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首页 福柯外文资料大串烧10:福柯:生命政治学的诞生(法兰西学院讲义1978-1979)(英文版)

福柯外文资料大串烧10:福柯:生命政治学的诞生(法兰西学院讲义1978-1979)(英文版)

福柯外文资料大串烧10:福柯:生命政治学的诞生(法兰西学院讲义…

明清士大夫
2009-04-25 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《福柯外文资料大串烧10:福柯:生命政治学的诞生(法兰西学院讲义1978-1979)(英文版)pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

TRANSLATEDBYGRAHAMBURCHELLEnglishSeriesEditor:ArnoldIDavidsonThisbookissupportedbytheFrenchMinistryofForeignAffairsaspartoftheBurgessprogrammerunbytheCulturalDepartmentoftheFrenchEmbassyinLondon(wwwfrenchbooknewscom)LibertiEgalitl•FraternUIREPUBLIQUEFRAN<:AISETheBirthoJBiopoliticsEditedbyMichelSenellartGeneralEditors:Frans:oisEwaldandAlessandroFontanaLECTURESATTHECOLLEGEDEFRANCE,MICHELFOUCAULTpalgravemacmillan~ifI,Ttj,L,!~',Forthcominginthisseries:THEWILLTOKNOWPENALTHEORIESANDINSTITUTIONSTHEPUNITIVESOCIETYONTHEGOVERNMENTOFTHELIVINGSUBJECTIVITYANDTRUTHTHEGOVERNMENTOFSELFANDOTHERSTHECOURAGEOFTRUTHSOCIETYMUSTBEDEFENDED(NorthAmericaCanada)ABNORMAL(NorthAmericaCanada)HERMENEUTICSOFTHESUBJECT(NorthAmericaCanada)PSYCHIlJRICPOWERSECURITY,TERRITORY,POPULATIONAlsointhisseries::III',IoneJanuaryQuestionsifmethodrvSupposeuniversalsdonotexistrvSummaryifthepreviousyear'slectures:thelimitedobjecHveifthegovemmentifraisond'Etat(extemalpolitics)andunlimitedobjectiveifthepolicestate(intemalpolitics)rvLawasprincipleIiftheextemallimitationifraisond'EtatrvPerspecHveifthisyear'slectures:poliHcaleconomyasprincipleiftheintemallimitaHonifgovemmentalreasonrvWhatisatstakeinthisresearch:thecouplingifasetifpracHcesandaregimeiftruthandtheeffectsifitsinscnptioninrealityrvWhatisliberalismXCONTENTSForeword:FranljoisEwaldandAlessandroFontanatwoJanuaryLiberalismandtheimplementationifanewartifgovemmentintheeighteenthcenturyrvSpee!ficfeaturesiftheliberalartifgovemment(I):()TheconsHtuHonifthemarketassiteifthefonnationiftruthandnotjustasdomainifjurisdicHonrvQuestionsifmethodThestakesifresearchundertakenaroundmadness,thepenalf)rder,andsexuality:sketchofahistoryif"regimesifveridiction"rvThenatureifapoliticalcn"tiqueifknowledge(savoir)rv()TheproblemiflimiHngtheexerciseifpowerbypublicauthonliesTwotypesifsoluHon:FrenchjuridicalradicalismandEnglishuHlitarianismrvThequestionif"uHlity"andlimzlingtheexerciseifpowerbypublicauthoriHesrvCommentonthestatusifheterogeneityinhistory:strategicTHEBIRTHOFBIOPOLITICS©EditionsduSeuiVGallimard,EditionestabLishedunderthedirectionofFranloisEwaLdandALessandroFontana,byMichelSeneLlartTransLation©GrahamBurchell,ALLrightsreserved,Noreproduction,copyortransmissionofthispublicationmaybemadewithoutwrittenpermission~NoparagraphofthispubLicationmaybereproduced,copiedortransmittedsavewithwrittenpermissionorinaccordancewiththeprovisionsoftheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct,orunderthetermsofanyLicencepermittingLimitedcopyingissuedbytheCopyrightLicensingAgency,TottenhamCourtRoad,LondonwnLPAnypersonwhodoesanyunauthorisedactinreLationtothispublicationmaybeliabLetocriminaLprosecutionandcivilclaimsfordamagesTheauthorhasassertedhisrighttobeidentifiedastheauthorofthisworkinaccordancewiththeCopyright,DesignsandPatentsActFirstpublishedinFrancebyEditionsdeSeuillGallimardunderthetitLeNaissancedeLaBiopolitique:CoursauCollegedeFrance,EngliShlfanslation~puILishedin~by~PALGRAVEMACMILLANHoundmills,Basingstoke,HampshireRGXSandFifthAvenue,NewYork,N,YCompaniesandrepresentativesthroughouttheworLdPALGRAVEMACMILLANisthegLobaLacademicimprintofthePaLgraveMacmillandivisionofStMartin'sPress,LLCandofPaLgraveMacmillanLtdMacmiLLan(i)isaregisteredtrademarkintheUnitedStates,UnitedKingdomandothercountriesPalgraveisaregisteredtrademarkintheEuropeanUnionandothercountriesISBN:hardbackISBN:hardbackThisbookisprintedonpapersuitableforrecyclingandmadefromfullymanagedandsustainedforestsourcesLogging,puLpingandmanufacturingprocessesareexpectedtoconformtotheenvironmentaLreguLationsofthecountryoforiginAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryAcatalogrecordforthisbooki~avaiLabLefromtheLibraryofCongressPrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyCPIAntonyRowe,ChippenhamandEastbourne*i~I'I'I'IvithreefourCONTENTSagainstdialecticallogicrvThenohon"interest"asoperator(operateur)thenewartgovemmentJanuarySpecficfeaturestheIt'beralartgovemment(II):()TheproblemEuropeanhalanceandintemationalrelationsrvEconomicandpoliticalcalculahoninmercanhlismThepnnciplethefreedomthemarketaccordzngtothephyszocratsandAdamSmith:birthanewEuropeanmodelrvAppearanceagovemmentalrahonalityextendedtoaworldscaleExamples:thequestionmaritimelawtheprojectsperpetualpeacezntheeighteenthcenturyrvPnnciplesthenewliberalartgovemment:a"govemmentalnaturalism"theproduchonfreedomrvTheproblemliberalarbi"tratton"Itsinstruments:()themanagementdangersandtheimplementationmechanismssecun"ty()disciplznarycontrols(Bentham'spanophcism)()interventionistpoliciesrvThemanagementlibertyanditscnsesJanuaryPhobiathestatervQueshonsmethod:senseandstakesthebrackehngoJatheorythestateintheanalysismechanzsmsjJowerrvNeo:"ltheralgovelmenfalprachces:GermanliberalismfromtoAmencanneoliberalismrvGermanneoliberalism(I)rvItipolihcaleconomiccontextrvThescientfzccounczlbroughttogetherhyErhardinItsprogram:aholitionpricecontrolsandlimitationgovemmentalinterventionsrvThemiddlewaydefinedbyErhardinbetweenanarchyandthe"termitestate"rvItsdoublemeanzng:(a)respectforeconomzcfreedomasconditionthestate'spolitzcalrepresentah"vity(b)theznsh"tuhoneconomIcfreedomashasisfortheformahonpolihcalsovereigntyrvFundamentalcharactensticcontemporaryGermangovemmentality:economicfreedom,thesourceojun"dzcallegitimacyandpolihcalconsensusrvEconomzcgrowth,axisanewhzstoricalconsciousnessenablingthebreakwiththepastrvRallyingoChristianDemocracyandtheSPD,ti!itI~!!fiveSlXConTentsVlItoliberalpoliticsrvTheprinciplesliberalgovemmentandtheabsence"asocialzstgovemmentalrationalitynFebruaryGermanneoliberalzsm(II)rVItsproblem:howcaneconomicfreedomhothfoundandlimitthestateatthesamehmervTheneoliberaltheorists:WEucken,FBohm,AMiillerArmack,FvonHayekrvMaxWeherandtheproblemtheirrational·rahonalitycapitalismTheanswerstheFranlifjJrtSchoolandtheFreiburgSchoolrvNazismasnecessaryfieldadversitytothedefinitionoftheneoliberalobjectivervTheobstaclestoliberalpolicyinGermanyszncethenineteenthcentury:(a)theprotectionzsteconomyaccordzngtoList(h)Bismarck'sstatesocialism(c)thesettingupaplannedeconomyduringtheFirstWorldWar(d)Keynesianinterventionism(e)theeconomicpolicyNationalSocialismrvTheneoliberalcnnqu~Natz"onalSocialismonthehasisthesedifferentelementsGermanhzstoryrvTheoreticalconsequences:extensionthiscritiquetotheNewDealandtotheBeveridgeplansznterventionismandthegrowththepowerthe",cstatemassfficahonanduniformizgtion,iffedsstatecontrolrvThestakeneoliberalzsm:itsnoveltyzncompansonwithclassicalliberalismThetheorypurecompeh"tionFebruaryGermanneoliberalism(III)rvUsifulnesshistoricalanalysesforthepresentrvHowisneoliheralzsmdistinguishedfromclasszcalliberalismrvItsspeczJicstake:howtomodeltheglohalexercisepolzncalpoweronthepnnciplesamarketeconomy,andthetransformationsthatderivefromthisrvThedecouplzngthemarketeconomyandpolicieslazsse'{jairervTheWalterLippmanncolloquium(toAugust)rvTheproblemthestyleofgovemmentalactionThreeexamples:(a)thequestionmonopolies(b)thequestz"onof"coriformableactions(actionsconformes)"ThebaseseconomicpolicyaccordingtoWEuckenRegulatoryactionsandorgani'{!ngach"ons(actionsordonnatrices)(c)socialpolicyTheordoliheralcn"tiquetheVllseveneight£GN'FEN'I"welfareeconomyrvSocietyasthepointofapplicationofgovernmentalinterventionsThe"policyofsociety"(Gesellschaftspolitik)rvFirstaspectofthispolicy:theformali'{(!tionofsocietyonthemodeloftheenterpnservEnterprisesocietyandjudiCzaTsocz""iij"iwoJacesofasinglephenomenonFebruarySecondaspectofthe"policyofsociety"accordingtotheneoliberals:theproblemoflawinasocietyregulatedaccordingtothemodelofthecompetitivemarketeconomyrvReturntotheWalterLippmanncolloquiumrvReflectionsbasedonatextbyLouisRougierrv()TheideaofajuridicaleconomicorderReciprocityofrelationsbetweeneconomicprocessesandinstitutionalframeworkrvPoliticalstake:theproblemofthesurvivalofcapitalismrvTwocomplementaryproblems:thetheoryofcompetitionandthehistoricalandsociologicalanalysisofcapitalismrv()ThequestionoflegalinterventionismrvHistoricalreminder:theRuleoflaw(I'Etatdedroit)intheeighteenthcentury,inoppositiontodespotzsmandthepolicestateReelaborationofthenotioninthenineteenthcentury:thequestionofarbitratzonbetweencitz~nsandpublicauthoritz·esTheproblemofadminzstratz·vecourtsrvTheneoliberalproject:tointroducethepnnciplesoftheRuleoflawintotheeconomicorderrvRuleoflawandplanningaccordzngtoHayekrv()GrowthofjudicialdemandrvGeneralconcluszon:thespecificityoftheneoliberalartofgovernmentinGermanyOrdoliberalismfacedwiththepessimismofSchumpeterMarchGeneralremarks:()Themethodologicalscopeoftheanalysisofmicropowers()TheirifJatzonismofstatephobiaItshnkswithordoliberalismrvTwothesesonthetotalitarianstateandthedeclzneofstategovernmentalityinthetwentiethcenturyrvRemarksonthespreadoftheGermanmodel,znFranceandzntheUnitedStatesrvTheGermanneoliberalmodelandtheFrenchprojectofa"socialmarketeconomy"rvTheFrenchcontextofthetransitzontoaneo~liberaleconomicsrvFrenchsocialpolicy:theexampleof'i,!'tijnInetenContentsixsocialsecurityrvTheseparatzonoftheeconomicandthesocialaccordzngtoGiscardd'EstaingrvTheprojectoja"negativetax"anditssocialandpoliticalstakes"Relative"and"absolute"povertyAbandonmentofthepolicyoffullemploymentMarchAmencan'neiberalism(I)ItscontextrvThed!fJerencebetweenAmericanandEuropeanneoliberalismrvAmericanneoliberalismas'aglobalclaimutopianfocus,andmethodofthoughtrvAspectsofthisneoliberalism:()ThetheoryofhumancapitalThetwoprocessesthatitrepresents:(a)anextensionofeconomzcanalyszswithznitsowndomazn:en"tzcismofthe'classzcalanalysisoflaborzntermsoflhetimefactor(b)anextenszonofeconomzcanalysistodomainspreviouslyconsideredtobeilOneconomzcrvTheepistemologicaltransformatzonproducedbyneoliberalanalysis:fromtheanalyszsofeconomicprocessestotheanalysisoftheinternalrationalityofhumanbehaviorrvWorkaseconomzcconductrvItsdiviszonintocapital,abih"tz·es,andincomervTheredifznitzonofhomoreconomicusasentrepreneurofhimselfrvThenotionof'''humancapital"Itsconstitutiveelements:(a)znnateelementsandthequestionoftheimprovementofgenetzchumancapital(b)acquiredelementsandtheproblemoftheformationofhumancapital(education,health,etcetera)rVTheinterestoftheseanalyses:resumptionofheproblemofsocialandeconomicinnovatzon(Schumpeter)AnewconceptionofthepolicyofgrowthMarchAmencanneoliberalism(II)rvTheapphcationoftheeconomzcgridtosocialphenomenarvReturntotheordoliberalproblematzc:theambiguitiesoftheGesellschaftspolitikThegenerali'{(!tionofthe"enterpnse"formznthesocialFeldEconomzcpolicyandVitalpolitik:asocietyforthemarketandagaznstthemarketrvTheunlimitedgenerali'{(!tionoftheeconomicformofthemarketinAmencanneoliberalism:pnncipleofthezntelligibzityofzndividualbehavioranden·ticalpnncipleofgovernmentalznterventzonsrvAspectsofAmencanneoliberalism:()DelinquencyandpenaltwelveitAprilElementsforahistoryofthenotionofhomoceconomicus(II)rvReturntotheproblemofthelzinz"tationofsovereignpowerbyeconomicactivityrvTheemergenceofanewfield,thecorrelateoftheliberalartofgoverrzment:civilsocietyrvHomoceconomicusandelevenMarchThemodelofhomoceconomicusrvItsgeneralz"zgtiontoeveryformofbehaviorinAmericanneoliberalismrvEconomicanalysisandbehavioraltechniquesrvHomoceconomicusasthebasicelementofthenewgovernmentalreasonappearedintheeighteenthcenturyrvElementsforahistoryofthenotionofhomoceconomicusbiforeWalrasandParetorvThesubjectofinterestinEnglishempincistphilosophy(Hume)rvTheheterogeneityofthesubjectofinterestandthelegalsubjett:()Theirreduciblenatureofinterestincomparisonwithjuridicalwill()ThecontrastinglogicsofthemarketandthecontractrvSecondinnovationwithregardtothejuridicalmodel:the~conoZzcsuhject'srelationshljJ·withpolitzcalpowerCondorcetAdamSmith's"invisiblehand":invisibilityofthelinkbetweentheindividual'spursuitofprofi"tandthegrowthofcollectivewealthThenontotalz"zgblenatureoftheeconomzcworldThesovereign'snecessaryignorancervPoliticaleconomyasm"tiqueofgovernmentalreason:rejectionofthepossibilityofaneconomzcsovereigninitstwo,mercantilistandphysiocratic,formsrvPolitzcaleconomyasasciencelateraltotheartofgovernmentcivilsociety:inseparableelementsofliberalgovernmentaltechnologyrvAnalysisofthenotionof"civzsociety":itsevolutionfromLocketoFergusonFerguson'sAnEssayontheHistoryofCivilSociety()ThejouressentialcharacteristicsofcivilsocietyaccordingtoFerguson:()itisanhistoricalnaturalconstant()itassuresthespontaneoussynthesisofindividualsParadoxoftheeconomicbond()itisapermanentmatrixofpoliticalpower()itisthemotorofhistoryrvAppearanceofanewsystemofpoliticalthoughtrvTheoreticalconsequences:(a)thequestionoftherelationsbetweenstateandsocietyTheGerman,English,andFrenchproblematics(b)theregulationofpoliticalpower:fromthewisdomoftheprincetotherationalcalculationsofthegovernedrvGeneralconclusionxiContentsCourseSummaryCourseContextIndexofConceptsandNotionsIndexofNamespolicyrvHistoricalreminder:theproblemoftheriformofpenallawattheendoftheeighteenthcenturyEconomiccalculationandprincipleoflegalityTheparasiticinvasionofthelawbythenorminthenineteenthcenturyandthebirthofcriminalanthropologyrvTheneolib~alanalysis:()thedfJinitkmomine()thedescriptionofthecriminalsubjectashombreconomicus()thestatusofthepenaltyasinstrumentoflaw"eriforcement"TheexampleofthedrugsmarketrvConsequencesofthisanalysis:(a)anthropologicalerasureofthemininal(b)puttingthedisciplinarymodeloutofplayeo'NTE:NTSxIIjFOREWORDMICHELFOUCAULTTAUGHTATtheCollegedeFrancefromJanuaryuntilhisdeathinJune(withtheexceptionofwhenhetookasabbaticalyear)'Thetitleofhischairwas"TheHistoryofSystemsofThought"OntheproposalofJulesVuillemin,thechairwascreatedonNovemberbythegeneralassemblyoftheprofessorsoftheCollegedeFranceandreplacedthatof"TheHistoryofPhilosophicalThought"heldbyJeanHyppoliteuntilhisdeathThesameassemblyelectedMichelFoucaulttothenewchaironApril'HewasyearsoldMichel·Foucault~sinaugurallecturewasdeliveredonDecemberTeachingattheCollegedeFranceisgovernedbyparticularrulesProfessorsmustprovidehoursofteachingayear(withthepossibilityofamaximumofhalfthistotalbeinggiveninthefortlofseminars)EachyeartheymustpresenttheiroriginalresearchandthisobligesthemtochangethecontentoftheirteachingforeachcourseCoursesandseminarsarecompletelyopennoenrolmentorqualificationisrequiredandtheprofessorsdonotawardanyqualificationsIntheterminologyoftheCollegedeFrance,theprofessorsdonothavestudentsbutonlyauditorsMichelFoucault'scourseswereheldeveryWednesdayfromJanuarytoMarchThehugeaudiencemadeupofstudents,teachers,researchersandthecurious,includingmanywhocamefromoutsideFrance,requiredtwoamphitheatersoftheCollegedeFranceFoucaultoftencomplainedaboutthedistancebetweenhimselfandhis"public"andofhowfewexchangesthecoursemadepossibleHewouldhavelikedaseminarinwhichrealcollectiveworkcouldtakeplaceandmadeaWiththeirdevelopmentandrefinementinthes,Foucault'sdeskwasquicldyinvadedbycassetterecordersThecoursesandsomeseminarshavethusbeenpreservedThiseditionisbasedortthewordsdeliveredinpublicbyFoucaultItgivesatranscriptionofthesewordsthatisasliteralaspossibleWewouldhavelikedtopresentitassuchHowever,thetransitionfromanoraltoawrittenpresentationcallsforeditorialintervention:attheveryleastitrequirestheintroductionofpunctuationanddivisionintoparagraphsOurprinciplehasbeenalwaystoremainasdoseaspossibletothecourseactuallydeliveredSummariesandrepetitionshavebeenremovedwheneveritseemedtobeabsolutelynecessaryInterruptedsentenceshavebeenrestoredandfaultyconstructionscorrectedSuspensionpointsindicatethattherecordingisinaudibleWhenasentenceisobscurethereisaconjecturalintegrationoranadditionbetweensquarebradcetsAnasteriskdirectingthereadertothebottomofthepageindicatesasignificantdivergencebetweenthenotesusedbyFoucaultandthewordsactuallycoursessharecertainthemesTheyhavetheirownstatusTheyarisefromaspecificdiscursiveregimewithinthesetofFoucault's"philosophicalactivities"Inparticulartheysetouttheprogrammeforagertealogyofknowledgepowerrelations,whicharethetermsinwhichhethinksofhisworkfromthebeginningofthes,asopposedtotheprogramfanarcheologyofdiscursiveformationsthatpreviouslyorientatedhisworkThecoursesalsoperformedaroleincontemporaryrealityThosewhofollowedhiscourseswerenotonlyheldinthrallbythenarrativethatunfoldedweekbyweekandseducedbytherigorousexposition,theyalsofoundaperspectiveoncontemporaryrealityMichelFoucault'sartconsistedinusinghistorytocutdiagonallythroughcontemporaryrealityHecouldspeakofNietzscheorAristotle,ofexpertpsychiatricopinionortheEhristianpastoralbutthosewhoattendedhislecturesalwaystookfromwhathesaidaperspectiveonthepr

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福柯外文资料大串烧10:福柯:生命政治学的诞生(法兰西学院讲义1978-1979)(英文版)

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