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首页 万叶集选:日本古代诗歌集

万叶集选:日本古代诗歌集.pdf

万叶集选:日本古代诗歌集

南冠
2009-05-31 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《万叶集选:日本古代诗歌集pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

万 叶 集 选外国文学名著丛书万叶集选李芒译外国文学名著丛书编辑委员会编人民文学出版社一九九八年〃北京(京)新登字号图书在版编目(CIP)数据万叶集选:日本古代诗歌集/李芒选译注-北京:人民文学出版社(外国文学名著丛书)ISBN---Ⅰ万…Ⅱ李…Ⅲ诗歌总集日本古代ⅣI中国版本图书馆CIP数据核字()第号《外国文学名著丛书》由中国社会科学院外国文学研究所、人民文学出版社和上海译文出版社以及有关专家组成编辑委员会主持选题计划的制定和书稿的编审事宜并由上述两个出版社担任具体编辑出版工作。人民文学出版社出版(北京朝内大街号)北京市人民文学印刷厂印刷新华书店发行字数千字开本×毫米印张插页年月北京第一版年月北京第次印刷印数-定价元译本序•万叶集‣是日本第一部和歌总集由著名歌人大伴家持编成于奈良时代(-)大约七五九年(唐肃宗乾元年为年)以后。这个总集共收载各类和歌四千五百一十六首分编为二十卷。据有文字记载最早的和歌初见于史书•古事记‣()和•日本书纪‣()中的大约二百首歌谣一般称为•记纪歌谣‣。这之前虽有•柿本人麻吕歌集‣()和山上忆良的歌集•类聚歌林‣()等俱已散轶只有少数歌作辑录于•万叶集‣。万叶即万世、万代之意•万叶集‣谓此歌集可贻于万世。这是根据汉籍的解释。此外在日本也有解为“万种言叶”言叶本是日本语言喻辞汇之多即辞林之意。和歌则是针对当时流行于日本的“汉诗”(中国古诗)一词所取日本诗歌之意即日本之歌也称倭歌或简称为“歌”。因此在日本古代如称诗即为汉诗作者为诗人称歌即为和歌作者为歌人(后来的俳句作者则为俳人)。一般不能混淆。集中各种歌体主要以五音句或七音句交错成章最后以七音双句煞尾。“短歌”(附在长歌后面亦称“反歌”)限定为五句:五、七、五、七、七长歌句数没有定限以五、七句式反复吟咏最后以重叠二个七音结束。这种长歌在原书的前半载录较多后半逐渐减少及至公元九○五年继•万叶集‣之后成书的•古今和歌集‣只载录长歌五首一二○五年以后编就的•新古今和歌集‣就终于不见踪影了。和歌格律的形成经过•古事记‣和•日本书纪‣中载录的•记纪歌谣‣到达五十年左右以后编成的•万叶集‣(万叶和歌)走过了从不定型趋向定型的道路。然而不管定型与否五、七句式(尽管有多字少字的情况)可算是日本韵律的一个基本规律后世的许多诗歌民谣也都大致不离此宗。•万叶集‣中最早的作品是仁德天皇的皇后磐姬思念天皇的四首短歌。日本学者认为这组歌同下面介绍的•万叶集‣第一时期的不少作品都属于传诵之作为数并不太多。因此一般都把舒明天皇即位()或大化革新()以后的作品视为•万叶集‣的真正起步期。日本学者认为综观•万叶集‣大致是在参考古代歌集的基础上编成的和歌总集。即便其精选的程度还不能算是很高但未沉潜于主观的精神境界而是密切联系生活表现了历史的激荡的时代面貌。日本学者一般将•万叶集‣分为四个时期。第一个时期从舒明皇朝(-)中期到发生“壬申之乱”()的大约四十年间。代表性歌人有舒明天皇、天臹天皇、额田王和有间皇子等皇族其中尤以女性歌人额田王为优秀她关于春山万花之艳与秋山千叶之彩的评判长歌(-)尤为后世称颂。这一时期的艺术特点是从口诵和歌、民谣和集体的古代歌谣逐步向具有个性的创作方面发展从歌体上看如前所述基本上从不定型走向定型。歌风以朴素为主感情的表现真挚率直可谓“万叶歌风”的发生期。第二个时期从壬申之乱的胜利者天武天皇登基()到迁都奈良的七一○年。代表性歌人有天武、持统两天皇、大伯皇女、大津皇子、志贵皇子、柿本人麻吕和高市黑人等。其中大伯皇女和大津皇子这两个异父同母姊弟相爱皇子因谋反罪而被处死的遭遇等使他们的作品波澜起伏具有哀切动人的魅力。当然这时期•万叶集‣中的最大歌人乃是柿本人麻吕。柿本人麻吕生卒年不详。只知他是天臹天皇(-在位)至文武天皇(-在位)时期的歌人。起初以舍人(天皇身边的杂役)入宫后来也做过地方官为六位以下的低级官吏。其作歌最盛时期为持统(-在位)、文武两朝以修辞绚丽技巧高超格调庄重雄伟歌风沉郁浑厚见长被赞为歌圣。他吟咏近江荒都缅怀天臹天皇的长歌(-)作于文武天皇大宝元年()距离天臹天皇逝世三十年。此歌最后两句“雾笼丽日难知处仰瞻遗址尽悲生”浓烈地表现了作者对大化革新的发动者天臹天皇的怀念之情。这一时期的代表歌人还有高市黑人。他大体上与人麻吕同时陪驾和羁旅之歌较多尤其是吟咏大自然的作品做到了独辟蹊径对后来的著名歌人山部赤人等起了先驱者的作用。第三个时期为首都建于奈良市的时代通称奈良时代(-)。这个时期初将奈良定为半永久性首都政治形势和社会生活都开始出现安定的局面。在前一时期由人麻吕集大成的和歌在此时期由具有各种个性的歌人自由奔放地加以深化发展。作品的内容、素材及境界都渐趋扩大而丰富将前一时期的现实性更加发扬光大情感更加细致深沉。这一切都使和歌作为文艺作品达到了成熟的境地可算是万叶和歌的鼎盛期。大伴旅人和山上忆良是这一时期具有代表性的歌人。大伴旅人身为朝廷高官却一反御用歌人那种侧重歌功颂德的歌风恣意抒发个人好恶和生活感情表现了自由奔放的个性。放荡不羁及时行乐为其性格的特色之一。•赞酒歌十三首‣是他的著名作品。在这十三首歌中表现了他不满现实(-)不愿虚伪地迎合力求保持天真本色(-〃)的特点。他仿效中国的竹林七贤(-)只顾今生尽欢(-)不崇功名(-)不计来生(-)等思想感情颇为复杂。这在当时朝廷高官中是很少见的现象。日本学者认为乍读之下大都感到他怀有享乐主义思想其实当时失去了陪伴他远居边陲大宰府的妻子陷于痛苦的深渊因而欲借酒浇愁解消孤苦才是作品的本意。这话当然有其一定的道理但是观其中所表现的做人态度应该说与其丧妻联系并不密切。诸如他说:“俨然一伟人作态自骄矜”(-)“为人佯作态实属丑难言”(-)“纵为无价宝璀璨又辉煌试来比美酒暗淡尽无光”(-)等等都是他主张本性的直率流露的表现。这在当时日本高官大都心怀入世觊觎荣华并谋来生的思想是大相径庭的。总的说大伴旅人歌作中既流露了一些离经叛道的情绪也包含着一些消极成分。山上忆良是与大伴旅人同时的杰出歌人。他的最高代表作是长歌•贫穷问答歌(-)。这首作于七三一七三二年间的精品在整个•万叶集‣中也堪称风格迥异独树一臶的名篇。首先作者当时的官职是筑前国守(古代日本在天皇统臸下设若干国大体上相当于省。守即行政长官)生活并不像作品中所描写的那么贫穷显然是作者描写了社会实象。这组歌的最后四句:“持杖入陋室里长厉声叫无术何如斯难哉此世道”!不啻是对当时官府的严厉斥责。其他如•老身重病经年辛苦及思儿等歌七首‣(-~)等读来亦有催人泪下的艺术魅力。此外如•七夕歌十二首‣(-~)和•筑前国守贺白水郎歌十首‣(-~)等又表现了忆良歌风的另外一面即对天上(前者)和人间(后者)青年男女间的爱情生活的关怀表现了作者的菩萨心肠。在艺术上从此类歌作又可窥见忆良词藻优美含蓄委婉的特点。山部赤人和高桥虫麻吕二歌人也很有特色。山部赤人比之旅人和忆良稍晚大体上与虫麻吕同时人们往往将他与人麻吕并称。他善于描写大自然以叙景歌见长歌风清纯温雅流畅自然。他最为著名的作品当属吟咏富士山的长歌(-)。这组歌从开天辟地说起以日月云雪等自然景象表现富士山的雄伟壮丽从时空两方面歌颂了富士山的永恒性。表现技巧上作到了简洁洗练气臼高雅音调铿锵不失为上乘佳作。高桥虫麻吕虽然亦擅长长歌的创作其主要内容则是传说故事和旅游见闻被人们称为很有特色的传说歌人。他的最为读者爱读的长歌是吟咏水江浦岛郎的名作(-〃)。这组歌吟咏的民间传说在•日本书记‣()和丹后国风土记中均有过记载本来是有一神秘的大龟出场的虫麻吕却删掉大龟只利用其素材进行比较自由的创作。这首最早以和歌形式创作的艺术精品很受日本广大读者的喜爱。第四期处于奈良时代中期从第三期末的七一○年到七五九年代表性歌人有中臣宅守、狭野弟上娘子、大伴家持和笠郎女等。中臣宅守和狭野弟上娘子相爱而使宅守触犯刑律因而被判流放罪二人分手后之唱和短歌六十三首是•万叶集‣中著名的作品。这些歌深沉浓烈地表现了他们相爱之笃离恨之浓颇有扣人心弦的魅力。其中尤以弟上娘子的作品情深意切。日本学者每每引用她的短歌:“君行千嶂里艰险又迢遥欲卷关山路祈来天火烧。”(-)称赞其构思之奇拔不无道理。大伴家持在•万叶集‣中赫赫有名一则据说是•万叶集‣的编纂者二则•万叶集‣中他的歌最多计四百七十八首(外有联歌一首)。他是•万叶集‣中最具代表性歌人之一也是从奈良时代向平安时代从•万叶集‣向•古今和歌集‣过渡的最具代表性的歌人之一。他才华横溢作品多注重感情的抒发且有感伤的一面艳丽的色彩较浓寂寥哀婉预示了平安朝的美的境界。试看其•桔歌一首并短歌‣(-~)描写日本古人从中国携回桔树八棵供于天皇墓前并折来赠与众娘子或植于山中。笔致极其巧妙桔及桔树的美和人们对其热爱之情跃然纸上。长歌之后所附的短歌概括地诵道:“鲜花曾叹赏嘉果已悦目非时香果树相看犹不足。”又如他咏春苑桃李着花歌(-):“春苑桃花红香风拂小径玉娘方步出卓约立亭亭。”形象地印证了前面评述的几个特点。除了有姓名的歌人之外•万叶集‣中还辟了专栏如•东歌‣、•防人歌‣、•遣新罗使歌‣、•遣唐使歌‣、•佚名作者歌‣等。这些歌的作者大多数虽非著名歌人但他们的作品却比较真实地反映了当时日本社会和人民生活的真实面貌具有朴素生动的特点表现出一定的艺术性。•东歌‣即东国的民歌不乏佳作诸如信浓国之歌“信浓新开路处处遗残株君足切勿踏着履嘱吾夫”(-)和“信浓千曲川水底小石头只缘君足踏且当珠玉收”等均以朴素的语言和风格表现了妻子对远行的丈夫或男人对妇女的挚爱栩栩动人。•防人歌‣中描写夫妻惨别的短歌亦有感人肺腑的佳作。“伫立苇垣隅我妹泪沾袖临别形影孤我心记永久。”(-)“捉襟小儿女嚎哭泪涟涟虽怜无慈母狠心留故园。”(-)“悔未将夫衣染成深颜色攀越山坂时遥望影灼灼。”(-)撇妻舍子送夫等等为戍边而与家人生离唯恐变成死别足见自古以来备战或战争就是人民的灾难。人民群众以自己的心声并熔铸成具有一定水平的艺术品载入艺术史册作了历史的见证。日本自古同新罗和中国即有较多的联系特别是盛强的唐王朝实际上是日本的学习对象。为此他们的官僚和学者不惜冒生命危险涉海前来大唐国土取经修好不少事迹随着和歌的传播而流芳百世。集中有一首母亲送独生子赴唐的长歌和反歌(-〃)怀着深切的挚爱送别儿子时表现了为远行人祈祷的虔诚之心哀婉之情可掬其反歌云:“旅人如野宿大陆降寒霜愿倩长空鹤白羽覆儿行。”•佚名作者歌‣在•万叶集‣中所占比重较大卷七、卷十到卷十四等六卷中基本上均未注明作者和作品年代。这类作品至少有二千首以上大概都是民间歌谣和曲艺说唱等的采录比较特异的一例是卷十六中的两首•乞食者歌‣(-〃)。这两首长歌中的前一首是•为鹿述痛‣后一首是•为蟹述痛‣。•为鹿述痛‣的前半篇为乞食者说唱的叙述后半篇是鹿的自述•为蟹述痛‣则全篇皆为蟹的自述。这两首长歌表面上都极力表示为天皇效忠献身实际上详尽地表述了自己肉体的各个部分都将变成天皇的饮食狩猎等等美味食品和精美的装饰品读来无不感到切肤之痛泛起对最高统治者的愤恨之情。在•万叶集‣中除了山上忆良的•贫穷问答歌‣之外当属此二歌富有人民性了。上述列有专栏的和歌并不都属于第四期的作品不过是为叙述的方便一起安排在这里加以介绍罢了。总之•万叶集‣到了第四个时期和歌的形式已经趋于固定。日本有的学者认为在这一期中内容逐渐陷于狭窄歌风柔弱独创性降低已走向万叶和歌的衰退时期。其特点是和歌变成社交工具的倾向更加明显酬唱和爱情作品增多。同时耽于追求技巧力求表现优美、纤细的抒情和感伤为过渡到平安时代做出较多的准备。这时期长歌已陷入公式化和绝境短歌几乎变成和歌的唯一形式。这些论断有不少是正确的诸如歌风渐趋优美纤细增强了抒情性刻意追求技巧的娴熟长歌锐减短歌激增等等都是实际情况。这无宁说在艺术上是一个不小的进步。这种特点的确为平安时代初期出现的•古今和歌集‣()做了比较充分的准备使和歌艺术(主要是短歌)达到完美的境界。当然同时它也失去了万叶和歌前期那种表现现实生活的直感性和鲜明性以及题材的广阔性等等。诸如山上忆良以及防人歌等深刻表现人民生活疾苦的和歌在这时期以后永远绝迹于歌坛从这个角度看也可以说有所衰退。但是一个比较明显的标志是日本文学的传统特点也从这一时期开始明显地形成了。•万叶集‣的发展说明它是日本诗歌发展的一个重要阶段开创了日本后世和歌的道路堪称日本诗歌的典范。同时也显示了中国文化特别是汉字的输入对日本诗歌以至文学的形式的重要影响。•万叶集‣全书诗歌四千五百余首这个译本选刊了各类歌作大约七百三十四首大体上反映了•万叶集‣的全貌。日本在编纂•万叶集‣的时代可能尚无自己的文字均以汉字标音或表意后经历代学者移译为日本古文并附口语译文和注释。但在解释上歧义不少很易误解。我国在翻译时必须参阅较多的注释本。我们过去的译文有的偏重于古奥有的较为平易。但有人照搬原作的音数句式由于中日文结构迥异这样译成中文必然比原文长出不少就难免产生画蛇添足的现象。然而总的说来大家都为我国的•万叶集‣欣赏和研究做出了贡献。本书译者参考了上述种种译作采取在表达内容上求准确在用辞上求平易基本上运用古调今文的方法以便于大学文科毕业喜爱诗歌又有些这方面常识的青年知识分子个别词查查字典就能够读懂。当然这只是个人的想法和初步的实验是否得当有待于读者的批评。至今我还清楚地记得一九八○年我受到日本国际交流基金会的接待短期入籍于早稻田大学文学部上野理教授的研究室他为我提供了一份细致的•万叶集‣汉译选题建议方案教育学部的户谷高明教授也赠我一份日本各大中学选读•万叶集和歌引用数目表‣:他们的宝贵意见和资料是我这次翻译过程中的重要参考。附记:为了阅读的方便关于编排体例问题特作如下说明:一原书目录编次基本上按作者与作品年代但有时一个作者的作品分散编于几卷且写作年代多有前后错位之处。为此译本尽可能根据作家生平和作品年代加以辑录。二为了便于阅读和了解作者及其作品的特色译本采取了将一个作者的作品集中在一起的办法•目次‣亦按此法编成。作者次序和作品号码大体上反映了作者及其作品在译本中的位臵。卷末的•译载作品原书编次索引‣(以下简称•索引‣)则按原书歌号循序编列大体上保存了原书的汉字标题并反映了原书编次的面貌。三•目次‣的作者名下及本文歌前括弧内的号码前为卷数后为歌号。•索引‣则将卷数单列歌号列于歌作标题之前的括弧内。本书中的少数歌作没有标题作者姓名有的也只附于后记之中。•索引‣为了方便查索个别标题有所变动并将此类作者名记于括弧内加在适当位臵。四读者查索作品时如知歌号即可循序查•索引‣题前歌号。如只知作者不知歌题与歌号时请按•目次‣的作者页码通读该作者的作品只知歌题不知作者与歌号只好细查•索引‣的歌题凡本书译载者当可查出。五原书作品前后或有标题、题引或有附记大都用汉文写成即便个别词句与文气偶有不大符合汉文的正常用法之处但含义基本上能够读懂可见古代日本人学习与使用汉文的水平故而均予照录。个别用词费解者加注说明。六歌后的注解除说明系原注之外均为译者所加并为便于阅读基本上采取了在每篇作品后面重复加注的办法。七参考书目(以出版先后为序):•万叶集〃现代语译对照‣(卷)樱井满著旺文社一九七五年四月版。•万叶集‣(卷)小岛宪之、木下正俊、佐竹昭广校注〃译小学馆一九七五年十月版。•万叶集‣(卷)折口信夫著河出书房一九七九年版。•万叶集全译注‣(卷)中西进著讲谈社一九八三年版。•万叶集‣(卷)伊藤博校注角川书房一九八五年版。译者目次译本序·································································································一磐姬皇后四首(-~)·················································二雄略天皇一首(-)···························································三圣德皇子一首(-)·······················································四军王二首(-〃)·····························································五舒明天皇一首(-)···························································六额田王六首(-~)(-~)································井户王一首(-)·······················································额田王一首(-)·······················································皇太子一首(-)·······················································额田王一首(-)·····················································镜王女一首(-)·····················································七间人连老二首(-〃)···················································八中皇命三首(-~)···················································九有间皇子二首(-〃)···········································一○中大兄四首(-~)(-)······························镜王女二首(-〃)··········································藤原镰足一首(-)···············································大后三首(-~)···········································妇人一首(-)·····················································额田王一首(-)·················································舍人吉年一首(-)·············································大后一首(-)·····················································石川夫人一首(-)·············································额田王一首(-)·················································一一久米禅师一首(-)···················································石川郎女一首(-)···············································一二吹黄刀自一首(-)···················································一三高市皇子一首(-)·················································一四天武天皇三首(-〃)(-)························藤原夫人二首(-)(-)························一五持统天皇一首(-)·················································一六大伯皇女二首(-〃)······································大津皇子一首(-)·············································石川郎女一首(-)·············································大津皇子一首(-)·············································大伯皇女四首(-~)··································一七柿本人麻吕二十七首(-~)(-)(-~)(-~)(-)(-~)(-)(-~)(-~)(-~)····································依罗娘子一首(-)·············································柿本人麻吕九首(-~)(-)(-)(-)···············································依罗娘子二首(-〃)···································柿本人麻吕二十五首(-~)(-)(-)(-〃)(-)(-~)(-)(-〃)(-)(-~)(-)······························一八川岛皇子一首(-)···················································一九阿闭皇女二首(-)(-)··································御名部皇女一首(-)··········································阿闭皇女一首(-)···············································或本歌(佚名作者)二首(-〃)·················二○志贵皇子四首(-)(-)(-)(-)···················································二一长屋王五首(-)(-)(-〃)(-)········································仓桥部女王一首(-)···········································二二但马皇女四首(-~)(-)··················穗积皇子二首(-)(-)························二三长忌寸奥麻吕五首(-)(-〃)(-)(-)·························································二四弓削皇子七首(-~)(-)(-)(-)···················································二五高市黑人十二首(-)(-~)(-〃)(-)·············································二六长皇子四首(-)(-)(-)(-)············································································二七笠金村二十一首(-~)(-~)(-~)(-~)(-)(-~)(-〃)······················二八高桥虫麻吕十五首(-~)(-)(-~)(-〃)(-〃)(-〃)······················二九田边福麻吕三首(-~)····························三○沙弥满誓一首(-)···············································三一汤原王三首(-)(-〃)······················娘子二首(-〃)·········································汤原王二首(-〃)····································娘子一首(-)···················································汤原王一首(-)···············································娘子一首(-)···················································汤原王一首(-)···············································娘子一首(-)···················································汤原王一首(-)·············································三二大伴旅人三十三首(-〃)(-~)(-~)(-~)(-~)(-)·········相关作者二十四首(-~)(-)(-~)(-~)························大伴旅人十三首(-~)····························相关作者七首(-~)································大伴旅人二首(-〃)································吉田宜四首(-~)····································大伴佐提比古郎子一首(-)··························后人追和歌四首(-~)····························三岛王一首(-)···············································娘子二首(-〃)·········································大伴旅人二首(-〃)································三三山上忆良十六首(-)(-)(-)(-~)(-~)(-~)·························································麻田阳春二首(-〃)································山上忆良二十七首(-~)(-~)(-)(-)(-~)(-~)·············三四山部赤人二十九首(-〃)(-)(-〃)(-〃)(-〃)(-〃)(-~)(-~)(-~)(-~)(-〃)(-)································三五车持千年三首(-~)····································三六藤原麻吕三首(-~)····································三七大伴坂上郎女十七首(-~)(-〃)(-)(-)(-)(-)(-)(-〃)(-)(-)(-)·············································佚名作者一首(-)········································三八中臣宅守十三首〃狭野弟上娘子十二首······················狭野弟上娘子四首(-~)··················中臣宅守四首(-~)··························中臣宅守二首(-〃)··························狭野弟上娘子四首(-~)(-)···························································中臣宅守三首(-)(-〃)···狭野弟上娘子四首(-)(-〃)(-)························中臣宅守四首(-~)······················三九纪清人一首(-)···············································四○河边东人歌一首(-)·········································四一大伴家持十首(-)(-)(-)(-~)(-)(-〃)···········大伴坂上大娘一首(-)····································大伴家持六十一首(-)(-〃)(-)(-)(-)(-〃)(-〃)(-~)(-~)(-~)(-~)(-〃)(-〃)(-)(-~)(-)(-)(-)(-)(-)(-〃)(-)(-)(-)(-~)(-)(-)(-~)(-~)(-〃)(-)··························笠女郎五首(-)(-〃)()(-)·····························································四二遣唐使歌八首(-)(-〃)(-〃)(-)(-)(-)·········································四三遣新罗使歌二十五首(-~)(-)(-)(-〃)(-)(-)(-~)(-)(-)(-)(-〃)(-~)(-〃)···················································四四防人歌五十首(-~)(-~)(-)(-〃)(-)(-)(-~)(-)(-〃)(-)(-)(-〃)(-〃)(-〃)(-)(-)(-~)(-)(-~)(-〃)(-)(-~)(-〃)(-~)(-〃)(-)································································四五东歌四十六首(-)(-〃)(-~)(-)(-)(-〃)(-)(-)(-)(-〃)(-)(-〃)(-)(-〃)(-〃)(-)(-〃)(-)(-)(-)(-)(-〃)(-)(-〃)(-)(-)(-)(-)·········································四六有由缘杂歌九首(-〃)(-)(-)(-〃)(-)(-〃)···················································四七佚名作者歌六十四首(-)(-)(-)(-~)(-〃)(-)(-)(-)(-)(-)(-)(-)(-〃)(-)(-)(-)(-)(-)(-)(-)(-〃)(-)(-)(-〃)(-)(-)(-)(-~)(-)(-)(-~)(-〃)(-)(-〃)(-)(-)(-)(-〃)(-)(-)(-〃)(-〃)(-)(-)(-~)···················································译载作品原书编次索引·······························································一磐姬皇后四首仁德天皇之皇后生年未详卒于三四八年前后。天皇于三三四年正月提出欲纳八田皇女为妃遭皇后拒绝。但于皇后三四二年外游期间天皇强行纳妃皇后怨恨遂隐居山中。天皇亲往迎接亦不肯出直到逝世。《万叶集》二卷九○号歌后记对此事略有记载。磐姬皇后思天皇御制歌四首(-)君行日已久不见驾归踪。应入山中接或宜待宫中。(-)与其焦急待何惧攀高峰。岩石眠为枕岂惜丧微躬。(-)无奈徒静候恋心争得偿。直至青青发逶迤覆白霜。(-)秀穗满秋田茫茫笼晓雾。雾终有霁时释我恋心苦。注:这四首歌据称作于仁德年间(-)。为•万叶集‣最早的作品。二雄略天皇一首雄略天皇生卒年不详日本第二十一代天皇四五七四七九年间在位。据传他诞生时殿内充满神光及长矫健过人。一次狩猎路遇野猪舍人恐惧而攀上大树。野猪袭来被他用箭射死。及至他欲斩舍人皇后谏止说:为野猪而斩舍人君则无异于狼。他以为得善言而喜止。其他关于这位天皇的英勇传说亦颇不少因而他至今在日本被视为古代英雄人物。四七八年他曾往我国北魏派遣使臣《宋书〃倭国传》之倭王武即拟此人而作。天皇御制歌(-)笼筐兮臂挎笼筐木镢兮木镢在掌。游彼山冈挖菜姑娘有以告我:汝唤何名家在何方?大和之国全土唯我统治全权唯我执掌。尽皆告汝:我唤何名家在何方?注:这首歌作于雄略一至二三年间(-)。问人姓名即表示求婚之意。三圣德皇子一首圣德皇子亦称圣德太子用明天皇的皇子少时即通经学富有仁慈心。上宫圣德皇子出游竹原井之时见龙田山死人悲伤御作歌一首(-)如若居家中娇妻臂为枕旅途卧野山毙命堪怜悯。注:这首歌作于推古二十一年()。所谓上宫因其居住于皇宫的上方殿内故称。竹原井今大阪府柏原市高井田一带。龙田山横亘柏原市的山地。四军王二首军王生卒年未详。幸赞岐国安益郡之时军王见山作歌(-)霞弥春日长不知时已暮。悠悠羁旅心难泣胸中苦。欣闻我大君巡游幸此处。煦风越关山频将衣袖拂不分朝与夕吹向故乡路。自诩伟丈夫遣忧却无术。网浦众女郎烧盐火入腑。我心焦如盐有苦难倾诉。

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