinvestigateafifththeoreticalconstruct,‘‘imageschema’’,andarguethatimageschemasarebestanalyzedasaspecialtypeofdomainMoreover,wedemonstratethatmanypropertiesofdomainsarealsotrueofimageschemasFinally,wediscusssomeimplicationsofouranalysisofimageschemasforcognitivesemantictheoryThemostbasictheoreticalconstructofcognitivesemanticsistheconcept,thatis,abasicunitofmentalrepresentationThecentralityofconceptsisoneofthedistinguishingfeaturesofcognitivesemantics,incontrasttoformalsemanticsforinstanceThisisbecausethemeaningofalinguisticexpressionisequatedwiththeconceptitexpressesConceptsmaycorrespondtocategoriessuchasbirdorjusticeaswellasindividualssuchasGeorgeLako€(informalsemanticterms,linguisticexpressionsmaydenoteintensionalobjects)Acentralprincipleofcognitivesemanticsisthatconceptsdonotoccurasisolated,atomicunitsinthemind,butcanonlybecomprehended(bythespeakeraswellasbytheanalyst)inacontextofpresupposed,backgroundknowledgestructuresThemostgenerictermforthisbackgroundknowledgestructureisdomainthiswillbethetermadoptedhereThetermdomainhasbeenusedbyLangacker()andLako€()forbasicallythesametheoreticalconstructBothwereinfluencedbyFillmore’sworkonsemanticframes(Fillmore,,,,)Thetermframehighlightsthesemanticsupportingfunctionofdomainsforconcepts,andalsothehypothesisthatdomainshaveastructurethatismorethanalistofexperientiallyassociatedconceptsLako€()developsthenotionofanidealizedcognitivemodelorICMtodescribehowthebackgroundknowledgeforsomeconcepts,suchasbachelorandmother,involvesanidealizedmodelofexperience,andthatsomecategorizationproblems(eg,IsthePopeabachelor,orWhoisthe‘‘real’’motherifbirth,genetics,nurturance,marriage,orgenealogicalconditionsofmaternitydiverge)arisefromamismatchbetweentheICMandamorecomplexrealityHence,anICMplaysthesameroleasdomain,whilehighlightingthenotsosimplerelationshipbetweenasemanticdomainandtheexternalexperienceitisusedbythemindtograspThethirdmajortheoreticalprinciplethatunderliescognitivesemanticsconcernstherelationshipbetweensemanticrepresentationsinthemindandtheworldwhichspeakersexperienceTheprinciplehereisthatthemindisanactiveparticipantinthecreationofsemanticTCClausnerandWCroftstructure,andconceptualizesorconstruestheexperiencesofthespeakerintheworldincertainwaysThesameexperiencemaybeconceptualizedbyspeakersindi€erentwaysThehypothesisofcognitivesemanticsisthatmuchoflanguageinparticulargrammaticalinflectionsandconstructionsbutalsolexicalitemscanbedescribedasencodingdi€erentconceptualizationsofexperienceMuchresearchincognitivesemanticshasbeendevotedtotheanalysisandclassificationofvariouskindsofconceptualizationprocessesorconstrualoperations(wewilluseconstrualhereasacoverterm)Talmy(a,)describesconstrualsasbelongingtooneortheotherofseveralimagingsystemsLako€usesnosuperordinatetermotherthanconceptualization,butdescribesmetaphor,metonymy,andimageschematransformationsastypesofconceptualizationprocessesLangacker()enumeratesalargeclassofconstrualoperationsasfocaladjustmentsNevertheless,itisgenerallyagreedthatalloftheseprocessesdiscussedbyTalmy,Lako€,andLangackerareexamplesofconstrualAfourthmajorprincipleofcognitivesemanticsisembodiedinitsapproachtothestructureororganizationofcategoriesInthisaspectofcognitivesemantictheoryitismorediculttoidentifyabroadconsensusThereisagreementaboutwhatdistinguishescognitivesemanticsfrompriorsemantictheories,namelythatcategoriesareheldtohaveaninternalstructure,usuallycalledaprototypestructurebutalsotermedaradialcategorystructure(Lako€)Thatis,animportantaspectofthesemanticsofacategoryinvolvestherelationshipsthatholdamongitsmembersTherelationshipofcategoryextensionisthebestknownthisistherelationshipbetweenprototypicalmembersofacategoryandperipheralmembersThestatusofcategoryboundaries,andthemoregeneralorschematicconceptsthatdelimitcategorymembership,aremoreindispute(see,forexample,Cruse)Thesefourconstructsconcepts,domains,construals,andcategoriesappeartoustorepresentthemostwidelyacceptedfundamentalsofcognitivesemanticsAconceptisamentalunit,adomainisthebackgroundknowledgeforrepresentingconcepts,construalistheprocessbywhichaperson’sexperienceintheworldisconceivedinavarietyofways,andacategoryisstructuredinternallybyprototype–extensionrelationsamongitsmembersandexternally(atleast)bytaxonomicrelationsbetweencategoriesOfcourse,therearesignificantdi€erencesbetweentheviewsofcognitivelinguistsoncewemovebeyondthesegeneralities,aswillbeseeninthediscussionofdomainsinsectionButtheseconstructsservetolinktogethercognitiveDomainsandimageschemaslinguisticapproachestosemantics,andtodi€erentiatethemfrommostothersemanticapproachesTablesummarizessomeofthetermsusedbydi€erenttheoreticiansforwhatwebelieveareinstantiationsofessentiallythesameconstructsThisarticleisaboutthetheoreticalstatusofafifththeoreticalconstructofcognitivelinguistics,theimageschemaImageschemas,roughly,arebasic‘‘abstract’’structuresthatrecurinourconstrualsoftheworld,andappeartoplayafundamentalroleinvariouscognitivesemanticprocesses(theyaredescribedinmoredetailinsection)Themainproposalofthisarticleisthatimageschemasareasubtypeofdomain,whichwecallimageschematicdomainsInordertopresentthisargument,wemustoutlinethetheoryofdomainsinsomedetailWedothisinsectionwetakeasastartingpointthetheoryofdomainsproposedbyLangacker(section),followingtheworkofFillmorebutmakecertainimportantqualificationsaboutthetypesofconceptsthatareprofiledindomains(section)Insectionweintroduceimageschemas,outliningthetheoryofimageschemaspresentedbyJohnsonandbyLako€(section),andthenpresentourargumentthatimageschemasarebestconceivedofasatypeofdomain(section)Insection,weconcludewithadiscussionofwhywebelievesomedomainsareimageschematicwhileothersarenotDomainsandthelocationalconfigurationaldistinctionLangacker()providesadetailedtreatmentofdomainssummarizedinsection,fromwhichweargueinsectionforouranalysisTableVariationintermsfortheoreticalconstructsincognitivesemanticsTermsusedhereTermsusedbyLangackerLako€FillmoreTalmyconceptprofileconceptconceptdomainbase,ICM,framedomaindomainconstrualfocaladjustment,(metaphor,imagingsystemconstrual,metonymy,conceptualizationimageschematransformation)aaLako€doesnotuseasuperordinatetermforthiscategory,butdiscussesawiderangeofconstrualoperationsTCClausnerandWCroftoftwokindsofconcepts,whichweapplytoouranalysisofimageschemasConcepts,domainsanddomainmatricesIncognitivegrammar,Langacker()treatseveryconceptasbeingcharacterizedrelativetoasemanticdomainThatis,thesemanticvalueofawordisspecifiedwithrespecttoadomainLangackerusesthetermsprofileandbasetoemphasizetherelationshipbetweenaconceptandthedomaininwhichitisfound,respectivelyAprofileissomeportionofconceptualknowledgewhichstandsinrelationtoabaseofpresupposedknowledgeThetermbasehighlightsthewayinwhichbackgroundknowledge‘‘supports’’theconcept,suchthattheconceptcannotbeunderstoodwithoutthispresupposedknowledgeThetermprofileimpliesthenecessarypresenceofthedomain(base)againstwhichtheconceptis‘‘profiled’’Langackerprovidestheexampleoftheconceptcirclewhichpresupposesaknowledgeof(twodimensional)spaceFigure(a)illustratesthisconcept–domainrelationwiththeconcept,circle,asaboldpattern(theprofile)withinthebackgroundofSPACE(thecognitivedomain)(Inthisarticleweusesmallcapitalstodenotedomains,andlowercaseitalicstodenoteprofiles)Langacker’snotionofadomainappearstodi€erinsomerespectsfromthetermdomainusedbymostpsychologistsdealingwithconceptsandbymanylinguisticsemanticists,whooftenuseitinabroadersense,toencompassspace,artifacts,orlivingthingsAnystructuredexperienceispotentiallyadomainforLangacker,ifitsupportsaconceptprofileInparticular,hisnotionofsomethinglikeCIRCLEbeingadomainconflictswiththebroaderintuitivenotionofFigureProfile–baseincognitivegrammarDomainsandimageschemasadomainFigure(b)illustratesthatCIRCLEcanitselfbeadomainwhichsupportstheconceptprofilearcSpecifically,‘‘adomainisasemanticstructurethatfunctionsasthebaseforatleastoneconceptprofile’’(Croft:)Theconcept–domainsemanticrelationshipisessentiallyapart–whole(ie,meronomic)relationshipTheexampleofarc–CIRCLEinFigure(b)isaclassicmeronomicrelationshipbetweenapartofanobject(thearc)andthewholeobject(thecircle)Theconcept–domainrelationshipis,therefore,distinctfromthesubordinate–superordinatesemanticrelation(ie,taxonomy,alsocalledschematicitybyLangacker)Forexample,anarc,achord,andaradiuscannotbesubsumedunderthetaxonomicallygeneralcategoryofacircleTaxonomicrelationsbetweencategoriesdistinguishlevelsofgeneralityForexample,theconceptschair,table,dresser,andbedmaybesubsumedunderamoregeneralcategoryoffurnitureTheconcept–domainrelationdoesnotholdbetweenlevelsofcategorialgeneralityitholdsbetweenthebaseofknowledgeinwhichacategoryexists(domain)andcategorymembers(concepts)Nonetheless,domainscanalsoenterintotaxonomicrelations(ClausnerCroft)andthisorganizationhasnothingtodowiththeorganizationofadomain’scomponentparts(regardlessofwhethertheyareobjects,actions,orproperties)Forexample,eatinganddrinkingcanbesubsumedunderamoregeneralcategoryofconsumptionTheEATdomainandDRINKdomainarehencesubtypesoftheCONSUMEdomainEatinganddrinkingareactivitiesthatareconceptualizedintermsofanumberofsharedsemanticstructures,butneitherisasubtypeoftheotherNorcanonesaythatconsumingnecessarilypresupposesanyadditionalpropertiespossessedbyeatingordrinkingInstead,consumingmaybeinstantiatedaseitherdrinkingoreatingThetaxonomicrelationshipofa(superordinate)schemaandits(subordinate)instantiationisnotaconcept–domainrelationshipThenatureoftheconcept–domainrelationissuchthatanyconceptcaninturnfunctionasthedomainforotherconcepts(eg,arc–CIRCLEandcircle–SPACEofFigures(b)and(a),respectively)Theembeddingofdomainsasconceptsinotherdomainseventually‘‘bottomsout’’,accordingtoLangacker,inbasicdomains:domainswhicharefootedinfundamentalhumanbodilyexperiences,suchasSPACE,TIME,varioussensations,emotionsandperceptions,andcertainbasicsocialinterpersonalphenomena(Langacker:)ThisobservationhastwoimportantconsequencesFirst,itrevealsthattherecanbepart–wholerelationsamongdomainsSecond,adomainitselfmaybeacomplexofdomainsInLangacker’sview,TCClausnerandWCroftknowledgeisencyclopedic,organizedintoconceptualdomainswhicharegroundedinourexperienceoftheworldOurcommonsenseknowledgeaboutbirdsforexampleincludestheirshape,thefactthattheyaremadeofphysicalmaterial,theiractivitiessuchasflyingandeating,theavianlifecyclefromeggtodeath,etcTheseaspectsoftheconceptbirdarespecifiedinavarietyofdi€erentdomainssuchasSPACE,PHYSICALOBJECTS,LIFE,TIME,etcThecollectionofdomainswhicharepresupposedbytheconceptprofilebirdiscalleditsdomainmatrixThedomainsinadomainmatrixmaybemoreorlessseparableinexperienceForexample,itisextremelydiculttodividetheCOLORdomain‘‘matrix’’intotheseparatedomainsofHUE,BRIGHTNESS,andSATURATIONLangackerdescribessuchseeminglyinseparabledomainsasbeingdimensionsofasingledomain(Langacker:)Butthenhepointsoutthatthereisacontinuumbetweendimensionsofasingledomainandmultipledomainscombinedintoamatrix:‘‘thedistinctionbetweendimensionsanddomainsistosomedegreearbitraryandamatterofconvenience’’(:)Theanalysisofdomainsintodimensionsordomainmatricesisoffundamentalimportancetothecharacterizationofimageschemasastypesofdomains,andtheabstractnatureofimageschemas(seesection)LocationalandconfigurationalconceptsinadomainLangackerproposesthattherearedi€erentkindsofdomains,locationalandconfigurational(:)Wewillexplainthedistinctionbyillustratingconfigurationalityandlocationality,butwithinthesingledomainSPACEFromthiswethenarguethatthedistinctionisoneofdi€erentkindsofconcepts(ie,profiles),notdomainsLangackerclassifiesSPACEasaprototypicalconfigurationaldomainTheconcepttriangleprofiledinthedomainSPACEillustratesthataconfigurationisindependentofitsspecificlocationinspaceGivenanarrangementofverticesandedgeswhichasawholemaybecalledatriangle,theconceptualidentitydoesnotdependonposition(ie,locationorrotationalorientation)Thatis,atrianglerepositionedfromitojinthedomainSPACEremainsatriangle(Figure)Moreover,atriangleisdistinctfromasquareregardlessofeithershape’slocationinSPACEortheirlocationsrelativetooneanotherOntheotherhand,alocationinSPACEisapointorregion,specifiedrelativetoanotherpointorregionofreferenceForexample,thedeicticconcepthereisalocationwhoseconceptualidentityisdependentonitspositionrelativetoareferencepoint,suchthatotherspatiallocationconceptssucientlydistantfromthereferencepointarenotDomainsandimageschemashere,butthere(Figure)Theselocationsarecalibratedrelativetothereferencepoint(whichinthecaseofspatialdeixisistypicallythelocationofthespeakerhearer)Anotherlocationalconceptisthespatialmeaningofhome(eg,I’llbeathometonight)whichspecifieseitheraphysicaldwellingoralargerregionsuchasacityorcountry,andtendstohaveafixedlocationTheselocationalexamplesarenotLangacker’s,buttheysatisfyhischaracterizationofthepropertyadiscreteregionprofiledrelativetoanintrinsicallycalibratedreferenceframe‘‘sothatdi€erentlocationscorrespondtodi€erentsensationsinsteadofbeingfunctionallyequivalentandinterchangeable’’(:)LangackerdiscusseswhetherlocationsaresimplydegenerateconfigurationsHedistinguishesbetweendiscreteandcontinuousconfigFigureConfigurationsFigureLocationsTCClausnerandWCrofturationsWeillustratethiswith(spatial)shapes,whichareexperiencedasGestalts,butareanalyzableintopartsContinuousshapesareconfigurationswhichincludethecube,triangle,sphere,afacialprofile,theshapeofadove,acookiecutteroutline,etcDiscreteshapesareconstellationsofpointssuchastheBigDipperorlettersformedinadotmatrixfashionLangackerconcludesthatlocationsarepointlikedegenerateconfigurations,whichunlikeconfigurationsareprofiledinanintrinsicallycalibrateddomainHowever,aswehaveillustratedwiththedomainSPACE,asingledomaincanprofilebothlocationalandconfigurationalconceptsOnereasonthatlocationalspatialconceptscouldbeoverlookedisthattheyareoftenpropernamesratherthancommonnounsTheconceptexpressedbythetermLosAngelesspecifiesalocationinSPACE,andisdi€erentfromanyotherlocationalconcept,suchastheoneexpressedbythetermSanFranciscoHowever,thereareotherwaystospecifylocationalconcepts(asdiscussedabove),suchasdeicticdemonstratives(thisthat)andadverbs(herethere)Theseconceptsarelocationalaswell,eventhoughthelocationisdefinedrelativetoapotentiallyshiftingreferencepointTheabilityofadomaintosupportbothlocationalandconfigurationalconceptsisnotrestrictedtoSPACEThesameistrueofthedomainofPITCHWeusethetermPITCHtorefertothedomainofsoundsdefinedbytheiracousticfrequencywerestrictourselvesheretothediscretedomainofMUSICALNOTESbasedonthecontinuousdomainofpitchheight(Figure)Thisisthedomainofsoundsnamedbytheirmusicalvalues,suchasC,E,Fsharp,etc,assumingafixedassignmentofmusicalnotestofrequenciesAsuccessionofmusicalnotes,A,Asharp,B,etc(clockwiseinFigure),correspondtosuccessivelyhigherfrequenciesConceptssuchasmiddleCareanoteinaspecificcycle(ie,octave)ofmusicaltonesFigureThedomainofPITCH:FREQUENCYandMUSICALNOTESDomainsandimageschemasThedomainPITCHsupportslocationalauditoryconceptsAnauditoryconceptsuchastheseco

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