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首页 【怀特海】教育的目的(英文版)

【怀特海】教育的目的(英文版).pdf

【怀特海】教育的目的(英文版)

oneway
2009-04-30 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【怀特海】教育的目的(英文版)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

AimsofEducationAlfredNorthWhitehead,TheAimsofEducationandOtherEssays(Macmillan,)CHAPTERITheAimsofEducationCultureisactivityofthought,andreceptivenesstobeautyandhumanefeelingScrapsofinformationhavenothingtodowithitAmerelywellinformedmanisthemostuselessboreonGod'searthWhatweshouldaimatproducingismenwhopossessbothcultureandexpertknowledgeinsomespecialdirectionTheirexpertknowledgewillgivethemthegroundtostartfrom,andtheirculturewillleadthemasdeepasphilosophyandashighasartWehavetorememberthatthevaluableintellectualdevelopmentisselfdevelopment,andthatitmostlytakesplacebetweentheagesofsixteenandthirtyAstotraining,themostimportantpartisgivenbymothersbeforetheageoftwelveAsayingduetoArchbishopTempleillustratesmymeaningSurprisewasexpressedatthesuccessinafterlifeofaman,whoasaboyatRugbyhadbeensomewhatundistinguishedHeanswered,"Itisnotwhattheyareateighteen,itiswhattheybecomeafterwardsthatmatters"Intrainingachildtoactivityofthought,aboveallthingswemustbewareofwhatIwillcall"inertideas"thatistosay,ideasthataremerelyreceivedintothemindwithoutbeingutilised,ortested,orthrownintofreshcombinationsInthehistoryofeducation,themoststrikingphenomenonisthatschoolsoflearning,whichatoneepocharealivewithafermentofgenius,inasucceedinggenerationexhibitmerelypedantryandroutineThereasonis,thattheyareoverladenwithinertideasEducationwithinertideasisnotonlyuseless:itis,aboveallthings,harmfulCorruptiooptimi,pessimaExceptatrareintervalsofintellectualferment,educationinthepasthasbeenradicallyinfectedwithinertideasThatisthereasonwhyuneducatedcleverwomen,whohaveseenmuchoftheworld,areinmiddlelifesomuchthemostculturedpartofthecommunityTheyhavebeensavedfromthishorribleburdenofinertideasEveryintellectualrevolutionwhichhaseverstirredhumanityintogreatnesshasbeenapassionateprotestagainstinertideasThen,alas,withpatheticignoranceofhumanpsychology,ithasproceededbysomeeducationalschemetobindhumanityafreshwithinertideasofitsownfashioningLetusnowaskhowinoursystemofeducationwearetoguardagainstthismentaldryrotWeenunciatetwoeducationalcommandments,"Donotteachtoomanysubjects,"andagain,"Whatyouteach,teachthoroughly"Theresultofteachingsmallpartsofalargenumberofsubjectsisthepassivereceptionofdisconnectedideas,notilluminedwithanysparkofvitalityLetthemainideaswhichareintroducedintoachild'seducationbefewandimportant,andletthembethrownintoeverycombinationpossibleThechildshouldmakethemhisown,andshouldunderstandtheirapplicationhereandnowinthecircumstancesofhisactuallifeFromtheverybeginningofhiseducation,thechildshouldexperiencethejoyofdiscoveryThediscoveryAimsofEducationwhichhehastomake,isthatgeneralideasgiveanunderstandingofthatstreamofeventswhichpoursthroughhislife,whichishislifeByunderstandingImeanmorethanamerelogicalanalysis,thoughthatisincludedImean"understanding'inthesenseinwhichitisusedintheFrenchproverb,"Tounderstandall,istoforgiveall"PedantssneerataneducationwhichisusefulButifeducationisnotuseful,whatisitIsitatalent,tobehiddenawayinanapkinOfcourse,educationshouldbeuseful,whateveryouraiminlifeItwasusefultoSaintAugustineanditwasusefultoNapoleonItisuseful,becauseunderstandingisusefulIpasslightlyoverthatunderstandingwhichshouldbegivenbytheliterarysideofeducationNordoIwishtobesupposedtopronounceontherelativemeritsofaclassicaloramoderncurriculumIwouldonlyremarkthattheunderstandingwhichwewantisanunderstandingofaninsistentpresentTheonlyuseofaknowledgeofthepastistoequipusforthepresentNomoredeadlyharmcanbedonetoyoungmindsthanbydepreciationofthepresentThepresentcontainsallthatthereisItisholygroundforitisthepast,anditisthefutureAtthesametimeitmustbeobservedthatanageisnolesspastifitexistedtwohundredyearsagothanifitexistedtwothousandyearsagoDonotbedeceivedbythepedantryofdatesTheagesofShakespeareandofMolierearenolesspastthanaretheagesofSophoclesandofVirgilThecommunionofsaintsisagreatandinspiringassemblage,butithasonlyonepossiblehallofmeeting,andthatis,thepresent,andthemerelapseoftimethroughwhichanyparticulargroupofsaintsmusttraveltoreachthatmeetingplace,makesverylittledifferencePassingnowtothescientificandlogicalsideofeducation,werememberthatherealsoideaswhicharenotutilisedarepositivelyharmfulByutilisinganidea,Imeanrelatingittothatstream,compoundedofsenseperceptions,feelings,hopes,desires,andofmentalactivitiesadjustingthoughttothought,whichformsourlifeIcanimagineasetofbeingswhichmightfortifytheirsoulsbypassivelyreviewingdisconnectedideasHumanityisnotbuiltthatwayexceptperhapssomeeditorsofnewspapersInscientifictraining,thefirstthingtodowithanideaistoproveitButallowmeforonemomenttoextendthemeaningof"prove"ImeantoproveitsworthNowanideaisnotworthmuchunlessthepropositionsinwhichitisembodiedaretrueAccordinglyanessentialpartoftheproofofanideaistheproof,eitherbyexperimentorbylogic,ofthetruthofthepropositionsButitisnotessentialthatthisproofofthetruthshouldconstitutethefirstintroductiontotheideaAfterall,itsassertionbytheauthorityofrespectableteachersissufficientevidencetobeginwithInourfirstcontactwithasetofpropositions,wecommencebyappreciatingtheirimportanceThatiswhatwealldoinafterlifeWedonotattempt,inthestrictsense,toproveortodisproveanything,unlessitsimportancemakesitworthyofthathonourThesetwoprocessesofproof,inthenarrowsense,andofappreciation,donotrequirearigidseparationintimeBothcanbeproceededwithnearlyconcurrentlyButinsofaraseitherprocessmusthavethepriority,itshouldbethatofappreciationbyuseFurthermore,weshouldnotendeavourtousepropositionsinisolationEmphaticallyIdonotmean,aneatlittlesetofexperimentstoillustratePropositionIandthentheproofofAimsofEducationPropositionI,aneatlittlesetofexperimentstoillustratePropositionIIandthentheproofofPropositionII,andsoontotheendofthebookNothingcouldbemoreboringInterrelatedtruthsareutilisedenbloc,andthevariouspropositionsareemployedinanyorder,andwithanyreiterationChoosesomeimportantapplicationsofyourtheoreticalsubjectandstudythemconcurrentlywiththesystematictheoreticalexpositionKeepthetheoreticalexpositionshortandsimple,butletitbestrictandrigidsofarasitgoesItshouldnotbetoolongforittobeeasilyknownwiththoroughnessandaccuracyTheconsequencesofaplethoraofhalfdigestedtheoreticalknowledgearedeplorableAlsothetheoryshouldnotbemuddledupwiththepracticeThechildshouldhavenodoubtwhenitisprovingandwhenitisutilisingMypointisthatwhatisprovedshouldbeutilised,andthatwhatisutilisedshouldsofar,asispracticablebeprovedIamfarfromassertingthatproofandutilisationarethesamethingAtthispointofmydiscourse,IcanmostdirectlycarryforwardmyargumentintheoutwardformofadigressionWeareonlyjustrealisingthattheartandscienceofeducationrequireageniusandastudyoftheirownandthatthisgeniusandthissciencearemorethanabareknowledgeofsomebranchofscienceorofliteratureThistruthwaspartiallyperceivedinthepastgenerationandheadmasters,somewhatcrudely,wereapttosupersedelearningintheircolleaguesbyrequiringlefthandbowlingandatasteforfootballButcultureismorethancricket,andmorethanfootball,andmorethanextentofknowledgeEducationistheacquisitionoftheartoftheutilisationofknowledgeThisisanartverydifficulttoimpartWheneveratextbookiswrittenofrealeducationalworth,youmaybequitecertainthatsomereviewerwillsaythatitwillbedifficulttoteachfromitOfcourseitwillbedifficulttoteachfromitIfitwereeasy,thebookoughttobeburnedforitcannotbeeducationalIneducation,aselsewhere,thebroadprimrosepathleadstoanastyplaceThisevilpathisrepresentedbyabookorasetoflectureswhichwillpracticallyenablethestudenttolearnbyheartallthequestionslikelytobeaskedatthenextexternalexaminationAndImaysayinpassingthatnoeducationalsystemispossibleunlesseveryquestiondirectlyaskedofapupilatanyexaminationiseitherframedormodifiedbytheactualteacherofthatpupilinthatsubjectTheexternalassessormayreportonthecurriculumorontheperformanceofthepupils,butnevershouldbeallowedtoaskthepupilaquestionwhichhasnotbeenstrictlysupervisedbytheactualteacher,oratleastinspiredbyalongconferencewithhimThereareafewexceptionstothisrule,buttheyareexceptions,andcouldeasilybeallowedforunderthegeneralruleWenowreturntomypreviouspoint,thattheoreticalideasshouldalwaysfindimportantapplicationswithinthepupil'scurriculumThisisnotaneasydoctrinetoapply,butaveryhardoneItcontainswithinitselftheproblemofkeepingknowledgealive,ofpreventingitfrombecominginert,whichisthecentralproblemofalleducationThebestprocedurewilldependonseveralfactors,noneofwhichcanbeneglected,namely,thegeniusoftheteacher,theintellectualtypeofthepupils,theirprospectsinlife,theopportunitiesofferedbytheimmediatesurroundingsoftheschoolandalliedfactorsofthissortItisforthisreasonthattheuniformexternalexaminationissodeadlyWedonotAimsofEducationdenounceitbecausewearecranks,andlikedenouncingestablishedthingsWearenotsochildishAlso,ofcourse,suchexaminationshavetheiruseintestingslacknessOurreasonofdislikeisverydefiniteandverypracticalItkillsthebestpartofcultureWhenyouanalyseinthelightofexperiencethecentraltaskofeducation,youfindthatitssuccessfulaccomplishmentdependsonadelicateadjustmentofmanyvariablefactorsThereasonisthatwearedealingwithhumanminds,andnotwithdeadmatterTheevocationofcuriosity,ofjudgment,ofthepowerofmasteringacomplicatedtangleofcircumstances,theuseoftheoryingivingforesightinspecialcasesallthesepowersarenottobeimpartedbyasetruleembodiedinonescheduleofexaminationsubjectsIappealtoyou,aspracticalteachersWithgooddiscipline,itisalwayspossibletopumpintothemindsofaclassacertainquantityofinertknowledgeYoutakeatextbookandmakethemlearnitSofar,sogoodThechildthenknowshowtosolveaquadraticequationButwhatisthepointofteachingachildtosolveaquadraticequationThereisatraditionalanswertothisquestionItrunsthus:Themindisaninstrument,youfirstsharpenit,andthenuseittheacquisitionofthepowerofsolvingaquadraticequationispartoftheprocessofsharpeningthemindNowthereisjustenoughtruthinthisanswertohavemadeitlivethroughtheagesButforallitshalftruth,itembodiesaradicalerrorwhichbidsfairtostiflethegeniusofthemodernworldIdonotknowwhowasfirstresponsibleforthisanalogyofthemindtoadeadinstrumentForaughtIknow,itmayhavebeenoneofthesevenwisemenofGreece,oracommitteeofthewholelotofthemWhoeverwastheoriginator,therecanbenodoubtoftheauthoritywhichithasacquiredbythecontinuousapprovalbestoweduponitbyeminentpersonsButwhateveritsweightofauthority,whateverthehighapprovalwhichitcanquote,Ihavenohesitationindenouncingitasoneofthemostfatal,erroneous,anddangerousconceptionseverintroducedintothetheoryofeducationThemindisneverpassiveitisaperpetualactivity,delicate,receptive,responsivetostimulusYoucannotpostponeitslifeuntilyouhavesharpeneditWhateverinterestattachestoyoursubjectmattermustbeevokedhereandnowwhateverpowersyouarestrengtheninginthepupil,mustbeexercisedhereandnowwhateverpossibilitiesofmentallifeyourteachingshouldimpart,mustbeexhibitedhereandnowThatisthegoldenruleofeducation,andaverydifficultruletofollowThedifficultyisjustthis:theapprehensionofgeneralideas,intellectualhabitsofmind,andpleasurableinterestinmentalachievementcanbeevokedbynoformofwords,howeveraccuratelyadjustedAllpracticalteachersknowthateducationisapatientprocessofthemasteryofdetails,minutebyminute,hourbyhour,daybydayThereisnoroyalroadtolearningthroughanairypathofbrilliantgeneralisationsThereisaproverbaboutthedifficultyofseeingthewoodbecauseofthetreesThatdifficultyisexactlythepointwhichIamenforcingTheproblemofeducationistomakethepupilseethewoodbymeansofthetreesThesolutionwhichIamurging,istoeradicatethefataldisconnectionofsubjectswhichkillsthevitalityofourmoderncurriculumThereisonlyonesubjectmatterforeducation,andthatisLifeinallitsmanifestationsInsteadofthissingleunity,weofferchildrenAlgebra,fromwhichnothingfollowsGeometry,fromwhichnothingfollowsScience,fromwhichnothingfollowsHistory,fromwhichnothingfollowsaCoupleofLanguages,AimsofEducationnevermasteredandlastly,mostdrearyofall,Literature,representedbyplaysofShakespeare,withphilologicalnotesandshortanalysesofplotandcharactertobeinsubstancecommittedtomemoryCansuchalistbesaidtorepresentLife,asitisknowninthemidstofthelivingofitThebestthatcanbesaidofitis,thatitisarapidtableofcontentswhichadeitymightrunoverinhismindwhilehewasthinkingofcreatingaworld,andhasnotyetdeterminedhowtoputittogetherLetusnowreturntoquadraticequationsWestillhaveonhandtheunansweredquestionWhyshouldchildrenbetaughttheirsolutionUnlessquadraticequationsfitintoaconnectedcurriculum,ofcoursethereisnoreasontoteachanythingaboutthemFurthermore,extensiveasshouldbetheplaceofmathematicsinacompleteculture,IamalittledoubtfulwhetherformanytypesofboysalgebraicsolutionsofquadraticequationsdonotlieonthespecialistsideofmathematicsImayhereremindyouthatasyetIhavenotsaidanythingofthepsychologyorthecontentofthespecialism,whichissonecessaryapartofanidealeducationButallthatisanevasionofourrealquestion,andImerelystateitinordertoavoidbeingmisunderstoodinmyanswerQuadraticequationsarepartofalgebra,andalgebraistheintellectualinstrumentwhichhasbeencreatedforrenderingclearthequantitativeaspectsoftheworldThereisnogettingoutofitThroughandthroughtheworldisinfectedwithquantityTotalksense,istotalkinquantitiesItisnousesayingthatthenationislarge,HowlargeItisnousesayingthatradiumisscarce,HowscarceYoucannotevadequantityYoumayflytopoetryandtomusic,andquantityandnumberwillfaceyouinyourrhythmsandyouroctavesElegantintellectswhichdespisethetheoryofquantity,arebuthalfdevelopedTheyaremoretobepitiedthanblamed,Thescrapsofgibberish,whichintheirschooldaysweretaughttotheminthenameofalgebra,deservesomecontemptThisquestionofthedegenerationofalgebraintogibberish,bothinwordandinfact,affordsapatheticinstanceoftheuselessnessofreformingeducationalscheduleswithoutaclearconceptionoftheattributeswhichyouwishtoevokeinthelivingmindsofthechildrenAfewyearsagotherewasanoutcrythatschoolalgebra,wasinneedofreform,buttherewasageneralagreementthatgraphswouldputeverythingrightSoallsortsofthingswereextruded,andgraphswereintroducedSofarasIcansee,withnosortofideabehindthem,butjustgraphsNoweveryexaminationpaperhasoneortwoquestionsongraphsPersonallyIamanenthusiasticadherentofgraphsButIwonderwhetherasyetwehavegainedverymuchYoucannotputlifeintoanyscheduleofgeneraleducationunlessyousucceedinexhibitingitsrelationtosomeessentialcharacteristicofallintelligentoremotionalperceptionltisahardsaying,butitistrueandIdonotseehowtomakeitanyeasierInmakingtheselittleformalalterationsyouarebeatenbytheverynatureofthingsYouarepittedagainsttooskilfulanadversary,whowillseetoitthatthepeaisalwaysundertheotherthimbleReformationmustbeginattheotherendFirst,youmustmakeupyourmindastothosequantitativeaspectsoftheworldwhicharesimpleenoughtobeintroducedintogeneraleducationthenascheduleofalgebrashouldbeframedwhichwillaboutfinditsexemplificationintheseapplicationsWeneednotfearforourpetgraphs,theywillbethereinplentywhenweoncebegintotreatalgebraasaseriousmeansofstudyingtheAimsofEducationworldSomeofthesimplestapplicationswillbefoundinthequantitieswhichoccurinthesimpleststudyofsocietyThecurvesofhistoryaremorevividandmoreinformingthanthedrycataloguesofnamesanddateswhichcomprisethegreaterpartofthataridschoolstudyWhatpurposeiseffectedbyacatalogueofundistinguishedkingsandqueensTom,Dick,orHarry,theyarealldeadGeneralresurrectionsarefailures,andarebetterpostponedThequantitativefluxoftheforcesofmodernsocietyiscapableofverysimpleexhihitionMeanwhile,theideaofthevariable,ofthefunction,ofrateofchange,ofequationsandtheirsolution,ofelimination,arebeingstudiedasanabstractsciencefortheirownsakeNot,ofcourse,inthepompousphraseswithwhichIamalludingtothemhere,butwiththatiterationofsimplespecialcasespropertoteachingIfthiscoursebefollowedtheroutefromChaucertotheBlackDeath,fromtheBlackDeathtomodernLabourtroubles,willconnectthetalesofthemediaevalpilgrimswiththeabstractscienceofalgebra,bothyieldingdiverseaspectsofthatsingletheme,LifeIknowwhatmostofyouarethinkingatthispointItisthattheexactcoursewhichIhavesketchedoutisnottheparticularonewhichyouwouldhavechosen,orevenseehowtoworkIquiteagreeIamnotclaimingthatIcoulddoitmyselfButyourobjectionistheprecisereasonwhyacommonexternalexaminationsystemisfataltoeducationTheprocessofexhibitingtheapplicationsofknowledgemust,foritssuccess,essentiallydependonthecharacterofthepupilsandthegeniusoftheteacherOfcourseIhaveleftouttheeasiestapplicationswithwhichmostofusaremoreathomeImeanthequantitativesidesofsciences,suchasmechanicsandphysics

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【怀特海】教育的目的(英文版)

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