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首页 【杜威诞辰150年之际经典重读】民主与教育(英文原版)

【杜威诞辰150年之际经典重读】民主与教育(英文原版).pdf

【杜威诞辰150年之际经典重读】民主与教育(英文原版)

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2009-05-08 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【杜威诞辰150年之际经典重读】民主与教育(英文原版)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

DEMOCRACYANDEDUCATIONTEXTBOOKSERIESEDITEDBYPAULMONROE,PHDSTATEANDCOUNTYEDUCATIONALREORGANIZATIONByELLWOODPCUBBERLEY,PHD,ProfessorofEducation,LelandStanfordJuniorUniversitySTATEANDCOUNTYSCHOOLADMINISTRATIONVOLITEXTBOOKOFPRINCIPLESInPreparationVOLIISOURCEBOOKByELLWOODPCUBBERLEY,PHD,ProfessorofEducation,LelandStanfordJuniorUniversity,andEDWARDCELLIOTT,PHD,ProfessorofEducation,UniversityofWisconsinTEXTBOOKINTHEPRINCIPLESOFEDUCATIONByERNESTNHENDERSON,PHD,ProfessorofEducationandPhilosophy,AdelphiCollegePRINCIPLESOFSECONDARYEDUCATIONByPAULMONROE,PHD,ProfessorofHistoryofEducation,TeachersCollege,ColumbiaUniversityTEXTBOOKINTHEHISTORYOFEDUCATIONByPAULMONROE,PnDSOURCEBOOKINTHEHISTORYOFEDUCATIONFORTHEGREEKANDROMANPERIODByPAULMONROE,PHDAHISTORYOFTHEFAMILYASASOCIALANDEDUCATIONALINSTITUTIONByWILLYSTINEGOODSELL,PHD,AssistantProfessorofEducation,TeachersCollege,ColumbiaUniversityDEMOCRACYANDEDUCATIONANINTRODUCTIONTOTHEPHILOSOPHYOFEDUCATIONByJOHNDEWEY,PHDDEMOCRACYANDEDUCATIONANINTRODUCTIONTOTHEPHILOSOPHYOFEDUCATIONBYNeto||rfeTHEMACMILLANCOMPANYAllrightireservedPRINTEDINTHEUNITEDSTATESOFAMERICACOPYRIGHT,,BYTHEMACMILLANCOMPANYSetupandelectrotypedPublishedMarch,ReprintedJune,September,December,June,March,December,August,December,September,January,September,March,November,January,April,December,July,January,,January,,NorfajooUJGushingCoBerwickSmithCoNorwood,Mass,USAPREFACETHEfollowingpagesembodyanendeavortodetectandstatetheideasimpliedinademocraticsocietyandtoapplytheseideastotheproblemsoftheenterpriseofeducationThediscussionincludesanindicationoftheconstructiveaimsandmethodsofpubliceducationasseenfromthispointofview,andacriticalestimateofthetheoriesofknowingandmoraldevelopmentwhichwereformulatedinearliersocialconditions,butwhichstilloperate,insocietiesnominallydemocratic,tohampertheadequaterealizationofthedemocraticidealAswillappearfromthebookitself,thephilosophystatedinthisbookconnectsthegrowthofdemocracywiththedevelopmentoftheexperimentalmethodinthesciences,evolutionaryideasinthebiologicalsciences,andtheindustrialreorganization,andisconcernedtopointoutthechangesinsubjectmatterandmethodofeducationindicatedbythesedevelopmentsHeartyacknowledgmentsareduetoDrGoodsellofTeachersCollegeforcriticismstoProfessorKilpatrickofthesameinstitutionforcriticisms,andforsuggestionsregardingtheorderoftopics,ofwhichIhavefreelyavailedmyself,andtoMissElsieRipleyClappformanycriticismsandsuggestionsThetwofirstnamedhavealsobeenkindenoughtoreadtheproofsheetsIamalsogreatlyindebtedtoalonglineofstudentswhosesuccessiveclassesspanmoreyearsthanIcaretoenumerateJDCOLUMBIAUNIVERSITY,NEWYORKCITY,August,TABLEOFCONTENTSCHAPTERIEDUCATIONASANECESSITYOFLIFE:PAGERenewalofLifebyTransmissioniEducationandCommunicationThePlaceofFormalEducationSummary**CHAPTERIIEDUCATIONASASOCIALFUNCTION:TheNatureandMeaningofEnvironmentTheSocialEnvironmentTheSocialMediumasEducativeTheSchoolasaSpecialEnvironmentSummaryCHAPTERIIIEDUCATIONASDIRECTION:TheEnvironmentasDirectiveModesofSocialDirectionImitationandSocialPsychologySomeApplicationstoEducationSummaryCHAPTERIVEDUCATIONASGROWTH:TheConditionsofGrowthHabitsasExpressionsofGrowthTheEducationalBearingsoftheConceptionofDevelopmentSummaryviiviiiTableofContentsCHAPTERvPREPARATION,UNFOLDING,ANDFORMALDISCIPLINE:PACKEducationasPreparationEducationasUnfoldingEducationasTrainingofFacultiesSummaryCHAPTERVIEDUCATIONASCONSERVATIVEANDPROGRESSIVE:EducationasFormationEducationasRecapitulationandRetrospectionEducationasReconstructionSummaryCHAPTERVIITHEDEMOCRATICCONCEPTIONINEDUCATION:TheImplicationsofHumanAssociationTheDemocraticIdealThePlatonicEducationalPhilosophyTheIndividualisticIdealoftheEighteenthCenturyEducationasNationalandasSocialSummaryCHAPTERVIIIAIMSINEDUCATION:TheNatureofanAimTheCriteriaofGoodAimsApplicationsinEducationSummaryCHAPTERIXNATURALDEVELOPMENTANDSOCIALEFFICIENCYASAIMS:NatureasSupplyingtheAimSocialEfficiencyasAimCultureasAimSummaryff,TableofContentsixCHAPTERx*INTERESTANDDISCIPLINE:PAGETheMeaningoftheTermsTheImportanceoftheIdeaofInterestinEducationSomeSocialAspectsoftheQuestionSummaryCHAPTERXIEXPERIENCEANDTHINKING:TheNatureofExperienceReflectioninExperienceSummaryCHAPTERXIITHINKINGINEDUCATION:TheEssentialsofMethodSummaryCHAPTERXIIITHENATUREOFMETHOD:TheUnityofSubjectMatterandMethodMethodasGeneralandasIndividualTheTraitsofIndividualMethodSummaryCHAPTERXIVTHENATUREOFSUBJECTMATTER:SubjectMatterofEducatorandofLearnerTheDevelopmentofSubjectMatterintheLearnerScienceorRationalizedKnowledgeSubjectMatterasSocialSummaryTableofContentsCHAPTERXVPLAYANDWORKINTHECURRICULUM:PAGEThePlaceofActiveOccupationsinEducationAvailableOccupationsWorkandPlaySummaryCHAPTERXVITHESIGNIFICANCEOFGEOGRAPHYANDHISTORY:ExtensionofMeaningofPrimaryActivitiesTheComplementaryNatureofHistoryandGeographyHistoryandPresentSocialLifeSummaryCHAPTERXVIISCIENCEINTHECOURSEOFSTUDY:TheLogicalandthePsychologicalScienceandSocialProgressNaturalismandHumanisminEducationSummaryCHAPTERXVIIIEDUCATIONALVALUES:TheNatureofRealizationorAppreciationTheValuationofStudiesATheSegregationandOrganizationofValuesSummaryCHAPTERXIXLABORANDLEISURE:TheOriginoftheOppositionThePresentSituationSummaryTableofContentsxiCHAPTERxxINTELLECTUALANDPRACTICALSTUDIES:PAGETheOppositionofExperienceandTrueKnowledgeTheModernTheoryofExperienceandKnowledgeExperienceasExperimentationSummary,,,,CHAPTERXXIPHYSICALANDSOCIALSTUDIES:NATURALISMANDHUMANISM:TheHistoricBackgroundofHumanisticStudyTheModernScientificInterestinNatureThePresentEducationalProblemSummaryCHAPTERXXLJTHEINDIVIDUALANDTHEWORLD:MindasPurelyIndividualIndividualMindastheAgentofReorganizationEducationalEquivalentsSummaryA(gtCHAPTERXXIII^VOCATIONALASPECTSOFEDUCATION:TheMeaningofVocationThePlaceofVocationalAimsinEducationPresentOpportunitiesandDangersSummaryCHAPTERXXIVPHILOSOPHYOFEDUCATION:ACriticalReviewTheNatureofPhilosophySummaryxiiTableofContentsCHAPTERXXVTHEORIESOFKNOWLEDGE:PAGB^ContinuityversusDualismSchoolsofMethodSummaryCHAPTERXXVIVTHEORIESOFMORALS:TheInnerandOuterTheOppositionofDutyandInterestIntelligenceandCharacterTheSocialandtheMoralSummary===,DEMOCRACYANDEDUCATIONABRIEFCOURSEINPHILOSOPHYOFEDUCATIONCHAPTERIEDUCATIONASANECESSITYOFLIFERenewalofLifebyTransmissionThemostnotabledistinctionbetweenlivingandinanimatebeingsisthattheformermaintainthemselvesbyrenewal,iAstonewhenstruckresistsIfitsresistanceisgreaterthantheforceoftheblowstruck,itremainsoutwardlyunchangedOtherwise,itisshatteredintosmallerbitsNeverdoesthestoneattempttoreactinsuchawaythatitmaymaintainitselfagainsttheblow,muchlesssoastorendertheblowacontributingfactortoitsowncontinuedactionWhilethelivingthingmayeasilybecrushedbysuperiorforce,itnonethelesstriestoturntheenergieswhichactuponitintomeansofitsownfurtherexistenceIfitcannotdoso,itdoesnotjustsplitintosmallerpieces(atleastinthehigherformsoflife),butlosesitsidentityasalivingthingAslongasitendures,itstrugglestousesurroundingenergiesinitsownbehalfItuseslight,air,moisture,andthematerialofsoilTosaythatitusesthemistosaythatitturnsthemintomeansofitsownconservationAslongasitisgrowing,theenergyitexpendsinthusturningtheenvironmenttoaccountismorethancompensatedforbythereturnitgets:itgrowsUnderstandingthewordcontrolinthissense,itmaybesaidthatalivingbeingisonethatsubjugatesPhilosophyofEducationandcontrolsforitsowncontinuedactivitytheenergiesthatwouldotherwiseuseitupLifeisaselfrenewingprocessthroughactionupontheenvironmentInallthehigherformsthisprocesscannotbekeptupindefinitelyAfterawhiletheysuccumbtheydieThecreatureisnotequaltothetaskofindefiniteselfrenewalButcontinuityofthelifeprocessisnotdependentupontheprolongationoftheexistenceofanyoneindividualReproductionofotherformsoflifegoesonincontinuoussequenceAndthough,asthegeologicalrecordshows,notmerelyindividualsbutalsospeciesdieout,thelifeprocesscontinuesinincreasinglycomplexformsAssomespeciesdieout,formsbetteradaptedtoutilizetheobstaclesagainstwhichtheystruggledinvaincomeintobeingContinuityoflifemeanscontinualreadaptationoftheenvironmenttotheneedsoflivingorganismsWehavebeenspeakingoflifeinitslowesttermsasaphysicalthingButweusethewordlifetodenotethewholerangeofexperience,individualandracialWhenweseeabookcalledtheLifeofLincolnwedonotexpecttofindwithinitscoversatreatiseonphysiologyWelookforanaccountofsocialantecedentsadescriptionofearlysurroundings,oftheconditionsandoccupationofthefamilyofthechiefepisodesinthedevelopmentofcharacterofsignalstrugglesandachievementsoftheindividualshopes,tastes,joysandsufferingsInpreciselysimilarfashionwespeakofthelifeofasavagetribe,oftheAthenianpeople,oftheAmericannationLifecoverscustoms,institutions,beliefs,victoriesanddefeats,recreationsandoccupationsWeemploythewordexperienceinthesamepregnantsenseAndtoit,aswellastolifeinthebarephysiologicalsense,theprincipleofcontinuitythroughrenewalappliesWiththerenewalofphysicalexistencegoes,inthecaseofhumanbeings,therecreationofbeliefs,ideals,hopes,happiness,misery,andpracticesThecontinuityofanyexperience,throughrenewEducationasaNecessityofLifeingofthesocialgroup,isaliteralfactEducation,initsbroadestsense,isthemeansofthissocialcontinuityoflifeEveryoneoftheconstituentelementsofasocialgroup,inamoderncityasinasavagetribe,isbornimmature,helpless,withoutlanguage,beliefs,ideas,orsocialstandardsEachindividual,eachunitwhoisthecarrierofthelifeexperienceofhisgroup,intimepassesawayYetthelifeofthegroupgoesonTheprimaryineluctablefactsofthebirthanddeathofeachoneoftheconstituentmembersinasocialgroupdeterminethenecessityofeducationOnonehand,thereisthecontrastbetweentheimmaturityofthenewbornmember*ofthegroupitsfuturesolerepresentativesandthematurityoftheadultmemberswhopossesstheknowledgeandcustomsofthegroupOntheotherhand,thereisthenecessitythattheseimmaturemembersbenotmerelyphysicallypreservedinadequatenumbers,butthattheybeinitiatedintotheinterests,purposes,information,skill,andpracticesofthematuremembers:otherwisethegroupwillceaseitscharacteristiclifeEveninasavagetribe,theachievementsofadultsarefarbeyondwhattheimmaturememberswouldbecapableofiflefttothemselvesWiththegrowthofcivilization,thegapbetweentheoriginalcapacitiesoftheimmatureandthestandardsandcustomsoftheeldersincreases^Merephysicalgrowingup,meremasteryofthebarenecessitiesofsubsistencewillnotsufficetoreproducethelifeofthegroupDeliberateeffortandthetakingofthoughtfulpainsarerequiredBeingswhoarebornnotonlyunawareof,butquiteindifferentto,theaimsandhabitsofthesocialgrouphavetoberenderedcognizantofthemandactivelyinterestedEducation,andeducationalone,spansthegapSocietyexiststhroughaprocessoftransmissionquiteasmuchasbiologicallifeThistransmissionoccursbymeansofcommunicationofhabitsofdoing,thinking,andfeelingfromtheoldertotheyoungerWithoutthiscommunicationofideals,PhilosophyofEducationhopes,expectations,standards,opinions,fromthosemembersofsocietywhoarepassingoutofthegrouplifetothosewhoarecomingintoit,sociallifecouldnotsurviveIfthememberswhocomposeasocietylivedoncontinuously,theymighteducatethenewbornmembers,butitwouldbeataskdirectedbypersonalinterestratherthansocialneedNowitisaworkofnecessityIfaplaguecarriedoffthemembersofasocietyallatonce,itisobviousthatthegroupwouldbepermanentlydoneforYetthedeathofeachofitsconstituentmembersisascertainasifanepidemictookthemallatonceButthegradeddifferenceinage,thefactthatsomearebornassomedie,makespossiblethroughtransmissionofideasandpracticestheconstantreweavingofthesocialfabricYetthisrenewalisnotautomaticUnlesspainsaretakentoseethatgenuineandthoroughtransmissiontakesplace,themostcivilizedgroupwillrelapseintobarbarismandthenintosavageryInfact,thehumanyoungaresoimmaturethatiftheywerelefttothemselveswithouttheguidanceandsuccorofothers,theycouldnotevenacquiretherudimentaryabilitiesnecessaryforphysicalexistenceTheyoungofhumanbeingscomparesopoorlyinoriginalefficiencywiththeyoungofmanyoftheloweranimals,thateventhepowersneededforphysicalsustentationhavetobeacquiredundertuitionHowmuchmore,then,isthisthecasewithrespecttoallthetechnological,artistic,scientific,andmoralachievementsofhumanity!EducationandCommunicationSoobvious,indeed,isthenecessityofteachingandlearningforthecontinuedexistenceofasocietythatwemayseemtobedwellingundulyonatruismButjustificationisfoundinthefactthatsuchemphasisisameansogettingusawayfromanundulyscholasticandformalnotionofeducationSchoolsare,indeed,oneimportantmethodofthetransmissionwhichformsthedispositionsoftheimmaturebutitisonlyoneEducationasaNecessityofLifemeans,and,comparedwithotheragencies,arelativelysuperficialmeans,OnlyaswehavegraspedthenecessityofmorefundamentalandpersistentmodesoftuitioncanwemakesureofplacingthescholasticmethodsintheirtruecontextSocietynotonlycontinuestoexistbytransmission,bycommunication,butitmayfairlybesaidtoexistintransmission,incommunicationThereismorethanaverbaltiebetweenthewordscommon,community,andcommunicationMenliveinacommunityinvirtueofthethingswhichtheyhaveincommonandcommunicationisthewayinwhichtheycometopossessthingsincommonWhattheymusthaveincommoninordertoformacommunityorsocietyareaims,beliefs,aspirations,knowledgeacommonunderstandinglikemindednessasthesociologistssaySuciithingscannotbepassedphysicallyfromonetoanother,likebrickstheycannotbesharedaspersonswouldshareapiebydividingitintophysicalpiecesThecommunicationwhichinsuresparticipationinacommonunderstandingisonewhichsecuressimilaremotionalandintellectualdispositionslikewaysofrespondingtoexpectationsandrequirementsPersonsdonotbecomeasocietybylivinginphysicalproximity,anymorethanamanceasestobesociallyinfluencedbybeingsomanyfeetormilesremovedfromothersAbookoralettermayinstituteamoreintimateassociationbetweenhumanbeingsseparatedthousandsofmilesfromeachotherthanexistsbetweendwellersunderthesameroofIndividualsdonotevencomposeasocialgroupbecausetheyallworkforacommonendThepartsofamachineworkwithamaximumofcooperativenessforacommonresult,buttheydonotformacommunityIf,however,theywereallcognizantofthecommonendandallinterestedinitsothattheyregulatedtheirspecificactivityinviewofit,thentheywouldformacommunityButthiswouldinvolvecommunicationEachwouldhavetoknowwhattheotherwasPhilosophyofEducationaboutandwouldhavetohavesomewayofkeepingtheotherinformedastohisownpurposeandprogressConsensusdemandscommunicationWearethuscompelledtorecognizethatwithineventhemostsocialgrouptherearemanyrelationswhicharenotasyetsocialAlargenumberofhumanrelationshipsinanysocialgrouparestilluponthemachinelikeplaneIndividualsuseoneanothersoastogetdesiredresults,withoutreferencetotheemotionalandintellectualdispositionandconsentofthoseusedSuchusesexpressphysicalsuperiority,orsuperiorityofposition,skill,technicalability,andcommandoftools,mechanicalorfiscalSofarastherelationsofparentandchild,teacherandpupil,employerandemployee,governorandgoverned,remainuponthislevel,theyformnotruesocialgroup,nomatterhowcloselytheirrespectiveactivitiestouchoneanotherGivingandtakingofordersmodifiesactionandresults,butdoesnotofitselfeffectasharingofpurposes,acommunicationofinterestsNotonlyissociallifeidenticalwithcommunication,butallcommunication(andhenceallgenuinesociallife)iseducativeTobearecipientofacommunicationistohaveanenlargedandchangedexperience{Onesharesinwhatanotherhasthoughtandfeltandinsofar,meagerlyoramply,hashisownattitudemodifiedNoristheonewhocommunicatesleftunaffectedTrytheexperimentofcommunicating,withfullnessandaccuracy,someexperiencetoanother,especiallyifitbesomewhatcomplicated,andyouwillfindyourownattitudetowardyourexperiencechangingotherwiseyouresorttoexpletivesandejaculationsTheexperiencehastobeformulatedinordertobecommunicatedToformulaterequiresgettingoutsideofit,seeingitasanotherwouldseeit,consideringwhatpointsofcontactithaswiththelifeofanothersothatitmaybegotintosuchformthathecanappreciateitsmeaningExceptindealingwithcommonplacesandcatchphrasesonehastoassimilate,imaginatively,someEducationasaNecessityofLifethingofanothersexperienceinordertotellhimintelligentlyofonesownexperienceAllcommunicationislikeartItmayfairlybesaid,therefore,thatanysocialarrangementth

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【杜威诞辰150年之际经典重读】民主与教育(英文原版)

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