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首页 英文 后民族主义身份认同

英文 后民族主义身份认同

英文 后民族主义身份认同

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2009-04-28 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《英文 后民族主义身份认同pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

PostnationalConstellationsofInnovativeness:ACosmopolitanApproachGUIDOPALAZZOHEC,Universite´deLausanne,SwitzerlandABSTRACTInnovativenessemergesfromthecontextsinwhichindividualactorsandgroupsofactorsareembeddedandwhichinfluencetheirbehaviorWerefertothatcontextintermsofcultureThemanagementliteraturenormallyunderstandscultureinthesenseofAlexisdeTocqueville’s‘habitsoftheheart’,whichisthecustoms,habits,norms,values,andsharedviewsofreality,expressedinaspecificbehaviorofindividualsandgroupsThispaperconfrontsestablishedconceptsofinnovativenesswithrecentdiscussionsonindividualizedandglobalizedsocietiesAccordingtothesociologistUlrichBeck,weareinteractingmoreandmoreinatransnationalandtransculturalcontexttherebydevelopingsharedhabitsoftheheartbeyondtheestablished(mainlygeographicallybound)understandingofcultureAnewcultureisemerging,whichheintroducesascosmopolitanismThepaperanalysestheconditionsofinnovativenessincosmopolitaninteractionbydiscussingtwoexamples,theemergenceoftransnationalcivilsocietyactivismandglobalcooperationofresearchersinthefightagainstSARSIntroductionInnovativenessisthedesiredresultoftheinterplayoflearning,creativityandinnovationWelearnthroughadoptingandinterpretingneworexistinginformationthusdevelopinganewunderstandingofsurroundingeventsTheabilitytoabsorbandexploitexternalknowledgehasbeendefinedasanorganization’sabsorptivecapacityThemorediversetheknowledgebackgroundofanorganization,thebetteritsabilitytolinknewknowledgetowhatisalreadyknownwithintheorganizationAsfaraswesuccessfullygeneratenovelideas,processesandsolutionsfromtheseprocessesoflearning,weactcreativelyandinnovation,finally,hastodowiththeadoptionandimplementationoftheseideasObviously,asbroadlydiscussedintheliterature,thereisastrongrelationbetweenlearning,creativity,andinnovationInnovativenessthuscanbeunderstoodastheabilityofasocialentity(egacompany,anetwork,acountry)topromoteafavorableenvironmentforthisinterplayTechnologyAnalysisStrategicManagementVol,No,–,MarchCorrespondenceAddress:DrGuidoPalazzo,EcoledesHautesEtudesCommerciales,Universite´deLausanne,Lausanne,SwitzerlandEmail:guidopalazzounilchPrint=Online==–#TaylorFrancisGroupLtdDOI:=InnovativenessemergesfromthecontextsinwhichindividualactorsandgroupsofactorsareembeddedandwhichinfluencetheirbehaviorWenormallyrefertothatcontextintermsofcultureTheway,wethink,act,interact,experienceandinterprettheworld,createmeaningandvalues,shapestheculturalcontextofourinteractionandindividualselfreflectionAccordingly,thedifferentaspectsofthisculturalcontextofinnovativenesshavebeenexaminedthoroughly:nationsandregions,organizationsandindividualsTheaimofthesebodiesofresearchwastofindthe‘culturalsoftware’,whichisthekeycharacteristicsofacultureofinnovativenessonamacro,meso,ormicrolevelCultureisdefinedinmanydifferentwaysinliteratureandthediscussionofthatendlesslistofdefinitionsisbeyondthescopeofthisarticleHowever,mostauthors,especiallyinmanagementliterature,refertocultureinthesenseofAlexisdeTocqueville’s‘habitsoftheheart’,whichisthecustoms,habits,norms,values,andsharedviewsofreality,expressedinaspecificbehaviorofindividualsandgroupsInthissense,cultureisatwofoldconceptofactionandidentityOntheonehand,itdescribestheway‘inwhichagroupofpeoplesolvesproblemsandreconcilesdilemmas’Ontheotherhand,cultureisregardedas‘universallyconstitutiveofsocialrelationsandidentities’Cultureinthissense,describestherelativelystablestatusquooftraditionsthathavebeendevelopedandestablishedinthepastandaregivingorientationinthepresentInrecentyears,thisideaofculturalcompactnesshascomeunderthepressureofindividualizationandglobalization,resultinginthepluralizationofformerculturalhomogeneityThegrammarofourculturallifeworldcontextischangingandnations,organizationsandindividualsareundergoingatremendoustransformationtodayTheconsequencesofgrowingindividualautonomyandtransculturalexperiencehavebeendiscussedonthemacrolevelofnationstates,themesoleveloforganizationsandthemicrolevelofindividualactorsThesediscussions,whichreinterpretcultureasanessentiallyactiveandautonomousprocessofindividualandcommunalidentityreconstruction,haveprocedurizedestablishedconceptsofcultureConsequently,theyreplacedthemorepassivenotionofculturebythemoreactivenotionofidentityIftheassumptionisright,thatthedoublepressureofindividualizationandglobalizationdeeplytransformsourcultures,itcanbeassumedtohaveaconsiderableimpactonourculturebasedapproachestoinnovativeness,tooBeyondaworldoforganizationalhierarchiesandrepresentativedemocracies,beyondaworldofculturalhomogeneity,wewillhavetoexaminetheneworganizationalandindividualpreconditionsoflearning,creativityandinnovationWewillhavetotaketherecentdebateonreflexivecultureintoconsiderationThispaperconfrontsestablishedconceptsofinnovativenesswithrecentdiscussionsonindividualizedandglobalizedsocietiesThemainthesisisthatatthebeginningofthestcentury,anewculturalplayingfieldisemergingfromthesetransformationscosmopolitanismWearestandingatthedawnofemergingcosmopolitanismandtheideastillremainsspeculativeanddemandsdeepertheoreticalreflectionsandextensiveempiricalresearchHowever,thispaperwilldiscussthethesisthatcosmopolitanismastheculturalcontextoftransculturallyoperatinghighlyindividualizednetworkswillhaveanimpactontheinnovativenessineconomy,politicsandcivilsocietyInthefollowingtwosessionsIwilloutlinetheconceptsofreflexivemodernityandcosmopolitanismAfterwards,basedonaliteratureoverview,IwillgiveashortdescriptionofkeyGPalazzocharacteristicsofinnovativenessingeneralThesebasicideasofinnovativenessthenwillbelinkedtocosmopolitanismBasedonthistheoreticaldiscussion,IwilldeveloptwoexamplesofcosmopolitaninnovativenessFinally,discussingtheproblemsandchallengeslinkedtocosmopolitaninnovativeness,theconceptwillbeputinperspectiveIndividualization:FromModernitytoReflexiveModernityAtthebeginningofthestcenturytheconditiohumanaischaracterizedbydiscontinuities,instabilities,contingencies,pluralism,dissensus,paradoxesandhighmobilityAdvancedcapitalistsocietiesaremovingtowardsmorefragmentedpluralisticculturesInpremodernandevenmodernsocieties,identitywastheconsequenceofbeingembeddedinaculturallifeworldcontextThebehaviorofindividualswaschanneledbythemoreorlesshomogeneoustraditionsofasocietyinagiventimespacecontextTheplaceofeachindividualwasdefinedbythepregivensocietalconditions,notbyhisorherreflectionsanddecisionsRealitywasmoreorlessinscribed,notdecideduponIndividualswerecaughtinanetworkofstableexpectationswithclearlydefinedrolesandpositionsWiththeoldsourcesofidentitylosingtheirconvincingpower,individualsstarttocriticallyreflectuponthetraditionalprescription,normativeexpectationsandformsofbehaviorIdentitiesoncewereselfunderstoodToday,identityquestionsplayanincreasinglycentralroleforindividuals,organizationsandnationstatesnotbecausetheyaremoreimportantthaninthepastbutbecausetheyhavelosttheircertaintyThedevaluationofourtraditionsischallengingthehomogeneityandconsistencyofourculturallifeworldsandtheindividualandcommunalprocessesofidentityformationTheongoingprocessofdetraditionalizingiserodingthemainsourcesofidentityfromstableindustrialsocietyAsGiddensarguedwearereplacingtraditionsthroughchoices,andchoicesbecomeanimportantinstrumentindefiningandshapingouridentitiesWeshiftfromblindacceptanceoftraditionalrulestoareflexiveprocessofidentityformationThisreflexiveidentityorbetterourpermanentengagementinshapingouridentityandmakingitcoherentandconsistentbringsstabilityinourlivesthatareunderthepressureofconstantchangeandcontingentexperienceIdentitybecomesanongoingprojectofourreflexivemodernityAllinstitutionsandactivitiesthatprovidedarelativehighlevelofstability(suchascommunities,family,geography,work,andhierarchy)areinastateofpermanentredefinitiontodayThetraditionalsourcesofmoralorientationarefragmentedthemselvesandareputintoperspective(nation,religion,gender,politicalideologies)Westrugglewithagreaterheterogeneityandcomplexity,basedonapluralizationofinterestsandvaluesAccordingtoLashwehavetonavigatepragmaticallyalltheremaindersoftheoldnarrativesandnewmaterialsofferedbythewiderangeofnewsources,toreconstructouridentitiesIdentityremainsasocialconstructionHowever,itisnolongerdrivenbyunreflectedtraditionsbutbymoreandmoreautonomouslyactingindividualswhomakechoicesPluralismistheresultofthosechoicesofindividualsandtheirgroupsofreferencePluralismproblematizessocialcoherencebutatthesametimeoffersanewdiscursiveaccesstocommunitybuildingNewcommunicationtechnologiesallowexpansionofourinteractiononaglobalscale,creatingnewenvironmentsforcollectiveidentityprojectsWeareabletobuildvirtualcommunitieswithouttheneedforphysicalcopresenceWedevelopanadditionalonlinemodusofreconstructingindividualandcommunalidentitiesTheworldhasbecomemoreincomprehensible,complexandmessywithasenseoflossofcontrolOurtraditionallydevelopedandacceptedmeaningsandinterpretationsofthePostnationalConstellationsofInnovativenessworldarecontinuouslyoutmodedTheworldisshapedbyflowsofpeople,money,andinformationthus,movingtowardsgreatercomplexityanddiversityPropositiona:Sustainablechangesinthespatiotemporalconfigurationofexperiencearetransformingthecultureofourindustrialsociety,therelatedformsoforganizationsandindividualselfawarenessPropositionb:Thesechangesmaydeeplyinfluencetheway,individualsaswellasgeographicalandorganizationalentitiesperformandinnovateGlobalization:FromReflexiveModernitytoCosmopolitanismTheideaoftakinggeographicallyboundentitiesortheinteractionbetweenlocallygroundedindividualsasastartingpointfortheanalysisofinnovativenessischallengedbytheassumptionthatweareinteractingmoreandmoreinatransnationalandtransculturalcontext,whichisbeyondourestablishedpatternsofanalysisandinterpretationThedeconstructionofboundariesinspaceandtimefuelsthedeconstructionofnormativeboundariesandpromotesthepluralizationofourculturesevenfurtherThekeydriverofsocietaltransformationthuscanbefoundintheongoingprocessofglobalizationUnderstoodasourcapacitytowebcultural,politicalandeconomicnetworksacrosstheglobe,globalizationwasmadepossiblebythefalloftheBerlinWallandtheriseofInternettechnologyGlobalizationisalocaleventItdoesnottakeplacebeyondorabovenationalbordersbuttransformsnationstatesocietiesandtheirlifeworldsfromwithinVariousculturesthatoverlapbecauseofprocessesofglobalizationbegintointerpenetrateandchangeeachotherIftheimpactofglobalizationcanonlybeobservedlocally,itrevealsitspowerinthetransformationofeverydaylifeexperienceNationallyshapedcultural(lifeworld)traditions,economicandpoliticalinstitutionsandorganizationsundergoaprocessofglobalchangeAsindividuals,weinternalizetheinterpenetrationofthevariousconceptsofworldawarenessUlrichBeckcallsit‘theriseofthecosmopolitansubject’Thesesubjectsarereflectingupon‘asharedcollectivefuture,whichcontradictsanationbasedmemoryofthepast’Thesesubjectsinteractintransnationalnetworksofeconomy,polityandcivilsocietythusshapinga(moreorlessvirtual)cosmopolitansociety‘Transnationalidentificationsincreasinglybecamepartofthewayofmakingsenseofandembracingthemodernworld’WeareopeningupahistoricallyunprecedentedtransnationalsphereinwhichweexperienceandinhabitgloballynetworkedlifeworldsEventhoughthecosmopolitanexperiencesomehowhasanimpactoneverybody’slife,Iwilllimitmyanalysisofthecosmopolitansubjectsasfollows:Tothose,whoseidentity,toalargeextent,isbasedontransnationalandtransculturalformsofcooperationwithglobalizeddecisionmakingframesandtothose,whoprofitbythegloballyexpandedplayingfieldIespeciallythinkofnetworksofinteractingcosmopolitans,egintransnationalcorporationsandpoliticalinstitutions,transnationalNGOs,ortransnationallycooperatingscientists,whoarealreadybeginningtostabilizetheirownculturalsoftwarefordevelopingaspecificaccesstocooperation,effectivenessandinnovativenessThesecosmopolitansareabouttoreinterpretandreconstructthemainstreamed(andtoacertainextentjustified)critiqueofGPalazzoglobalization’sbacklashesofexclusion,economicimperialismandculturalfundamentalismCosmopolitans’overlapintransnationalactivitiesandtheirexperienceininteractingwithothercosmopolitansisabouttoshapeasetofrulesandvaluesthatguidestheirbehaviorinatransnationallynetworkedcultureTothosewhousetheinternetasaplatformfortheirtransnationalcooperationsandtheircosmopolitanidentityformationVirtualinteractioncreatesakindof‘immobilesocialization’Virtualityisimportantforthecooperationintransnationalnetworksofmanagers,scientistsorNGOactivistsBakardjievadescribeshowtheparticipationinvirtualnetworksincreasestheusers’reflexivityandhelpsthemtodevelopnewinterpretativeframeworksfortheirnonvirtuallifeCastellsunderlinesthattheInternetisthedriverofnewformsofinteractionwithalternativewaysoflifeandonlinecommunitiesbecomingnewformsofcollectivelearningThenotionofcosmopolitanismdoesnotmerelydescribetheoverlapofdiverseculturesInsteaditclaimsthatinatransnationalcontextofcooperation,anewanddistinctformofculturearisesthatdoesnotreplaceestablishedculturalcontextsbutatleastforsomepeoplethecosmopolitansoffersanadditionalandoftenpredominantsourceofidentityreconstruction,anadditionalsetofexperience,valuesandmoodsofbehaviorTheassumptionthatcosmopolitansareparasiteswhorootlesslynavigateinapluralityoflocalculturesisonlyahalftruthItistruethatcosmopolitanculturemayberegardedasavarietyofculturalfragmentsthatareemergingwithinalreadyexistinglocalculturesCosmopolitanismtherefore,isnotyetacoherentoutlinecomparabletogeographicallyshapedculturesas‘the’Germancultureor‘the’USAmericancultureHowever,cosmopolitanismisdevelopingitsownculturalgrammaranditbecomesthenecessarybasisofinteractionsbetweenpeoplewhosedailylifeandworkispredominantlyshapedbytransnationalcooperationItistheemerginglifeworldcontextofinteractionamongcosmopolitansItmayconsistoffragments,butitssingularityarisesasaconsequenceoftransnationalactivitiesInthissense,JeremyWaldroniswrong,arguingthatacosmopolitanculturedoesnotamounttoasingleculturebecauseitisjustmanyfragmentsofcosmopolitanisminatraditionallocalculture,especiallyintheurbancentersofourbigcitiesCosmopolitanismistheculturalbackgroundofcooperationinatransnationalcontextandcosmopolitansdevelopadistinctsetofvalues,experience,formsofinteractionandidentityreconstructionthatfitforthatcontextSincethiscontextiswithouthistoricalprecedents,withouttheshadowofasharedpast,therulestheyestablishandtheinterpretationstheyfindtodescribeatransnationalcontext,aretheresultofindividualandcommonreflectionandcommunicationRulesandnorms,valuesandgoalsthatarenotrootedinageographicallyandhistoricallyshapedculturemustmoreorlessbetheresultofautonomousreflectionandpersonalexperienceCosmopolitanismsimplylacksthenarrativeplotoftraditionallifeworldsInthissense,cosmopolitanismistheconsequentcontinuationofthedisenchantmentoftraditionthatisthecoreideaofreflexivemodernityCosmopolitansremainindividualswhoaredesperatelyfightingfortheirlivenarratives,forselfconsciousness,selfrealizationandselfdeterminationintimesoferodingtraditionsProposition:TheongoingdeconstructionofboundariesinspaceandtimeisfuelingthepluralizationofgeographicallydefinedculturalentitiesTransnationalandtransculturalactivitiesarebeginningtoshapeahistoricallyunprecedentedPostnationalConstellationsofInnovativenessgloballyextendedplayingfieldinwhichtheactorsbegintodeveloptheirownculturalgrammarofcosmopolitanismIndividualandOrganizationalAspectsofInnovativenessBeforedescribingtheparticularinnovativenessofthecosmopolitanculturalsoftware,Iwouldliketomakeonestepbackandgivearoughsketchofthegeneralaspectsofinnovativeness(understoodastheintegrationoflearning,creativityandinnovation)asdiscussedintheliteraturePersonalTraitsPromotingInnovativenessAutonomyInnovativenessisfosteredbyselfconfidence,whichisbelievinginone’scapabilitytohaveanimpactandtomakeadifferenceThemoreselfconfidentthemembersoforganizationsare,thelesstheystriveforstabilityandthegreatertheirtolerance–oreventheirdesireforfluidformsofinteractionFluidityisrequiredforpropellingourindividualautonomyIndividualautonomycombinedwithhighenergy,curiosityandintellectualhonestyfacilitatescreativityFlexibilityInnovativeindividualsshowanattractiontocomplexityandatolerationofambiguityTheyareflexibleandhaveabroadinterestDiversityInnovativeindividualsknowhowtonavigatediversityDivergentthinkingabilitiespromotethecapacityofdevelopingmanyalternativesolutionsandareabletodevelopnewanddiverseinterpretationsPriorlearningpromotesnewlearningespecially,ifpriorlearningresultsindiverseknowledgeCommunicationCommunicationisacrucialpreconditionofinnovation,butofcourse,itisnotcommunicationingeneralthatisfavorableforcreativity,butcommunication(andknowledge)inanetworkofoverlappingdiversities,becauseitenhancestheindividualabilitytothinkoutsidetheboxProactivenessFinally,innovationhastodowithproactiveness,ietheabilitytoanticipatechancesandrisksandthewilltotakerisksOrganizationalTraitsPromotingInnovativenessD

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