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首页 【杜威诞辰150年之际经典重读】教育中的道德原则(英文原版)

【杜威诞辰150年之际经典重读】教育中的道德原则(英文原版).pdf

【杜威诞辰150年之际经典重读】教育中的道德原则(英文原版)

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2009-05-08 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【杜威诞辰150年之际经典重读】教育中的道德原则(英文原版)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

)mCOIJohnEthicalprinciplesunderlyingeducationISMTHETHIRDYEARBOOKETHICALPRINCIPLESUNDERLYINGEDUCATIONByJoHNDEwEY,PHD,TheUniversityofChicagoITisquiteclearthattherecannotbetwosetsofethicalprinciples,ortwoformsofethicaltheory,oneforlifeintheschool,andtheotherforlifeoutsideoftheschoolAsconductisone,theprinciplesofconductareonealsoThefrequenttendencytodiscussthemoralsoftheschool,asifthelatterwereaninstitutionbyitself,andasifitsmoralecouldbestatedwithoutreferencetothegeneralscientificprinciplesofconduct,appearstomehighlyunfortunatePrinciplesarethesameItisthespecialpointsofcontactandapplicationwhichvarywithdifferentconditions^Ishallmakenoapology,accordingly,forcommencingwithstatementswhichseemtomeofuniversalvalidityandscope,andafterwardsconsideringthemoralworkoftheschoolasaspecialcaseofthesegeneralprinciplesImaybeforgivenalsoforaddingthatthelimitsofspaceforbidmuchinthewayofamplificationandqualification,andthat,sofarasformisconcerned,thematerialwillthereforebepresentedinsomewhatdogmaticshapeIhope,however,itwillnotbefounddogmaticinspirit,fortheprinciplesstatedareallofthem,inmyjudgment,capableofpurelyscientificjustificationAllethicaltheoryistwofacedItrequirestobeconsideredfromtwodifferentpointsofview,andstatedintwodifferentsetsoftermsThesearethesocialandthepsychologicalWedonothavehere,however,adivision,butsimplyadistinctionPsychologicalethicsdoesnotcoverpartofthefield,andthenrequiresocialethicstoincludetheterritoryleftuntouchedBothcovertheentiresphereofconductNordoesthedistinctionmarkacompromise,orafusion,asifatonepointthepsychologicalviewbrokedown,andneededtobesupplementedbythesociologicalEachtheoryiscompleteandcoherentiTHETHIRDYEARBOOKwithinitself,sofarasitsownendorpurposeisconcernedButconductisofsuchanatureastorequiretobestatedthroughoutfromtwopointsofviewHowthisdistinctionhappenstoexistmayperhapsbeguessedatbycallingtomindthattheindividualandsocietyareneitheropposedtoeachothernorseparatedfromeachother^ocietisasocietyofindividualsandtheindividualisalwaysasocialindividualHehasnoexistencebyhimselfHelivesin,for,andbysociety,justassocietyhasnoexistenceexceptinginandthroughtheindividualswhoconstituteit^Butwecanstateoneandthesameprocess(as,forexample,tellingthetruth)eitherfromthestandpointofwhatiteffectsinsocietyasawhole,orwithreferencetotheparticularindividualconcernedThelatterstatementwillbepsychologicaltheformer,socialastoitspurportandtermsIf,then,thedifferenceissimplyapointofview,wefirstneedtofindoutwhatfixesthetwopointsofviewWhyaretheynecessaryBecauseconductitselfhastwoaspectsOnonesideconductisaformofactivityItisamodeofoperationItissomethingwhichsomebodydoesThereisnoconductexceptingwherethereisanagentFromthisstandpointconductisaprocesshavingitsownformormode,having,asitwere,itsownrunningmachineryThatis,itissomethingwhichtheagentdoesinacertainwaysomethingwhichisanoutcomeoftheagenthimself,andwhicheffectscertainchangeswithintheagentconsideredasanagentordoerNowwhenweaskhowconductiscarriedon,whatsortofadoingitis,when,thatistosay,wediscussitwithreferencetoanagentfromwhomitsprings,andwhosepowersitmodifies,ourdiscussionisnecessarilypsychologicalPsychologythusfixesforusthehowofconduct,thewayinwhichittakesplaceConsiderationfromthisstandpointisnecessarybecauseitisobviousthatmodificationsinresultsorproductsmustflowfromchangesintheagentordoerIfwewanttogetdifferentthingsdone,wemustbeginwithchangingthemachinerywhichdoesthemIhopethetermmachineryherewillnotbemisunderstoodbybeingtakenintoodeadandmechanicalasenseAllthatismeanthereisthatthemodeofactionoftheindividualagentcontrolstheproduct,orwhatisdone,justasthewayinwhichaparticularmachineworkscontrolstheoutputinthatdirectionTheindividualagenthasacertainstructure,andcertainwaysofoperatingItissimplythiswhichisreferredtoasmachineryButconducthasawhataswellasahowThereissomethingETHICALPRINCIPLESv,^VdoneaswellasawayinwhichitisdoneThereareends,outcomes,results,aswellasways,means,andprocessesNowwhenweconsiderconductfromthisstandpoint(withreference,thatistosay,toitsactualfilling,content,orconcreteworth)weareconsideringconductfromasocialstandpointfromtheplacewhichitoccupies,notsimplywithreferencetothepersonwhodoesit,butwithreferencetothewholelivingsituationintowhichitentersThepsychologicalviewofconducthastodo,then,withthequestionofagency,ofhowtheindividualoperatesthesocial,withwhattheindividualdoesandneedstodo,consideredfromthestandpointofhismembershipinawholewhichislargerthanhimselfWemayillustratebyreferencetobusinesslifeAmanstartsinabusinessofmanufacturingcottonclothNowthisoccupationofhismaybeconsideredfromtwostandpointsTheindividualwhomakestheclothdoesnotoriginatethedemandforitSocietyneedsthecloth,andtherebyfurnishestheendoraimtotheindividualItneedsacertainamountofcloth,andclothofcertainvaryingqualitiesandpatternsItisthissituationoutsidethemereoperationsofthemanufacturerwhichfixesthemeaningandvalueofwhathedoesIfitwerenotforthesesocialneedsanddemands,theoccupationofthe,,ymanufacturerwouldbepurelyformalHemightaswellgooutintothewildernessandheapupandteardownpilesofsandButontheothersidesocietymusthaveitsneedsmet,itsendsrealized,throughtheactivitiesofsomespecificindividualorgroupofindividualsTheneedswillforevergounsatisfiedunlesssomebodytakesitashisspecialbusinesstosupplythemSowemayconsiderthemanufactoryofcottoncloth,notonlyfromthestandpointofthepositionwhichitoccupiesinthelargersocialwhole,butalsoasamodeofoperationwhichsimplyasamodeiscompleteinitselfAfterthemanufacturerhasdeterminedtheendswhichhehastomeet(thekindsandamountsofclothheneedstoproduce)hehastogotoworktoconfsiderthecheapestandbestmodesofproducingthem,andofgettingthemtothemarketHehastotransferhisattentionfromtheendstothemeansHehastoseehowtomakehisfactory,consideredasamodeofactivity,thebestpossibleorganizedagencywithinitselfNoamountofreflectionuponhowbadlysocietyneedsclothwillhelphimhereHehastothinkouthisproblemintermsofthenumberandkindiofmachineswhichhewilluse,thenumberofmenwhichhewillemploy,howmuchhewillpaythem,howandwherehewillbuyhisrawi!THETHIRDYEARBOOKmaterial,andthroughwhatinstrumentalitieshewillgethisgoodstothemarketNowwhilethisquestionisultimatelyonlyameanstothelargersocialend,yetinorderthatitmaybecomeatruemeans,andaccomplishtheworkwhichithastodo,itmustbecome,forthetimebeing,anendinitselfItmustbestated,inotherwords,intermsofthefactoryasaworkingagencyIthinkthisparallelismmaybeappliedtomoralconductwithoutthechangeofasingleprincipleItisnotthemereindividualasanindividualwhomakesthefinaldemandformoralaction,whoestablishesthefinalend,orfurnishesthefinalstandardsofworthItistheconstitutionanddevelopmentofthelargerlifeintowhichheenterswhichsettlesthesethingsButwhenwecometothequestionofhowtheindividualistomeetthemoraldemands,ofhowheistorealizethevalueswithinhimself,thequestionisonewhichconcernstheindividualasanagentHenceitmustbeansweredinpsychologicaltermsLetuschangethesceneofdiscussiontotheschoolThechildwhoiseducatedthereisamemberofsocietyandmustbeinstructedandcaredforassuchamemberThemoralresponsibilityoftheschool,andofthosewhoconductit,istosocietyTheschoolisfundamentallyaninstitutionerectedbysocietytodoacertainspecificworktoexerciseacertainspecificfunctioninmaintainingthelifeandadvancingthewelfareofsocietyTheeducationalsystemwhichdoesnotrecognizethisfactasentailinguponitanethicalresponsibilityisderelictandadefaulterItisnotdoingwhatitwascalledintoexistencetodo,andwhatitpretendstodo^Hencethenecessityofdiscussingtheentirestructureandthespecificworkingsoftheschoolsystemfromthestandpointofitsmoralpositionandmoralfunctiontosociety^TheaboveiscommonplaceButtheideaisordinarilytakenintoolimitedandrigidawayThesocialworkoftheschoolisoftenlimitedtotrainingforcitizenship,andcitizenshipistheninterpretedinanarrowsenseasmeaningcapacitytovoteintelligently,adispositiontoobeylaws,etcButitisfutiletocontractandcramptheethicalresponsibilityoftheschoolinthiswayThechildisone,andhemusteitherlivehislifeasanintegralunifiedbeingorsurferlossandcreatefrictionTopickoutoneofthemanifoldsocialrelationswhichthechildbears,andtodefinetheworkoftheschoolwithrelationtothat,islikeinstitutingavastandcomplicatedsystemofphysicalexerciseETHICALPRINCIPLESwhichwouldhaveforitsobjectsimplythedevelopmentofthelungsandthepowerofbreathing,independentofotherorgansandfunctionsThechildisanorganicwhole,intellectually,socially,andmorally,aswellasphysicallyTheethicalaimwhichdeterminestheworkoftheschoolmustaccordinglybeinterpretedinthemostcomprehensiveandorganicspiritWemusttakethechildasamemberofsocietyinthebroadestsenseanddemandwhateverisnecessarytoenablethechildtorecognizeallhissocialrelationsandtocarrythemoutThechildistobenotonlyavoterandasubjectoflawheisalsotoV*aTTT^flabfirOfnfarcy},himselfresponsible,inallprobability,inturn,forrearingandtrainingoffuturechildren,andthusmaintainingthecontinuityofsocietyHeistobeaworket,engagedinsomeoccupationwhichwillbeofusetosociety,andwhichwillmaintainhisownindependenceandselfrespectHeistobeamemberofsomeparticularneighborhoodandcommunity,andmugttcontributetothevalues:oflife,addtothedecenciesandgracesofcivilizationwhereverheisThesearebareandformalstatements,butifweletourimaginationtranslatethemintotheirconcretedetailswehaveawideandvariedsceneForthechildproperlytotakehisplacewithreferencetothesevariousfunctionsmeanstraininginscience,inart,inhistorycommandofthefundamentalmethodsofinquiryandthefundamentaltoolsofintercourseandcommunicationitmeansatrainedandsoundbody,skillfuleyeandhandhabitsofindustry,perseverance,and,aboveall,habitsofserviceablenessToisolatetheformalrelationshipofcitizenshipfromthewholesystemofrelationswithwhichitisactuallyinterwoventosupposethatthereisanyoneparticularstudyormodeoftreatmentwhichcanmakethechildagoodcitizentosuppose,inotherwords,thatagoodcitizenisanythingmorethanathoroughlyefficientandserviceablememberofsociety,onewithallhispowersofbodyandmindundercontrol,isacrampedsuperstitionwhichitishopedmaysoondisappearfromeducationaldiscussionOnepointmoreThesocietyofwhichthechildistobeamemberis,intheUnitedStates,ademocraticandprogressivesocietyThechildmustbeeducatedforleadershipaswellasforobedienceHemusthavepowerofselfdirectionandpowerofdirectingothers,powersofadministration,abilitytoassumepositionsofresponsibilityThisnecessityofeducatingforleadershipisasgreatontheindustrialasonthepoliticalsideTheaffairsoflifearecomingmoreandmoreunderthecontrolofinsightandskillinperceivingandeffectingcombinationsTHETHIRDYEARBOOKMoreover,theconditionsoflifeareincontinualchangeWeareinthemidstofatremendousindustrialandcommercialdevelopmentNewinventions,newmachines,newmethodsoftransportationandintercoursearemakingoverthewholesceneofactionyearbyyearItisanabsoluteimpossibilitytoeducatethechildforanyfixedstationinlifeSofaraseducationisconductedunconsciouslyorconsciouslyonthisbasis,itresultsinfittingthefuturecitizenfornostationinlife,butmakeshimadrone,ahangeron,oranactualretardinginfluenceintheonwardmovementInsteadofcaringforhimselfandforothers,hebecomesonewhohashimselftobecaredforHere,too,theethicalresponsibilityoftheschoolonthesocialsidemustbeinterpretedinthebroadestandfreestspirititisequivalenttothattrainingofthechildwhichwillgivehimsuchpossessionofhimselfthathemaytakechargeofhimselfmaynotonlyadapthimselftothechangeswhicharegoingon,buthavepowertoshapeanddirectthosechanges|Itisnecessarytoapplythisconceptionofthechildsmembership*insocietymorespecificallytodeterminingtheethicalprinciplesofeducationApartfromthethoughtofparticipationinsociallifetheschoolhasXnoendnoraimAslongasweconfineourselvestotheschoolasanIisolatedinstitutionvehavenofinaldirectingethicalprinciples,becauseIwehavenoobjectoridealButitissaidtheendofeducationmaybestatedinpurelyindividualtermsForexample,itissaidtobetheCharmoniousdevelopmentofallthepowersoftheindividualHerewehavenoapparentreferencetosociallifeormembership,andyetitisarguedwehaveanadequateandthoroughgoingdefinitionofwhatthegoalofeducationisButifthisdefinitionistakenindependentlyofsocialrelationshipweshallfindthatwehavenostandardorcriterionfortellingwhatismeantbyanyoneofthetermsconcernedWedonotknowwhatapoweriswedonotknowwhatdevelopmentiswedonotknowwhatharmonyisapowerisapowerwithreferencetotheusetowhichitisput,thefunctionithastoserveThereisnothinginthemakeupofthehuman~BeTng,takeninanisolatedway,whichfurnishescontrollingendsandservestomarkoutpowersIfweleaveouttheaimsuppliedfromsociallifewehavenothingbuttheoldfacultypsychologytofallbackupontotellwhatismeantbypoweringeneralorwhatthespecificpowersareTheideareducesitselftoenumeratingalotoffacultieslikeperception,memory,reasoning,etc,andthenstatingthateachoneofthesepowersneedstobedevelopedETHICALPRINCIPLESButthisstatementisbarrenandformalItreducestrainingtoanemptygymnasticAcutepowersofobservationandmemorymightbedevelopedbystudyingChinesecharactersacutenessinreasoningmightbegotbydiscussionofthescholasticsubtletiesoftheMiddleAgesThesimplefactisthatthereisnoisolatedfacultyofobservation,ormemory,orreasoninganymorethanthereisanoriginalfacultyofblacksmithing,carpentering,orsteamengineeringThesefacultiessimplymeanthatjparticularimpulsesandhabitshavebeencoordinatedandframedwithreferencetoaccomplishingcertaindefinitekindsofworkPreciselythesamethingholdsofthesocalledmentalfacultiesTheyarenotpowersinthemselves,butaresuchonlywithreferencetotheendstowhichtheyareput,theserviceswhichtheyhavetoperformHencetheycannotbelocatednordiscussedaspowersonatheoretical,butonlyonapracticalbasisWeneedtoknowthesocialsituationswithreferencetowhichtheindividualwillhavetouseabilitytoobserve,recollect,imagine,andreasonbeforewegetanyintelligentandconcretebasisfortellingwhatatrainingofmentalpowersactuallymeanseitherinitsgeneralprinciplesorinitsworkingdetailsWegetnomoralideals,nomoralstandardsforschoollifeexceptingaswesointerpretinsocialtermsTounderstandwhattheschoolisactuallydoing,todiscoverdefectsinitspractice,andtoformplansforitsprogressmeanstohaveaclearconceptionofwhatsocietyrequiresandoftherelationoftheschooltotheserequirementsItishightime,however,toapplythisgeneralprinciplesoastogiveitasomewhatmoredefinitecontentWhatdoesthegeneralprinciplesignifywhenweviewtheexistingschoolsysteminitslightWhatdefectsdoesthisprinciplepointoutWhatchangesdoesitindicateThefundamentalconclusionisthattheschoolmustbeitselfmadeintoavitalsocialinstitutiontoaverymuchgreaterextentthanobtainsatpresentIamtoldthatthereisaswimmingschoolinthecityofChicagowhereyoutharetaughttoswimwithoutgoingintothewater,beingrepeatedlydrilledinthevariousmovementswhicharenecessaryforswimmingWhenoneoftheyoungmensotrainedwasaskedwhathedidwhenhegotintothewater,helaconicallyreplied,SunkThestoryhappenstobetrueifitwerenot,itwouldseemtobeafablemadeexpresslyforthepurposeoftypifyingtheprevailingstatusoftheschool,asjudgedfromthestandpointofitsethicalrelationship|toLocietyTheschoolcannotbeapreparationforsociallifeexceptingJillTHETHIRDYEARBOOKasitreproduces,withinitself,thetypicalconditionsofsociallifeTheschoolatpresentisengagedlargelyuponthefutiletaskofSisyphusItisendeavoringtoformpracticallyanintellectualhabitinchildrenforuseinasociallifewhichis,itwouldalmostseem,carefullyandpurposelykeptawayfromanyvitalcontactwiththechildwhoisthusundergoingtrainingTheonlyway*toprepareforsociallifeistoengageinsociallifeToformhabitsofsocialusefulnessandserviceablenessapartfromanydirectsocialneedandmotive,andapartfromanyexistingsocialsituation,is,totheletter,teachingthechildtoswimbygoingthroughmotionsoutsideofthewaterThemostindispensableconditionisleftoutofaccount,andtheresultsarecorrespondinglyfutile^)Themuchandcommonlylamentedseparationintheschoolsbetweenintellectualandmoraltraining,betweenacquiringinformationandgrowthofcharacter,issimplyoneexpressionofthefailuretoconceiveandconstructtheschoolasasocialinstitution,havingsociallifeandvaluewithinitselfxExceptinginsofarastheschoolisanembryonicyettypicalcommunitylife,moraltrainingmustbepartlypathologicalandpartlyformal,ftItispathologicalinasmuchasthestresscomestobelaiduponcorrectingwrongdoinginsteadofuponforminghabitsofpositiveserviceTheteacherisnecessarilyforcedintoapositionwherehisconcernwiththemorallifeofthepupilstakeslargelytheformofbeingonthealertforfailurestoconformtotheschoolrulesandroutineTheseregulations,judgedfromthestandpointofthedevelopmentofthechildatthetime,aremoreorlessconventionalandarbitraryTheyareruleswhichhavetobemadeinorderthattheexistingm

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【杜威诞辰150年之际经典重读】教育中的道德原则(英文原版)

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