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首页 中考定语从句复习课件.ppt

中考定语从句复习课件.ppt

中考定语从句复习课件.ppt

上传者: iloveyougxz 2009-05-05 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《中考定语从句复习课件ppt》,可适用于初中教育领域,主题内容包含陈桥(一)知识概要定语从句并不属于中考范围但由于作者在多年的教学中体会到这一语法现象影响了许多学生自学英语。这些学生一般是成绩较好的学生想进行大量阅符等。

陈桥(一)知识概要定语从句并不属于中考范围但由于作者在多年的教学中体会到这一语法现象影响了许多学生自学英语。这些学生一般是成绩较好的学生想进行大量阅读来提高自己的英语水平但总是碰到一些问题百思不得其解。苦于自己的水平只限于初中水平无法提高但各种补习班又都是为一些水平较差的学生开设的所以又投师无门。为了解决这部分学生的学习困难也为那些有志青年铺平学习上的道路特用这一节讲述定语从句不是从语法上讲述而是从阅读理解方面去讲述。可供同学们在学习时参考。这会对你的英语学习起到事半功倍的作用。对于形容词我们已十分熟悉了如:agoodbook形容词good用来修饰书book。我们也可以用一个句子来修饰名词这种句子叫做形容词性从句它起修饰名词的作用又被叫做定语从句(Theattributiveclause)。但有一点不同的是这个从句不是像形容词那样放于名词前而是放在名词之后。它所修饰的名词又被叫作先行词如:Doyouknowthescientistwhogaveusthetalkthisafternoon这句中的主句是Doyouknowthescientist(你知道那位科学家吗)而whogaveusthetalkthisafternoon(他今天下午给我们作的报告。)是定语从句。所以这两句话合为一体即是:你认识今天下午给我们作报告的那位科学家吗这里scientist叫作先行词而who叫作定语从句的引导词。who在定语从句中起主语的作用who的数与它的先行词相同。又如:YoumustdoeverythingthatIdo这里先行词是everything而thatIdo是定语从句此句应译为:你必须作我所作的一切。that叫作定语从句的引导词在句中作do的宾语。引导定语从句的引导词有关系代词:thatwhichwhowhomwhose和关系副词whenwherewhyhow。不论关系代词还是关系副词都应放于先行词和定语从句之间起联系作用但它们都要在定语从句中起语法作用充当一个成份。如关系代词在定语从句中不是作主语便是作宾语而关系副词则是作状语。我们先来看关系代词的用法。 that的先行词可以是人也可以是物。如:Aplaneisamachinethatcanfly这里先行词是machine而that是关系代词在定语从句中作主语。这句译为:飞机是一种会飞的机器。又如:Ilikethebook(that)youlentmeyesterday这里先行词是book关系代词用that它在定语从句中作lend(借)的宾语。要注意的是关系代词在定语从句中作宾语时可以省略即:Ilikethebookyoulentmeyesterday which关系代词的先行词只能是物。它在定语从句中作主语或宾语如:Thebookshopisashopwhichsellsbooks这里shop是先行词which在从句中作主语。又如:Thebook(which)Ireadlastnightwaswonderful这里主句是Thebookwaswonderful而定语从句是修饰主句的主语book即我昨晚读的那本书which在定语从句中作read的宾语可以省略。 whowhomwhosewho在定语从句中作主语whom是who的宾格在定语从句中作宾语而whose则是形容词性物主代词在从句中作定语如:ThemanwhovisitedourschoolyesterdayisanAmericanfriend昨天参观我们学校的人是一位美国朋友。Who在定语从句中作主语。又如:Who'sthatwoman(whom)youjusttalkedto你刚才与之谈话的那个女人是谁而whom作定语从句中介词to的宾语可以省略而在现代英语中句首的whom也常常可用who代替。ThisisourclassmateMarywhosehomeisnotfarfromourschool这是我们的同学玛丽她的家离我们学校不远。为了便于理解我们来看看是如何将两句话并为一句话的。IsawthemanHeclosedthedoorIsawthemanwho(that)closedthedoor. ThegirlishappyShewontheraceThegirlwhowontheraceishappy.ThestudentsarefromChinaTheysitinthefrontrowThestudentswhositinthefrontrowarefromChina(要注意的是先行词是students则who的数也应看作复数。). WearestudyingsentencesTheycontainadjectivedauseWearestudyingsentencesthat(which)containadjectivedause. ThetaxidriverwasfriendlyHetookmetotheairportThetaxidriverwhotookmetotheairportwasfriendly. ThebookwasgoodIreaditThebookthatIreadwasgoodThebookIreadwasgood. ThepeoplewereveryniceWevisitedthemyesterdayThepeoplewevisitedyesterdaywereverynice. ThemancalledthepoliceHiswalletwasstolenThemanwhosewalletwasstolencalledthepolice. IcomefromacountryItshistorygoesbackthousandsofyearsIcomefromacountrywhosehistorygoesbackthousandsofyears. IhavetocallthemanIpickeduphisumbrellaafterthemeetingIhavetocallthemanwhoseumbrellaIpickedupafterthemeeting关系代词whomwhich在定语从句中作介词宾语时可以和介词一起放于先行词与定语从句之间有时为了关系紧凑也可以将whom与which与先行词紧挨着书写而将介词置于定语从句的后面如:Thatwastheroominwhichwehadlivedfortenyears或可以写作:ThatwastheroomwhichwehadlivedinfortenyearsHewasthemanwhom(who)youwerelookingfor要注意的是此句的关系代词whom可以用主格取代而lookfor是短语动词也不可将for放于定语从句之前。that作关系代词作介词宾语时不能紧跟介词而只能将介词置于定语从句的后面。如:Themanthatweweretalkingabouthascometoourschool这时不可用aboutthat…请看下面例句:. ThemeetingwasinterestingIwenttoitThemeetingthatIwenttowasinteresting. ThemanwasverykindItalkedtohimyesterdayThemanwhoItalkedtoyesterdaywasverykind. ImustthankthepeopleIgotapresentfromhimImustthankthepeoplewhoIgotapresentfrom. ThepicturewasbeautifulShewaslookingatitThepicturethat(which)shewaslookingatwasbeautiful. ThemanisstandingoverthereItoldyouabouthimThemanwhoItoldyouaboutisstandingoverthere除关系代词外还有关系副词whenwherewhy其中when用来指时间在定语从句中作时间状语。如:IneverforgetthedaywhenIfirstcametotheGreatWall而where则指地点如:Thisisthehousewheretheoldmanlives请看下面例句:. ThecitywasbeautifulWespentourvacationthereThecitywherewespentourvacationwasbeautiful. ThatistherestaurantIwillmeetyouthereThatistherestaurantwhereIwillmeetyou. ThetownissmallIgrewupthereThetownwhereIgrewupissmall. ThatisthedrawerIkeepmynewpapersthereThatisthedrawerwhereIkeepmynewspapers. MondayisthedayWewillcomethenMondayisthedayWhenwewillcame. 705isthetimeMyplanearrivesthen705isthetimewhenmyplanearrives. 1960istheyearTherevolutiontookplacethen1960istheyearwhentherevolutiontookplace. JulyisthemonthTheweatherisusuallythehottestthenJulyisthemonthwhentheweatherisusuallythehottest在定语从句中又可分为两大类定语从句即限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。 限制性定语从句是先行词在意义上不可缺少的定语如果去掉的话主句的意思就不完整意义就表述不明。这种句型一般定语从句紧接先行词如:Iwastheonlypersoninmyofficewhowasinvited 非限制性定语从句。它与主句的关系不十分密切只是对其附加说明也就是讲即便去掉定语从句句意也不受影响仍然清晰明了。这样的定语从句要在它和主句之间加一逗号分开。且关系代词不引导这种非限制性定语从句如:AbrahamLincolnwholedtheUnitedStatesthroughtheseyearswasshotonApril14 1865atatheatreinwashingtonD. C. 又如:GalileolivedinthecityofPisawherethereisaleaningtoweraboutfeethigh

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