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首页 【杜威诞辰150年之际经典重读】儿童与课程(英文原版)

【杜威诞辰150年之际经典重读】儿童与课程(英文原版).pdf

【杜威诞辰150年之际经典重读】儿童与课程(英文原版)

oneway
2009-05-08 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【杜威诞辰150年之际经典重读】儿童与课程(英文原版)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

THECHILDANDCURRICULUMbyJohnDewey"THEUNIVERSITYOFCHICAGOPRESSTheRWBJacksonILibraryOISELIBRARYTHEONTARiOINSTITUTEFORSTUD'ECATIONTORONTOCADAV"DIAUG*THECHILDANDTHECURRICULUMbyJohnDeweyTHEUNIVERSITYOFCHICAGOPRESSCHICAGOLONDONTHEUNIVERSITYOFCHICAGOPRESS,CHICAGOLONDONTheUniversityofTorontoPress,Toronto,CanadaCopyrightbyTheUniversityofChicagoAllrightsreservedPublishedTwentyeighthImpressionPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaTHECHILDANDTHECURRICULUMTHECHILDANDTHECURRICULUMTheChildandtheCurriculumProfounddifferencesintheoryarenevergratuitousorinventedTheygrowoutofconflictingelementsinagenuineproblemaproblemwhichisgenuinejustbecausetheelements,takenastheystand,areconflictingjAnysignificantprobleminvolvesconditionsthatforthemomentcontradicteachotherSolutioncomesonlybygettingawayfromthemeaningoftermsthatisalreadyfixeduponandcomingtoseetheconditionsfromanTheChildandtheCurriculumotherpointofview,andhenceinafreshlightButthisreconstructionmeanstravailofthoughtEasierthanthinkingwithsurrenderofalreadyformedideasanddetachmentfromfactsalreadylearnedisjusttostickbywhatisalreadysaid,lookingaboutforsomethingwithwhichtobuttressitagainstattackThussectsarise:schoolsofopinionEachselectsthatsetofconditionsthatappealstoitandthenerectsthemintoacompleteandindependenttruth,insteadoftreatingthemasafactorinaproblem,needingadjustmentThefundamentalfactorsintheeducativeprocessareanimmature,undevelopedbeingandcertainsocialaims,meanings,valuesincarnateinthematuredexperienceoftheadultTheeducativeprocessisthedueinteractionoftheseforcesSuchaconceptionofeachinrelationtotheotherasfacilitatescompletestandfreestinteractionistheessenceofeducationaltheory>ButherecomestheeffortofthoughtItiseasiertoseetheconditionsintheirseparateness,toinsistupononeattheexpenseoftheother,tomakeantagonistsofthem,thantodiscoverarealitytowhicheachbelongsTheeasythingistoseizeuponsomethinginthenatureofthechild,oruponsomethinginthedevelopedconsciousnessoftheadult,andinsistuponthatasthekeytothewholeproblemWhenthishappensareallyseriouspracticalproblemthatofinteractionistransformedintoanunreal,andhenceinsoluble,theoreticproblemInsteadofseeingTheChildandtheCurriculumtheeducativesteadilyandasawhole,weseeconflictingtermsWegetthecaseofthechildvsthecurriculumoftheindividualnaturevssocialcultureBelowallotherdivisionsinpedagogicopinionliesthisoppositionThechildlivesinasomewhatnarrowworldofpersonalcontactsThingshardlycomewithinhisexperienceunlesstheytouch,intimatelyandobviously,hisownwellbeing,orthatofhisfamilyandfriendsHisworldisaworldofpersonswiththeirpersonalinterests,ratherthanarealmoffactsandlawsNottruth,inthesenseofconformitytoexternalfact,butaffectionandsympathy,isitskeynoteAsagainstthis,thecourseofstudymetintheschoolpresentsmaterialstretchingbackindefinitelyintime,andextendingoutwardindefinitelyintospaceThechildistakenoutofhisfamiliarphysicalenvironment,hardlymorethanasquaremileorsoinarea,intothewideworldyes,andeventotheboundsofthesolarsystemHislittlespanofpersonalmemoryandtraditionisoverlaidwiththelongcenturiesofthehistoryofallpeoplesAgain,thechild'slifeisanintegral,atotaloneHepassesquicklyandreadilyfromonetopictoanother,asfromonespottoanother,butisnotconsciousoftransitionorbreakThereisnoconsciousisolation,hardlyconsciousdistinctionThethingsthatoccupyhimareheldtogetherbytheunityofthepersonalandsocialinterestswhichhislifecarriesalongWhateverisTheChildandtheCurriculumuppermostinhismindconstitutestohim,forthetimebeing,thewholeuniverseThatuniverseisfluidandfluentitscontentsdissolveandreformwithamazingrapidityBut,afterall,itisthechild'sownworldIthastheunityandcompletenessofhisownlifeHegoestoschool,andvariousstudiesdivideandfractionizetheworldforhimGeographyselects,itabstractsandanalyzesonesetoffacts,andfromoneparticularpointofviewArithmeticisanotherdivision,grammaranotherdepartment,andsoonindefinitelyAgain,inschooleachofthesesubjectsisclassifiedFactsaretornawayfromtheiroriginalplaceinexperienceandrearrangedwithreferencetosomegeneralprincipleClassificationisnotamatterofchildexperiencethingsdonotcometotheindividualpigeonholedThevitaltiesofaffection,theconnectingbondsofactivity,holdtogetherthevarietyofhispersonalexperiencesTheadultmindissofamiliarwiththenotionoflogicallyorderedfactsthatitdoesnotrecognizeitcannotrealizetheamountofseparatingandreformulatingwhichthefactsofdirectexperiencehavetoundergobeforetheycanappearasa"study,"orbranchoflearningAprinciple,fortheintellect,hashadtobedistinguishedanddefinedfactshavehadtobeinterpretedinrelationtothisprinciple,notastheyareinthemselvesTheyhavehadtoberegatheredaboutanewcenterwhichiswhollyabstractandidealAllthismeansadevelopmentofaspecialintellectualinTheChildandtheCurriculumterestItmeansabilitytoviewfactsimpartiallyandobjectivelythatis,withoutreferencetotheirplaceandmeaninginone'sownexperienceItmeanscapacitytoanalyzeandtosynthesizeItmeanshighlymaturedintellectualhabitsandthecommandofadefinitetechniqueandapparatusofscientificinquiryThestudiesasclassifiedaretheproduct,inaword,ofthescienceoftheages,notoftheexperienceofthechildTheseapparentdeviationsanddifferencesbetweenchildandcurriculummightbealmostindefinitelywidenedButwehaveheresufficientlyfundamentaldivergences:first,thenarrowbut>personalworldofthechildagainsttheimpersonalbutinfinitelyextendedworldofspaceandtimesecond,theunity,thesinglewholeheartednessofthechild'slife,andthespecializationsanddivisionsofthecurriculumthird,anabstractprincipleoflogicalclassificationandarrangement,andthepracticalandemotionalbondsofchildlifeFromtheseelementsofconflictgrowupdifferenteducationalsectsOneschoolfixesitsattentionupontheimportanceofthesubjectmatterofthecurriculumascomparedwiththecontentsofthechild'sownexperienceItisasiftheysaid:Islifepetty,narrow,andcrudeThenstudiesrevealthegreat,wideuniversewithallitsfulnessandcomplexityofmeaningIsthelifeofthechildegoistic,selfcentered,impulsiveTheninthesestudiesisfoundanobjectiveuniverseoftruth,law,andorderIshisexTheChildandtheCurriculumperienceconfused,vague,uncertain,atthemercyofthemoment'scapriceandcircumstanceThenstudiesintroduceaworldarrangedonthebasisofeternalandgeneraltruthaworldwhereallismeasuredanddefinedHencethemoral:ignoreandminimizethechild'sindividualpeculiarities,whims,andexperiencesTheyarewhatweneedtogetawayfromTheyaretobeobscuredoreliminatedAseducatorsourworkispreciselytosubstituteforthesesuperficialandcasualaffairsstableandwellorderedrealitiesandthesearefoundinstudiesandlessonsSubdivideeachtopicintostudieseachstudyintolessonseachlessonintospecificfactsandformulaeLetthechildproceedstepbysteptomastereachoneoftheseseparateparts,andatlasthewillhavecoveredtheentiregroundTheroadwhichlookssolongwhenviewedinitsentiretyiseasilytraveled,consideredasaseriesofparticularstepsThusemphasisisputuponthelogicalsubdivisionsandconsecutionsofthesubjectmatterProblemsofinstructionareproblemsofprocuringtextsgivinglogicalpartsandsequences,andofpresentingtheseportionsinclassinasimilardefiniteandgradedwaySubjectmatterfurnishestheend,anditdeterminesmethodThechildissimplytheimmaturebeingwhoistobematuredheisthesuperficialbeingwhoistobedeepenedhisisnarrowexperiencewhichistobewidenedItishistoreceive,toacceptHispartisfulfilledwhenheisductileanddocileTheChildandtheCurriculumJINotso,saystheothersectThechildisthestartingpoint,the*center,andtheendHisdevelopment,hisgrowth,istheidealItalonefurnishesthestandardTothegrowthofthechildallstudiesaresubservienttheyareinstrumentsvaluedastheyservetheneedsofgrowthPersonality,character,ismorethansubjectmatterNotknowledgeorinformation,butselfrealization,isthegoalTopossessalltheworldofknowledgeandloseone'sownselfisasawfulafateineducationasinreligionMoreover,subjectmatternevercanbegotintothechildfromwithout^LearningisactiveItinvolvesreachingoutofthemindItinvolvesorganicassimilationstartingfromwithinLiterally,wemusttakeourstandwiththechildandourdeparturefromhimItisheandnotthesubjectmatterwhichdeterminesbothqualityandquantityoflearningTheonlysignificantmethodisthemethodofthemindasitreachesoutandassimilatesSubjectmatterisbutspiritual'food,possiblenutritivematerialItcannotdigestitselfitcannotofitsownaccordturnintoboneandmuscleandbloodThesourceofjwhateverisdead,mechanical,andformalinschoolsisfoundpreciselyinthesubordinationofthelifeandexperienceofthechildtothecurriculumItisbecauseofthisthat"study"hasbecomeasynonymforwhatisirksome,andalessonidenticalwithataskiThisfundamentaloppositionofchildandcurriculumsetupbythesetwomodesofdoctrinecanbeduplicatedinaseriesofTheChildandtheCurriculumotherterms"Discipline*'isthewatchwordofthosewhomagnifythecourseofstudy"interest"thatofthosewhoblazon"TheChild"upontheirbannerThestandpointoftheformerislogicalthatofthelatterpsychologicalThefirstemphasizesthenecessityofadequatetrainingandscholarshiponthepartoftheteacherthelatterthatofneedofsympathywiththechild,andknowledgeofhisnaturalinstincts"Guidanceandcontrol"arethecatchwordsofoneschool"freedomandinitiative"oftheotherLawisassertedherespontaneityproclaimedthereTheold,theconservationofwhathasbeenachievedinthepainandtoiloftheages,isdeartotheonethenew,change,progress,winstheaffectionoftheotherInertnessandroutine,chaosandanarchism,areaccusationsbandiedbackandforthNeglectofthesacredauthorityofdutyischargedbyoneside,onlytobemetbycounterchargesofsuppressionofindividualitythroughtyrannicaldespotismSuchoppositionsarerarelycarriedtotheirlogicalconclusionCommonsenserecoilsattheextremecharacteroftheseresultsTheyarelefttotheorists,whilecommonsensevibratesbackandforwardinamazeofinconsistentcompromiseTheneedofgettingtheoryandpracticalcommonsenseintocloserconnectionsuggestsareturntoouroriginalthesis:thatwehavehereconditionswhicharenecessarilyrelatedtoeachotherintheeducativeprocess,sincethisispreciselyoneofinteractionandadjustmentTheChildandtheCurriculumWhat,then,istheproblemItisjusttogetridoftheprejudicialnotionthatthereissomegapinkind(asdistinctfromdegree)betweenthechild'sexperienceandthevariousformsofsubjectmatterthatmakeupthecourseofstudyFromthesideofthechild,itisaquestionofseeinghowhisexperiencealreadycontainswithinitselfelementsfactsandtruthsofjustthesamesortasthoseenteringintotheformulatedstudyand,whatisofmoreimportance,ofhowitcontainswithinitselftheattitudes,themotives,andtheinterestswhichhaveoperatedindevelopingandorganizingthesubjectmattertotheplanewhichitnowoccupiesFromthesideofthestudies,itisaquestionofinterpretingthemasoutgrowthsofforcesoperatinginthechild'slife,andofdiscoveringthestepsthatintervenebetweenthechild'spresentexperienceandtheirrichermaturity^Abandonthenotionofsubjectmatterassomethingfixedandreadymadeinitself,outsidethechild'sexperienceceasethinkingofthechild'sexperienceasalsosomethinghardandfastseeitassomethingfluent,embryonic,vitalandwerealizethatthechildandtheoirriculumaresimplytwolimitswhichdefineasingleprocessJustastwopointsdefineastraightline,sothepresentstandpointofthechildandthefactsandtruthsofstudiesdefineinstructionItiscontinuousreconstruction,movingfromthechild'spresentexperienceoutintothatrepresentedbytheorganizedbodiesoftruththatwecallstudiesTheChildandtheCurriculumOnthefaceofit,thevariousstudies,arithmetic,geography,language,botany,etc,arethemselvesexperiencetheyarethatoftheraceTheyembodythecumulativeoutcomeoftheefforts,thestrivings,andthesuccessesofthehumanracegenerationaftergenerationTheypresentthis,notasamereaccumulation,notasamiscellaneousheapofseparatebitsofexperience,butinsomeorganizedandsystematizedwaythatis,asreflectivelyformulatedHence,thefactsandtruthsthatenterintothechild'spresentexperience,andthosecontainedinthesubjectmatterofstudies,aretheinitialandfinaltermsofonerealityToopposeonetotheotheristoopposetheinfancyandmaturityofthesamegrowinglifeitistosetthemovingtendencyandthefinalresultofthesameprocessoveragainsteachotheritistoholdthatthenatureandthedestinyofthechildwarwitheachotherIfsuchbethecase,theproblemoftherelationofthechildandthecurriculumpresentsitselfinthisguise:Ofwhatuse,educationallyspeaking,isittobeabletoseetheendinthebeginningHowdoesitassistusindealingwiththeearlystagesofgrowthtobeabletoanticipateitslaterphasesThestudies,aswehaveagreed,representthepossibilitiesofdevelopmentinherentinthechild'simmediatecrudeexperienceBut,afterall,theyarenotpartsofthatpresentandimmediatelifeWhy,then,orhow,makeaccountofthemTheChildandtheCurriculumAskingsuchaquestionsuggestsitsownanswerToseetheoutcomeistoknowinwhatdirectionthepresentexperienceismoving,provideditmovenormallyandsoundlyThefarawaypoint,whichisofnosignificancetoussimplyasfaraway,becomesofhugeimportancethemomentwetakeitasdefiningapresentdirectionofmovementTakeninthiswayitisnoremoteanddistantresulttobeachieved,butaguidingmethodindealingwiththepresentThesystematizedanddefinedexperienceoftheadultmind,inotherwords,isofvaluetousininterpretingthechild'slifeasitimmediatelyshowsitself,andinpassingontoguidanceordirectionLetuslookforamomentatthesetwoideas:interpretationandguidanceThechildXpresentexperienceisinnowayselfexplanatoryItisnotfinal,buttransitionalItisnothingcompleteinitself,butjustasignorindexofcertaingrowthtendenciesAslongasweconfineourgazetowhatthechildhereandnowputsforth,weareconfusedandmisledWecannotreaditsmeaningExtremedepreciationsofthechildmorallyandintellectually,andsentimentalidealizationsofhim,havetheirrootinacommonfallacyBothspringfromtakingstagesofagrowthormovementassomethingcutoffandfixedThefirstfailstoseethepromisecontainedinfeelingsanddeedswhich,takenbythemselves,areuncompromisingandrepellentthesecondfailstoseethateventhemostpleasingandbeautifulexhibitionsarebutTheChildandtheCurriculumsigns,andthattheybegintospoilandrotthemomenttheyaretreatedasachievementsWhatweneedissomethingwhichwillenableustointerpret,toappraise,theelementsinthechild'spresentputtingsforthandfallingsaway,hisexhibitionsofpowerandweakness,inthelightofsomelargergrowthprocessinwhichtheyhavetheirplaceOnlyinthiswaycanwediscriminateIfweisolatethechild'spresentinclinations,purposes,andexperiencesfromtheplacetheyoccupyandtheparttheyhavetoperforminadevelopingexperience,allstanduponthesamelevelallalikeareequallygoodandequallybadButinthemovementoflifedifferentelementsstandupondifferentplanesofvalueSomeofthechild'sdeedsaresymptomsofawaningtendencytheyaresurvivalsinfunctioningofanorganwhichhasdoneitspartandispassingoutofvitaluseTogivepositiveattentiontosuchqualitiesistoarrestdevelopmentuponalowerlevelItissystematicallytomaintainarudimentaryphaseofgrowthOtheractivitiesaresignsofaculminatingpowerandinteresttothemappliesthemaximofstrikingwhiletheironishotAsregardsthem,itisperhapsamatterofnoworneverSelected,utilized,emphasized,theymaymarkaturningpointforgoodinthechild'swholecareerneglected,anopportunitygoes,nevertoberecalledOtheractsandfeelingsareprophetictheyrepresentthedawningofflickeringlightthatwillshinesteadilyonlyinthefarfutureAsTheChildandtheCurriculumregardsthemthereislittleatpresenttodobutgivethemfairandfullchance,waitingforthefuturefordefinitedirectionJustas,uponthewhole,itwastheweaknessofthe"oldeducation"thatitmadeinvidiouscomparisonsbetweentheimmaturityofthechildandthematurityoftheadult,regardingtheformerassomethingtobegotawayfromassoonaspossibleandasmuchaspossiblesoitisthedangerofthe"neweducation"thatitregardthechild'spresentpowersandinterestsassomethingfinallysignificantinthemselvesIntruth,hislearningsandachievementsarefluidandmovingTheychangefromdaytodayandfromhourtohourItwilldoharmifchildstudyleaveinthepopularmindtheimpressionthatachildofagivenagehasapositiveequipmentofpurposesandintereststobecultivatedjustastheystandInterestsinrealityarebutattitudestowardpossibleexperiences^^theyarenotachievementstheirworthisintheleveragetheyafford,notintheaccomplishmenttheyrepresentTotakethephenomenapresentedatagivenageasinanywayselfexplanatoryorselfcontainedisinevitablytoresultinindulgenceandspoiling,jAnypower,whetherofchildoradult,isindulgedwhenitistakea'onitsgivenandpresentlevelinconsciousnessItsgenuinemean>,ingisinthepropulsionitaffordstowardahigherlevelItisjustsomethingtodowithAppealingtotheinterestuponthepresentplanemeansexcitationitmeansplayingwithapowersoasconTheChildandtheCurriculumtinuallytostiritupwithoutdirectingittowarddefiniteachievementContinuousinitiation,continuousstartingofactivitiesthatdonotarrive,is,forallpractical

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【杜威诞辰150年之际经典重读】儿童与课程(英文原版)

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