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首页 如何阅读一本书(英文原版)How to read a book

如何阅读一本书(英文原版)How to read a book.pdf

如何阅读一本书(英文原版)How to read a book

C_stone
2009-04-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《如何阅读一本书(英文原版)How to read a bookpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

HOWTOREADABOOKAGuidetoReadingtheGreatBooksbyMortimerJAdlerTableofContentsPrefacePARTITHEACTIVITYOFREADINGCHAPTERONETotheAverageReaderCHAPTERTWOTheReadingof"Reading"CHAPTERTHREEReadingisLearningCHAPTERFOURTeachers,DeadorAliveCHAPTERFIVETheDefeatoftheSchoolsCHAPTERSIXOnSelfhelpPARTIITHERULESCHAPTERSEVENFromManyRulestoOneHabit––CHAPTEREIGHTCatchingonFromtheTitleCHAPTERNINESeeingtheSkeleton––CHAPTERTENComingtoTermsCHAPTERELEVENWhat'sthePropositionandWhyCHAPTERTWELVETheEtiquetteofTalkingBackCHAPTERTHIRTEENTheThingstheReaderCanSayCHAPTERFOURTEENAndStillMoreRulesPARTIIITHERESTOFTHEREADER'SLIFECHAPTERFIFTEENTheOtherhalfCHAPTERSIXTEENTheGreatBooksCHAPTERSEVENTEENFreeMindsandFreeMenAPPENDIX:GREATBOOKSOFTHEWESTERNWORLDImaginativeLiteratureHISTORYANDSOCIALSCIENCENATURALSCIENCEANDMATHEMATICSPHILOSOPHYANDTHEOLOGYGATEWAYTOTHEGREATBOOKSIMAGINATIVELITERATURECRITICALESSAYSMANANDSOCIETYNATURALSCIENCEMATHEMATICSPHILOSOPHICALESSAYSPrefaceInthisspecialeditionofHowtoreadaBook,IcanmakeclearwhatwasnotentirelyclearwhenthebookwasfirstpublishedinReadersofthebookknew,thoughitstitledidnotindicatethiswithcompleteaccuracy,thatthesubjectwasnothowtoreadanybook,buthowtoreadagreatbookInthetimewasnotyetripeforsuchatitle,withwhichthebookmightnothavereachedthelargeaudiencethatitdidToday,withhundredsofthousandsofAmericanfamiliesengagedinreadinganddiscussingthegreatgooksbooksthatalonerequirethekindofreadingdescribedthesituationismuchchangedIhavethereforeaddedanewsubtitleforthisedition:AguidetoReadingtheGreatBooksHowtoReadaBookattemptstoinculcateskillsthatareusefulforreadinganythingTheseskills,however,aremorethanmerelyusefultheyarenecessaryforthereadingofgreatbooks,thosethatareofenduringinterestandimportanceAlthoughonecanreadbooks,magazines,andnewspapersoftransientinterestwithouttheseskills,thepossessionofthemenablesthereadertoreadeventhetransientwithgreaterspeed,precision,anddiscriminationTheareofreadinganalytically,interpretively,andcriticallyisindispensableonlyforthekindofreadingbywhichthemindpassesformastateofunderstandinglesstoastateofunderstandingmore,andforreadingthefewbooksthatarecapableofbeingreadwithincreasingprofitoverandoveragainthosefewbooksarethegreatbooksandtherulesofreadingheresetfortharetherulesforreadingthemTheillustrationsthatIhavegiventoguidethereaderinapplyingtherulesallrefertothegreatbooksWhenthisbookwaswritten,itwasbasedontwentyyearsofexperienceinreadinganddiscussingthegreatbooksatColumbiaUniversity,attheUniversityofChicago,andStJohn'sCollegeinAnnapolis,aswellaswithanumberofadultgroupsSincethenthenumberofadultgroupshasmultipliedbythethousandssincethenmanymorecollegesanduniversities,aswellassecondaryschoolsalloverthecountry,haveintroducedcoursesdevotedtoreadinganddiscussingthegreatbooks,fortheyhavecometoberecognizedasthecoreofaliberalandhumanisticeducationBut,thoughthesearealladvancesinAmericaneducationforwhichwehavegoodreasontobegrateful,themostimportanteducationaleventsincehasbeen,inmyjudgment,thepublicationanddistributionbyEncyclopediaBritanica,Incorporated,ofGreatBooksoftheWesternWorld,whichhasbroughtthegreatbooksintohundredsofthousandsofAmericanhomes,andintoalmosteverypublicandschoollibraryTocelebratethefact,thisneweditionofHowtoReadaBookcarriesanewAppendixthatliststhecontentsofGreatBooksoftheWesternWorldandalso,accordingly,arevisedversionofChapterSixteenTurntopageandyouwillfindthegreatbookslistedthereintofourmaingroups:imaginativeliterature(poetry,fiction,anddrama)historyandsocialsciencenaturalscienceandmathematicsphilosophyandtheologySince,whenGreatBooksoftheWesternWorldwaspublished,EncyclopediaBritannicahasaddedacompanionsetofbooks,consistingofshortermasterpiecesinallfieldsofliteratureandlearning,properlyentitledGatewaytotheGreatBooksYouwillfindthecontentsofthissetalsolistedintheAppendix,beginningonpageThepresentbookis,asitssubtitleindicates,aguidetoreadingthethingsthatmostdeservecarefulreadingandrereading,andthatiswhyIrecommendittoanyonewhoownsGreatBooksoftheWesternWorldandGatewaytotheGreatBooksButtheownerofthesesetshasothertoolsathandtohelphimTheSyntopicon,comprisingVolumesandofGreatBooksoftheWesternWorld,isadifferentkindofguidetoreadingHowtoReadaBookisintendedtohelpthereaderreadasinglegreatbookthroughcovertocoverTheSyntopiconhelpsthereaderreadthroughthewholecollectionofgreatbooksbyreadingwhattheyhavetosayonanyoneofthreethousandtopicsofgeneralhumaninterest,organizedundergreatideas(Youwillfindthegreatideaslistedonthejacketofthisbook)VolumeIofGatewaytotheGreatBookscontainsaSyntopicalGuidethatservesasimilarpurposeforthatsetofshortermasterpiecesOneotherBritannicapublicationdeservesbriefmentionhereUnlikeeachyear'sbestsellersthatareoutofdateoneyearlater,thegreatbooksaretheperennialsofliteraturerelevanttotheproblemsthathumanbeingsfaceineveryyearofeverycenturyThatisthewaytheyshouldbereadforthelighttheythrowuponhumanlifeandhumansociety,past,present,andfutureAndthatiswhyBritannicapublishesanannualvolume,entitledTheGreatIdeasToday,theaimofwhichistoillustratethestrikingrelevanceofthegreatbooksandthegreatideastocontemporaryeventsandissues,andtothelatestadvancesintheartsandsciencesWithalltheseaidstoreadingandtounderstanding,theaccumulatedwisdomofourWesterncivilizationiswithinthereachofanyonewhohasthewillingnesstoputthemtogooduseMortimerJAdlerChicagoSeptember,PARTITHEACTIVITYOFREADINGCHAPTERONETotheAverageReaderThisisabookforreaderswhocannotreadTheymaysoundrude,thoughIdonotmeantobeItmaysoundlikeacontradiction,butitisnotTheappearanceofrudenessandcontradictionarisesonlyfromthevarietyofsensesinwhichtheword"reading"canbeusedThereaderwhohasreadthusfarsurelycanread,insomesenseofthewordYoucanguess,therefore,whatImustmeanItisthatthisbookisintendedforthosewhocanreadinsomesenseof"reading"butnotinothersTherearemanykindsofreadinganddegreesofabilitytoreadItisnotcontradictorytosaythatthisbookisforreaderswhowanttoreadbetterorwanttoreadinsomeotherwaythantheynowcanForwhomisthisbooknotintended,thenIcananswerthatquestionsimplybynamingthetwoextremecasesTherearethosewhocannotreadatallorinanyway:Infants,imbeciles,andotherinnocentsAndtheremaybethosewhoaremastersoftheartofreadingwhocandoeverysortofreadinganddoitaswellasishumanlypossibleMostauthorswouldlikenothingbetterthansuchpersonstowriteforButabook,suchasthis,whichisconcernedwiththeartofreadingitselfandwhichaimstohelpitsreadersreadbetter,cannotsolicittheattentionofthealreadyexpertBetweenthesetwoextremeswefindtheaveragereader,andthatmeansmostofuswhohavelearnedourABC'sWehavebeenstartedontheroadtoliteracyButmostofusalsoknowthatwearenotexpertreadersWeknowthisinmanyways,butmostobviouslywhenwefindfromsomethingstoodifficulttoread,orhavegreattroubleinreadingthemorwhensomeoneelsehasreadthesamethingwehaveandshownushowmuchwemissedormisunderstoodIfyouhavenothadexperiencesofthissort,ifyouhaveneverfelttheeffortofreadingorknownthefrustrationwhenalltheeffortyoucouldsummonwasnotequaltothetask,IdonotknowhowtointerestyouintheproblemMostofus,however,haveexperienceddifficultiesinreading,butwedonotknowwhywehavetroubleorwhattodoaboutitIthinkthisisbecausemostofusdonotregardreadingasacomplicatedactivity,involvingmanydifferentstepsineachofwhichwecanacquiremoreandmoreskillthroughpractice,asinthecaseofanyotherartWemaynoteventhinkthereisanartofreadingWetendtothinkofreadingalmostasifitweresomethingassimpleandnaturaltodoaslookingorwalkingThereisnoartoflookingorwalkingLastsummer,whileIwaswritingthisbook,ayoungmanvisitedme,HehadheardwhatIwasdoing,andhecametoaskafavorWouldItellhimhowtoimprovehisreadingHeobviouslyexpectedmetoanswerthequestioninafewsentencesMorethanthat,heappearedtothinkthatoncehehadlearnedthesimpleprescription,successwouldbejustaroundthecornerItriedtoexplainthatitwasnotsosimpleIttookmanypagesofthisbook,Isaid,todiscussthevariousrulesofreadingandtoshowhowtheyshouldbefollowedItoldhimthatthisbookwaslikeabookhowtoplaytennisAswrittenaboutinbooks,theartoftennisconsistsofrulesformanageeachofthevariousstrokes,adiscussionofhowandwhentousethem,andadescriptionofhowtoorganizethesepartsintothegeneralstrategyofasuccessfulgameTheartofreadinghastobewrittenaboutinthesamewayTherearerulesforeachofthedifferentstepsyoumusttaketocompletethereadingofawholebookHeseemedalittledubiousAlthoughhesuspectedthathedidnotknowhowtoread,healsoseemedtofeelthattherecouldnotbesomuchtolearnTheyoungmanwasamusicianIaskedhimwhethermostpeople,whocanhearthesounds,knowhowtolistentoasymphonyHisreplywas,ofcoursenotIconfessedIwasoneofthem,andaskedwhetherhecouldtellmehowtolistentomusicasamusicianexpectedittoheheardOfcoursehecould,butnotinafewwordsListeningtoasymphonywasacomplicatedaffairYounotonlyhadtokeepawake,butthereweresomanydifferentthingstoattendto,somanypartsofittodistinguishandrelateHecouldnottellmebrieflyallthatIwouldhavetoknowFurthermore,IwouldhavetospendalotoftimelisteningtomusictobecomeaskilledauditorWell,Isaid,thecaseofreadingwassimilar,IfIcouldlearntohearmusic,hecouldlearntoreadabook,butonlyonthesameconditionsKnowinghowtoreadabookwellwaslikeanyotherartorskillTherewererulestolearnandtofollowThroughpracticegoodhabitsmustbeformedTherewerenoinsurmountabledifficultiesaboutitOnlywillingnesstolearnandpatienceintheprocesswererequiredIdonotknowwhethermyanswerfullysatisfiedhimIfitdidn't,therewasonedifficultyinthewayofhislearningtoreadHedidnotyetappreciatewhatreadinginvolvedBecausehestillregardedreadingassomethingalmostanyonecando,somethinglearnedintheprimarygrades,hemayhavedoubtedstillthatlearningtoreadwasjustlikelearningtohearmusic,toplaytennis,orbecomeexpertinanyothercomplexuseofone'ssensesandone'smindThedifficultyis,Ifear,onethatmostofusshareThatiswhyIamgoingtodevotethefirstpartofthisbooktoexplainingthekindofactivityreadingisForunlessyouappreciatewhatisinvolved,youwillnotbeprepared(asthisyoungmanwasnotwhenhecametoseeme)forthekindofinstructionthatisnecessaryIshallassume,ofcourse,thatyouwanttolearnMyhelpcangonofurtherthanyouwillhelpyourselfNoonecanmakeyoulearnmoreofanartthanyouwanttolearnorthinkyouneedPeopleoftensaythattheywouldtrytoreadiftheyonlyknewhowAsamatteroffact,theymightlearnhowiftheywouldonlytryAndtrytheywould,iftheywantedtolearnIdidnotdiscoverIcouldnotreaduntilafterIhadleftcollegeIfounditoutonlyafterItriedtoteachothershowtoreadMostparentshaveprobablymadeasimilardiscoverybytryingtoteachtheiryoungstersParadoxically,asaresult,theparentsusuallylearnmoreaboutreadingthantheirchildrenThereasonissimpleTheyhavetobemoreactiveaboutthebusinessAnyonewhoteachesanythinghastoTogetbacktomystorySofarastheregistrar'srecordswereconcerned,IwasoneofthesatisfactorystudentsinmydayatColumbiaWepassedcourseswithcreditablemarksThegamewaseasyenough,onceyoucaughtontothetricksIfanyonehadtoldusthenthatwedidnotknowmuchorcouldnotreadverywell,wewouldhavebeenshockedWeweresurewecouldlistentolecturesandreadthebooksassignedinsuchawaywecouldanswerexaminationquestionsneatlyThatwastheproofofourabilitySomeofustookonecoursewhichincreasedourselfsatisfactionenormouslyIhadjustbeenstartedbyJohnErskineItranfortwoyears,wascalledGeneralHonors,andwasopentoaselectgroupofjuniorsandseniorsItconsistedofnothingbut"reading"thegreatbooks,fromtheGreekclassicsthroughtheLatinandmedievalmasterpiecesrightdowntothebestbooksofyesterday,WilliamJames,Einstein,andFreudThebookswereinallfields:theywerehistoriesandbooksofscienceorphilosophy,dramaticpoetryandnovelsWediscussedthemwithourteachersonenightaweekininformal,seminarfashionThatcoursehadtwoeffectsonmeForonething,itmademethinkIhadstruckeducationalgoldforthefirsttimeHerewasrealstuff,handledinarealway,comparedtothetextbookandlecturecoursesthatmerelymadedemandsonone'smemoryButthetroublewasInotonlythoughtIhadstruckgoldIalsothoughtthatIownedthemineHerewerethegreatbooksIknewhowtoreadTheworldwasmyoysterIf,aftergraduation,Ihadgoneintobusinessormedicineorlaw,IwouldprobablystillbeharboringtheconceitthatIknewhowtoreadandwaswellreadbeyondtheordinaryFortunately,somethingwokemeformthisdreamForeveryillusionthattheclassroomcannourish,thereisaschoolofhardknockstodestroyitAfewyearsofpracticeawakenthelawyerandthedoctorBusinessornewspaperworkdisillusionstheboywhothoughthewasatraderorareporterwhenhefinishedtheschoolofcommerceorjournalismWell,IthoughtIwasliberallyeducated,thatIknewhowtoread,andhadreadalotThecureforthatwasteaching,andthepunishmentthatpreciselyfittedmycrimewastohavingtoteach,theyearafterIgraduated,inthisveryHonorscoursewhichhadsoinflatedmeAsastudent,IhadreadallthebooksIwasnowgoingtoteachbut,beingveryyoungandconscientious,Idecidedtoreadthemagainyouknow,justtobrushupeachweekforclassTomygrowingamazement,weekafterweek,IdiscoveredthatthebookswerealmostbrandnewtomeIseemedtobereadingthemforthefirsttime,thesebookswhichIthoughtIhad"mastered"thoroughlyAstimewenton,IfoundoutnotonlythatIdidnotknowverymuchaboutanyofthesebooks,butalsothatIdidnotknowhowtoreadthemverywellTomakeupformyignoranceandincompetenceIdidwhatanyyoungteachermightdowhowasafraidofbothhisstudentsandhisjobIusedsecondarysources,encyclopedias,commentaries,allsortsofbooksaboutbooksaboutthesebooksInthatway,Ithought,IwouldappeartoknowmorethanthestudentsTheywouldn'tbeabletotellthatmyquestionsorpointsdidnotcomefrommybetterreadingofthebooktheytoowereworkingonFortunatelyformeIwasfoundout,orelseImighthavebeensatisfiedwithgettingbyasateachingjustasIhadgotbyasastudentIfIhadsucceededinfoolingothers,ImightsoonhavedeceivedmyselfaswellMyfirstgoodfortunewasinhavingasacolleagueinthisteachingMarkVanDoren,thepoetHeledoffinthediscussionofpoetry,asIwassupposedtodointhecaseofhistory,science,andphilosophyHewasseveralyearsmysenior,probablymorehonestthanI,certainlyabetterreaderForcedtocomparemyperformancewithhis,IsimplycouldnotfoolmyselfIhadnotfoundoutwhatthebookscontainedbyreadingthem,butbyreadingaboutthemMyquestionsaboutabookwereofthesortanyonecouldaskoranswerwithouthavingreadthebookanyonewhohadhadrecoursetothediscussionwhichahundredsecondarysourcesprovideforthosewhocannotordonotwanttoreadIncontrast,hisquestionsseemedtoarisefromthepagesofthebookitselfHeactuallyseemedtohavesomeintimacywiththeauthorEachbookwasalargeworld,infinitelyrichforexploration,andwoetothestudentwhoansweredquestionsasif,insteadoftravelingtherein,hehadbeenlisteningtoatravelogueThecontrastwastooplain,andtoomuchformeIwasnotallowedtoforgetthatIdidnotknowtoreadMysecondgoodfortunelayintheparticulargroupofstudentswhoformedthatfirstclassTheywerenotlongincatchingontomeTheyknewhowtousetheencyclopedia,oracommentary,ortheeditor'sintroductionwhichusuallygracesthepublicationofaclassic,justaswellasIdidOneofthem,whohassinceachievedfameasacritic,wasparticularlyobstreperousHetookwhatseemedtomeendlessdelightindiscussingthevariousaboutthebook,whichcouldbeobtainedfromsecondarysources,alwaystoshowmeandtherestoftheclassthatthebookitselfstillremainedtobediscussedIdonotmeanthatheortheotherstudentscouldreadthebookbetterthanI,orhaddonesoClearlynoneofus,withtheexceptionofMrVanDoren,wasdoingthejobofreadingAfterthefirstyearofteaching,IhadfewillusionsleftaboutmyliteracySincethen,Ihavebeenteachingstudentshowtoreadbooks,sixyearsatColumbiawithMarkVanDorenandforthelasttenyearsattheUniversityofChicagowithPresidentRobertMHutchinsInthecourseofyears,IthinkIhavegraduallylearnedtoreadalittlebetterThereisnolongeranydangerofselfdeception,ofsupposingthatIhavebecomeexpertWhyBecausereadingthesamebooksyearafteryear,IdiscovereachtimewhatIfoundoutthefirstyearIbegantoteach:thebookIamrereadingisalmostnewtomeForawhile,eachtimeIrereadit,thatIhadreallyreaditwellatlast,onlytohavethenextreadingshowupmyinadequaciesandmisinterpretationsAfterthishappens

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如何阅读一本书(英文原版)How to read a book

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