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首页 大学英语自学教程上册

大学英语自学教程上册.doc

大学英语自学教程上册

xuyuanjia6
2009-05-20 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《大学英语自学教程上册doc》,可适用于成人教育领域

大学英语自学教程(上)电子版大家网wwwTopSagecom大学英语自学教程(上)AHowtobeasuccessfullanguagelearner“Learningalanguageiseasy,evenachildcandoit!”MostadultswhoarelearningasecondlanguagewoulddisagreewiththisstatementForthem,learningalanguageisaverydifficulttaskTheyneedhundredsofhoursofstudyandpractice,andeventhiswillnotguaranteesuccessforeveryadultlanguagelearnerLanguagelearningisdifferentfromotherkindsoflearningSomepeoplewhoareveryintelligentandsuccessfulintheirfieldsfinditdifficulttosucceedinlanguagelearningConversely,somepeoplewhoaresuccessfullanguagelearnersfinditdifficulttosucceedinotherfieldsLanguageteachersoftenofferadvicetolanguagelearners:“Readasmuchasyoucaninthenewlanguage”“Practicespeakingthelanguageeveryday”“Livewithpeoplewhospeakthelanguage”“Don’ttranslatetrytothinkinthenewlanguage”“Learnasachildwouldlearnplaywiththelanguage”ButwhatdoesasuccessfullanguagelearnerdoLanguagelearningresearchshowsthatsuccessfullanguagelearnersaresimilarinmanywaysFirstofall,successfullanguagelearnersareindependentlearnersTheydonotdependonthebookortheteachertheydiscovertheirownwaytolearnthelanguageInsteadofwaitingfortheteachertoexplain,theytrytofindthepatternsandtherulesforthemselvesTheyaregoodguesserswholookforcluesandformtheirownconclusionsWhentheyguesswrong,theyguessagainTheytrytolearnfromtheirmistakesSuccessfullanguagelearningisactivelearningTherefore,successfullearnersdonotwaitforachancetousethelanguagetheylookforsuchachanceTheyfindpeoplewhospeakthelanguageandtheyaskthesepeopletocorrectthemwhentheymakeamistakeTheywilltryanythingtocommunicateTheyarenotafraidtorepeatwhattheyhearortosaystrangethingstheyarewillingtomakemistakesandtryagainWhencommunicationisdifficult,theycanacceptinformationthatisinexactorincompleteItismoreimportantforthemtolearntothinkinthelanguagethantoknowthemeaningofeverywordFinally,successfullanguagelearnersarelearnerswithapurposeTheywanttolearnthelanguagebecausetheyareinterestedinthelanguageandthepeoplewhospeakitItisnecessaryforthemtolearnthelanguageinordertocommunicatewiththesepeopleandtolearnfromthemTheyfinditeasytopracticeusingthelanguageregularlybecausetheywanttolearnwithitWhatkindoflanguagelearnerareyouIfyouareasuccessfullanguagelearner,youhaveprobablybeenlearningindependently,actively,andpurposefullyOntheotherhand,ifyourlanguagelearninghasbeenlessthansuccessful,youmightdowelltotrysomeofthetechniquesoutlinedaboveBLanguageWhenwewanttotellotherpeoplewhatwethink,wecandoitnotonlywiththehelpofwords,butalsoinmanyotherwaysForinstance,wesometimesmoveourheadsupanddownwhenwewanttosay"yes”andwemoveourheadsfromsidetosidewhenwewanttosay"no"Peoplewhocanneitherhearnorspeak(thatis,deafanddumbpeople)talktoeachotherwiththehelpoftheirfingersPeoplewhodonotunderstandeachother'slanguagehavetodothesameThefollowingstoryshowshowtheysometimesdoitAnEnglishmanwhocouldnotspeakItalianwasoncetravelinginItalyOnedayheenteredarestaurantandsatdownatatableWhenthewaitercame,theEnglishmanopenedhismouth,puthisfingersinit,tookthemoutagainandmovedhislipsInthiswayhemeanttosay,"Bringmesomethingtoeat"ThewaitersoonbroughthimacupofteaTheEnglishmanshookhisheadandthewaiterunderstoodthathedidn'twanttea,sohetookitawayandbroughthimsomecoffeeTheEnglishman,whowasveryhungrybythistimeandnotatallthirsty,lookedverysadHeshookhisheadeachtimethewaiterbroughthimsomethingtodrinkThewaiterbroughthimwine,thenbeer,thensodawater,butthatwasn’tfood,ofcourseHewasjustgoingtoleavetherestaurantwhenanothertravelercameinWhenthismansawthewaiter,heputhishandsonhisstomachThatwasenough:inafewminutestherewasalargeplateofmacaroniandmeatonthetablebeforehimAsyousee,theprimitivelanguageofsignsisnotalwaysveryclearThelanguageofwordsismuchmoreexactWordsconsistofsounds,buttherearemanysoundswhichhaveameaningandyetarenotwordsForexample,wemaysay"Shshsh”whenwemean"keepsilent”Whenbabieslaugh,weknowtheyarehappy,andwhentheycry,weknowtheyareillorsimplywantsomethingItisthesamewithanimalsWhenadogsays“Grr”oracatsays"Fff”weknowtheyareangryButthesesoundsarenotlanguageLanguageconsistsofwordswhichweputtogetherintosentencesButanimalscannotdothis:adogcansay“Grr”whenhemeans"Iamangry,”buthecannotsayfirst"I”andthen"am”andthen"angry”AparrotcantalklikeamanitcanrepeatwholesentencesandknowswhattheymeanWemaysaythataparrottalks,butcannotsaythatitreallyspeaks,becauseitcannotformnewsentencesoutofthewordsitknowsOnlymanhasthepowertodothisATaxes,Taxes,andMoreTaxesAmericansoftensaythatthereareonlytwothingsapersoncanbesureofinlife:deathandtaxes,Americansdonothaveacorneronthe"death"market,butmanypeoplefeelthattheUnitedStatesleadstheworldwiththeworsttaxesTaxesconsistofthemoneywhichpeoplepaytosupporttheirgovernmentTherearegenerallythreelevelsofgovernmentintheUnitedStates:federal,state,andcitytherefore,therearethreetypesoftaxesSalariedpeoplewhoearnmorethanafewthousanddollarsmustpayacertainpercentageoftheirsalariestothefederalgovernmentThepercentagevariesfrompersontopersonItdependsontheirsalariesThefederalgovernmenthasagraduatedincometax,thatis,thepercentageofthetax(topercent)increasesasaperson'sincomeincreasesWiththehighcostoftaxes,peoplearenotveryhappyonApril,whenthefederaltaxesaredueThesecondtaxisforthestategovernment:NewYork,California,NorthDakota,oranyoftheotherfortysevenstatesSomestateshaveanincometaxsimilartothatofthefederalgovernmentOfcourse,thepercentageforthestatetaxislowerOtherstateshaveasalestax,whichisapercentagechargedtoanyitemwhichyoubuyinthatstateForexample,apersonmightwanttobuyapacketofcigarettesfortwentyfivecentsIfthereisasalestaxofeightpercentinthatstate,thenthecostofthecigarettesistwentysevencentsThisfigureincludesthesalestaxSomestatesuseincometaxinadditiontosalestaxtoraisetheirrevenuesThestatetaxlawsarediverseandconfusingThethirdtaxisforthecityThistaxcomesintwoforms:propertytax(peoplewhoownahomehavetopaytaxesonit)andexcisetax,whichischargedoncarsinacityThecitiesusethesefundsforeducation,policeandfiredepartments,publicworksandmunicipalbuildingsSinceAmericanspaysuchhightaxes,theyoftenfeelthattheyareworkingonedayeachweekjusttopaytheirtaxesPeoplealwayscomplainabouttaxesTheyoftenprotestthatthegovernmentusestheirtaxdollarsinthewrongwayTheysaythatitspendstoomuchonuselessandimpracticalprogramsAlthoughAmericanshavedifferentviewsonmanyissues,theytendtoagreeononesubject:taxesaretoohighBAdvertisingAdvertisingisonlypartofthetotalsaleseffort,butitisthepartthatattractsthemostattentionThisisnaturalenoughbecauseadvertisingisdesignedforjustthatpurposeInnewspapers,inmagazines,inthemail,onradioandtelevision,weconstantlyseeandhearthemessagesforhundredsofdifferentproductsandservicesForthemostpart,theyarethekindsofthingsthatwecanbepersuadedtobuy–foodanddrinks,carsandtelevisionsets,furnitureandclothing,travelandleisuretimeactivitiesThesimplestkindofadvertisingistheclassifiedadEverydaythenewspaperscarryafewpagesoftheseadsinthelargeSundayeditionstheremaybeseveralsectionsofthemAclassifiedadisusuallyonlyafewlineslongItisreallyanoticeorannouncementthatsomethingisavailableNewspapersalsocarryalargeamountofdisplayadvertisingMostofitisforstoresorforvariousformsofentertainmentNewspapersgenerallyreachanaudienceonlyinalimitedareaTobringtheirmessagetoalargeraudience,manywhowanttoputouttheiradsusenationalmagazinesManyofthetechniquesofmodernadvertisingweredevelopedinmagazineadsTheuseofbrightcolors,attractivepictures,andshortmessagesisallcharacteristicofmagazineadsThemostimportantpurposeistocatchtheeyeThemessageitselfisusuallyshort,oftennomorethanasloganwhichthepublicidentifieswiththeproductThesametechniqueshavebeencarriedoverintotelevisionadvertisingVoicesandmusichavebeenaddedtocolorandpicturestocatchtheearaswellastheeyeTelevisionadsareshort–usuallyonly,,orseconds,buttheyarerepeatedoverandoveragainsothattheaudienceseesandhearsthemmanytimesCommercialtelevisionhasmixedentertainmentandadvertisingIfyouwanttheentertainment,youhavetoputupwiththeadvertisingandmillionsofpeoplewanttheentertainmentThemenandwomeninthesalesdepartmentareresponsibleforthecompany’sadvertising,TheymustdecideontheaudiencetheywanttoreachTheymustalsodecideonthebestwaytogettheirmessagetotheirparticularaudienceTheyalsomakeanestimateofthecostsbeforemanagementapprovestheplanInmostlargecompaniesmanagementisdirectlyinvolvedinplanningtheadvertisingATheAtlanticOceanTheAtlanticOceanisoneoftheoceansthatseparatetheOldWorldfromtheNewForcenturiesitkepttheAmericasfrombeingdiscoveredbythepeopleofEuropeManywrongideasabouttheAtlanticmadeearlysailorsunwillingtosailfaroutintoitOneideawasthatitreachedoutto"theedgeoftheworld"SailorswereafraidthattheymightsailrightofftheearthAnotherideawasthatattheequatortheoceanwouldbeboilinghotTheAtlanticOceanisonlyhalfasbigasthePacific,butitisstillverylargeItismorethan,miles(,km)widewhereColumbuscrosseditEvenatitsnarrowestitisabout,miles(,km)wideThisnarrowestplaceisbetweenthebulgeofsouthAmericaandthebulgeofAfricaTwothingsmaketheAtlanticOceanratherunusualForsolargeanoceanithasveryfewislandsAlso,itistheworld'ssaltiestoceanThereissomuchwaterintheAtlanticthatitishardtoimaginehowmuchthereisButsupposenomorerainfellintoitandnomorewaterwasbroughttoitbyriversItwouldtaketheoceanabout,yearstodryupOntheaveragethewaterisalittlemorethantwomiles(km)deep,butinplacesitismuchdeeperThedeepestspotisnearPuertoRicoThis"deep",feetalmostsixmiles(km)OneofthelongestmountainrangesoftheworldrisestheflooroftheAtlanticThismountainrangerunsnorthandsouthdownthemiddleoftheoceanThetopsofafewofthemountainsreachupabovetheseaandmakeislandsTheAzoresarethetopsofpeaksinthemidAtlanticmountainrangeSeveralhundredmileseastwardfromFloridathereisapartoftheoceancalledtheSargassoSeaHerethewaterisquiet,forthereislittlewindInthedaysofsailingvesselsthecrewwereafraidtheywouldbebecalmedhereSometimestheywereOceancurrentsaresometimecalled"riversinthesea"Oneofthese"river"intheAtlanticiscalledtheGulfStreamItisacurrentofwarmwaterAnotheristheLabradorCurrentcoldwatercomingdownfromtheArcticOceancurrentsaffecttheclimatesofthelandsnearwhichtheyflowTheAtlanticfurnishesmuchfoodforthepeopleonitsshoresOneofitsmostfamousfishingregions,theGrandBanks,isnearNewfoundlandTodaytheAtlanticisagreathighwayItisnot,however,alwaysasmoothandsafeoneStormssweepacrossitandpileupgreatwavesIcebergsfloatdownfromtheFarNorthacrossthepathsofshipsWenowhavesuchfastwaysoftravelingthatthisbigoceanseemstohavegrownsmallerColumbussailedformorethantwomonthstocrossitAfastmodernsteamshipcanmakethetripinlessthanfourdaysAirplanesflyfromNewYorktoLondoninonlyeighthoursandfromSouthAmericatoAfricainfour!BTheMoonWefindthatthemoonisabout,miles(,km)awayfromtheearth,and,towithinafewthousandmiles,itsdistancealwaysremainsthesameYetaverylittleobservationshowsthatthemoonisnotstandingstillItsdistancefromtheearthremainsthesame,butitsdirectioncontinuallychangesWefindthatitistravelinginacircleorverynearlyacircleroundtheearth,goingcompletelyroundonceamonth,or,moreexactly,onceeverydaysItisournearestneighbourinspace,andlikeourselvesitiskepttiedtotheearthbytheearth'sgravitationalpullExceptforthesun,themoonlooksthebiggestobjectintheskyActuallyitisoneofthesmallest,andonlylooksbigbecauseitissoneartousItsdiameterisonly,miles(,km),oralittlemorethanaquarterofthediameteroftheearthOnceamonth,or,moreexactly,onceeverydays,atthetimewecall"fullmoon,"itswholedisclooksbrightAtothertimesonlypartofitappearsbright,andwealwaysfindthatthisisthepartwhichfacestowardsthesun,whilethepartfacingawayfromthesunappearsdarkArtistscouldmaketheirpicturesbetteriftheykeptinmindonlythosepartsofthemoonwhicharelightedupbythesunarebrightThisshowsthatthemoongivesnolightofitsownItmerelyreflectsthelightofthesun,likeahugemirrorhungintheskyYetthedarkpartofthemoon’ssurfaceisnotabsolutelyblackgenerallyitisjustlightenoughforustobeabletoseeitsoutline,sothatwespeakofseeing"theoldmooninthenewmoon'sarms"Thelightbywhichweseetheoldmoondoesnotcomefromthesun,butfromtheearthweknowswellhowthesurfaceoftheseaorofsnow,orevenofawetroad,mayreflectuncomfortablymuchofthesun'slightontoourfacesInthesamewaythesurfaceofthewholeearthreflectsenoughofthesun'slightontothefaceofthemoonforustobeabletoseethepartsofitwhichwouldotherwisebedarkIftherewereanyinhabitantsofthemoon,theywouldseeourearthreflectingthelightofthesun,againlikeahugemirrorhungintheskyTheywouldspeakofearthlightjustaswespeakofmoonlight"Theoldmooninthenewmoon'sarms"isnothingbutthatpartofthemoon'ssurfaceonwhichitisnight,lightedupbyearthlightInthesameway,thelunarinhabitantswouldoccasionallyseepartofourearthinfullsunlight,andtherestlightedonlybymoonlighttheymightcallthis"theoldearthinthenewearth'sarms”AImprovingYourMemoryPsychologicalresearchhasfocusedonanumberofbasicprinciplesthathelpmemory:meaningfulness,organization,association,andvisualizationItisusefultoknowhowtheseprinciplesworkMeaningfulnessaffectsmemoryatalllevelsInformationthatdoesnotmakeanysensetoyouisdifficulttorememberThereareseveralwaysinwhichwecanmakematerialmoremeaningfulManypeople,forinstance,learnarhymetohelpthemrememberDoyouknowtherhyme“ThirtydayshasSeptember,April,June,andNovember…”IthelpsmanypeoplerememberwhichmonthsoftheyearhavedaysOrganizationalsomakesadifferenceinourabilitytorememberHowusefulwouldalibrarybeifthebookswerekeptinrandomorderMaterialthatisorganizedisbetterrememberedthanjumbledinformationOneexampleoforganizationischunkingChunkingconsistsofgroupingseparatebitsofinformationForexample,thenumberismoreeasilyrememberedifitischunkedas,,CategorizingisanothermeansoforganizationSupposeyouareaskedtorememberthefollowinglistofwords:man,bench,dog,desk,woman,horse,child,cat,chairManypeoplewillgroupthewordsintosimilarcategoriesandrememberthemasfollows:man,woman,childcat,dog,horsebench,chair,deskNeedlesstosay,thesecondlistcanberememberedmoreeasilythanthefirstoneAssociationreferstotakingthematerialwewanttorememberandrelatingittosomethingwerememberaccuratelyInmemorizinganumber,youmighttrytoassociateitwithfamiliarnumbersoreventsForexample,theheightofMountFujiinJapan,feetmightberememberedusingthefollowingassociations:isthenumberofmonthsintheyear,andisthenumberofdaysinayear()addedtothenumberofmonthstwice()ThelastprincipleisvisualizationResearchhasshownstrikingimprovementsinmanytypesofmemorytaskswhenpeopleareaskedtovisualizetheitemstoberememberedInonestudy,subjectsinonegroupwereaskedtolearnsomewordsusingimagery,whilethesecondgroupusedrepetitiontolearnthewordsThoseusingimageryrememberedtopercentofthewords,comparedwithtopercentofthewordsforthosewhomemorizedbyrepetitionThusforminganintegratedimagewithalltheinformationplacedinasinglementalpicturecanhelpustopreserveamemoryBShorttermMemoryTherearetwokindsofmemory:shoretermandlongtermInformationinlongtermmemorycanberecalledatalatertimewhenitisneededTheinformationmaybekeptfordaysorweeksSometimesinformationinthelongtermmemoryishardtorememberStudentstakingexamoftenhavethisexperienceIncontrast,informationinshoretermmemoryiskeptforonlyafewseconds,usuallybyrepeatingtheinformationoverandoverForexample,youlookupanumberinthetelephonebook,andbeforeyoudial,yourepeatthenumberoverandoverIfsomeoneinterruptsyou,youwillprobablyforgetthenumberInlaboratorystudies,subjectsareunabletorememberthreelettersaftereighteensecondsiftheyarenotallowedtorepeattheletterstothemselvesPsychologistsstudymemoryandlearningwithbothanimalandhumansubjectsThetwoexperimentshereshowhowshorttermmemoryhasbeenstudiedDrHunterstudiedshorttermmemoryinratsHeusedaspecialapparatuswhichhadacagefortheratandthreedoors,TherewasalightineachdoorFirsttheratwasplacedintheclosedcageNext,oneofthelightswasturnedonandthenoffTherewasfoodfortheratonlyatthisdoorAfterthelightwasturnedoff,therathadtowaitashorttimebeforeitwasreleasedfromitscageThen,ifitwenttothecorrectdoor,itwasrewardedwiththefoodthatwasthereHunterdidthisexperimentmanytimesHealwaysturnedonthelightsinarandomorderTherathadtowaitdifferentintervalsbeforeitwasreleasedfromthecageHunterfoundthatiftherathadtowaitmorethantenseconds,itcouldnotrememberthecorrectdoorHunter'sresultsshowthatratshaveashorttermmemoryofabouttensecondsLater,DrHenningstudiedhowstudentswhoarelearningEnglishasasecondlanguageremembervocabularyThesubjectsinhisexperimentwerestudentsattheUniversityofCaliforniainLosAngelesTheyrepresentedalllevelsofabilityinEnglishbeginning,inter

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