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首页 英美文学选读笔记

英美文学选读笔记

英美文学选读笔记

小小西瓜
2009-04-15 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《英美文学选读笔记doc》,可适用于外语资料领域

《英美文学选读》笔记ThomasMore:Utopia《乌托邦》FrancisBacon:Essays《论说文集》或《随笔》"Knowledgeispower"BaconEdmundSpencer:FaerieQueen《仙后》"Oursweetestsongsarethosethatsingofsaddestfeelings"SpencerWilliamShakespeare()rd,April,StratfordonAvonHisFather,aleathermerchant皮货商Hisschool,alocalGrammarschoolforyearsHislife,dramatist,actor,poet,proprietorHisfirstson,Hamnettragedies:Hamlet,Othello,KingLear,Macbeth(RomeoandJuliet)Mainworks:plays,sonnets,narrativeplays戏剧行诗叙事诗TitusAndronicus《泰特斯·安德洛尼克斯》TamingoftheShrew《驯悍记》TheTwoGentlemenofVerona《维罗纳二绅士》Love'sLabor'sLost《爱的徒劳》AMidsummerNight'sDream《仲夏夜之梦》KingJohn《约翰王的生平和逝世》MuchAdoaboutNothing《无事生非》TheMerryWivesofWindsor《温莎的风流娘们》JuliusCaesar《朱力叶斯·凯撒》TheMerchantofVenice《威尼斯商人》Asyoulikeit《皆大欢喜》CarlMarx:"AeschylusandShakespearearethetwogreatestdramaticgeniustheworldhaseverknown"Hisfriend:"Hedoesnotbelongtoonetime,butbelongstoalltimes"WilliamShakespeare'swritingfeatureAplayintheplayBorrowplotsfromotherstoriessuchasRoman,GreekandancientmythSeveralthreadsrunningthroughtheplayCombinationoftragicandcomicelementsWilliamShakespeare'swritingstyleTremendousvocabulary(,words,inventwords)Literarydevices(alliteration,simile,metaphor)UsepoetryinhisplayWilliamShakespeare'shumanisticideasAgainstcrueltyandantinaturalcharacterofcivilwarsAgainstreligiouspersecution,racialdiscrimination,socialinequalityHatesrebellionanddespisesdemocracyThemesinShakespeare'ssonnetsExpressloveandpraisetoayoungmanImmortalizebeautythroughversesFriendshiporbetrayaloffriendshipSonnetOrigin:ItalyMostfamousandinfluentialsonneteer:PetrachSelectedReadingofShakespeare:Shakespeare'sSonnet:aLadiesintheeyesofShakespearearenotgoodandbeautifulHiswifeisyearsolderthanhimbIambicpentametercMainideas:iQuatrain:praisethebeautyoftheyoungmaniiQuatrain:changesinlifeandnatureiiiQuatrain:"your"beautywilllastforeverivCouplet:"your"beautywillliveinmypoemàImmortalizebeautyAnExcerptfromTheMerchantofVeniceaHowdoesShylockjustifyhimselfaccordingtotheaccusationofDukeandBassanioreasonsbWhydoesShylocksticktohisbondinsteadoftakingtwicehisprincipleHehatestheChristiansandisdeterminedtorevengeonthembecausehisdaughterelopeswithaChristiancWhatdoyouthinkofShylockintheearlycourtsceneWhatabouthimlaterIntheearlycourtscene,Shylockiscruel,eloquent,stubborn,tricky,isolatedfromlawandfriendshipInthelatercourtscene,Shylockisgreedy,sympatheticandoppressedbyChristiansdWhatisShakespeare'sattitudetowardsShylockHesympathizesthosewhoareoppressedAntonioisoppressedbyShylockShylockisoppressedbyChristianseThewholeplayisatragicomedyInthescene,ShylockisthetragicsideAntonioandhisfriendsisthecomicsideJohnDonne()BorninamerchantfamilyLearnlawattheInnsofCourtinLondonPrivateSecretarytoSirThomasEgerton,theLordKeeperoftheGreatSealyMarriedEgerton'sniece,AnnMoreHeworkedhardtofightagainstpovertyHowever,it'sasecretmarriageWhenthemarriagewasexposed,hewasputintojailTheEgertonsregardedthemarriageasanoffenceHiswifediedHedevotedhistimeandeffortstohispriestlyduties,writingsermonsandreligiouspoemsDonnewasappointedtheDeanofStPaul'sandkeptthepostuntilhisdeathJohnDonne'smajorworkSongsandSonnets,wrotebefore,lovepoemsTheElegiesandSatires,hiselegieswroteforlovewhereasothers'wroteformourningdeadpeopleHolySonnetsSermons,SonnetswroteaboutGod,sexuallife,problemofdeathandlifeSermonsareChristianpreachingJohnDonneisfamedforthingsAgreatvisitorofladiesAgreatfrequenterofplaysAgreatwriterofconceitedversesAthistime,JohnDonnewasfamedasapreacherToday,heisfamedasalyricpoetJohnDonnecomparedpartinglovetocompass,fleacomparedtotheunionofloversJohnDonne'sconceitcanbeseenfromhis"Gocatchingthefallingstar"inwhichhelistedmanyimpossiblethingsthemostimpossiblethingisawoman'sfaithandheartMetaphysicalpoetryiscommonlyusedtonametheworkofthethcenturywriterswhowroteundertheinfluenceofJohnDonneMetaphysicalpoetsarethepoetsinthecEnglandwhooftenunconventionallyuseconceitsandwitTheimageryisdrawfromeverydaylifeTheformistheformofargument(withGod,lover,himself)ThedictionissimpleandthelanguageiscolloquialbutpowerfulJohnDonneistheleadingof"metaphysicalschool"SelectedReadingofJohnDonneTheSunRisingDeath,BenotProud()JohnMilton()BorninLondonACatholicfamilyHisfatherwasbothascholarandabusinessmanEducatedatStPaul'sSchoolEducatedinCambridgeMarriedaygirlyoungerthanhimAppointedLatinSecretarytoCromwell'sCouncilofStateBecametotallyblindHiswifediedHemarriedagainperiodsinJohnMilton'slifeEnglishrevolutionCharlesIbeheadedCromwelltookthepowerRestorationCharlesIItookthepowerPoliticalideas:expresshispoliticalideasinpamphletsPoem:ParadiseLost,ParadiseRegained,SamsonAgonistesParadiseLostisalongepicdividedintobooksThethemeisthe"FallofMan",ieman'sdisobedienceandthelossofParadiseTheoriginalstoryistakenfromGenesisAdamandEveareoriginallyininnocentspiritualloveTheyarepunishedbyGodbecausetheyeattheappleoftheTreeofKnowledgeseducedbyaserpentSincetheyeattheapple,theybegintomakeloveGodthinkstheyarenotinnocentTheycommittedsinGoddrivesAdamandEveoutofEdenSatanispunishedbyGodtosufferfromfireHeknowsthathecan'twinGodbypower,sohewinsGodbycheatingHeseducedEvetoeattheappleInParadiseLost,SatanistherebelwhoneverbowsdowntoGodevenwhenhefailedHeisagoodmilitaryleaderHerefusestoacknowledgethepowerofGodHeisdeterminedtocontinuethebattleHefeelssorrowatthesufferingsofthoseangelsHehasledtosoterribleapunishment,butheisverycruelHehasindomitablepride,unconquerablerebellion,andthewilltoevilandpowerHesaid,"Onlydoevil,nogood"HetriestobeasequalasGodSelectedReadingofJohnMilton:AnExcerptfromParadiseLostChapterTheNeoclassicalPeriod()TheageofreasonandenlightenmentIt'saturbulentperiodTheRestorationTheGreatPlagueBlackDeath,died,homelessTheGloriousRevolutionJamesIIexiledabroadThepersecutionofProtestantsJamesII'sdaughterMarryandherwifeWilliamturnedbacktoEnglandasfigurehead(KingandQueen)withoutpowerPowerwasintheParliamentEnglandbecamethefirstcapitalistcountrywithConstitutionalmonarchy,whichmarkedtheendoffeudalsocietyThepublicationofLyricsbyWordsworthIndustrialRevolutionatthendhalfofcPreparationsfortherevolutionmoneybytradingcompanies,egEastIndiaCompanybymoneyinvestmentgoods,materialscolonies,egIndia,NorthAmericamanpower"ActofEnclosure"ThelandlessandhomelesspeasantbegantoworkincitiestheinventionoftextilemachineIntherevolution,Bourgeois(middleclass)becamethemainclassinthesocietyBankers,landlords,slavetraders,merchants,colonistscontrolledtheeconomyofthecountryatthetimeTheybelievedinselfrelianceandhardworkingTheGiantsoftheEnlightenmentMovement:Voltaire伏乐泰,Mosteiqeu孟德斯鸠,Dierot狄德罗,Rousseau卢梭GothicNovelContent:magic,supernaturalelements,ghosts,monstersSetting:oldcastle,graveyard,darkforestAtmosphere:horribleJohnBunyan()Borninapoortinker'sfamilyHereceivedlittleeducationinaGrammarSchoolMarriedaChristianwomanandbecameinterestedinChristianityBunyanbegantopreach,buthedidn'thaveapreachinglicensesohewasputintojailforyearsGreatPlagueinEngland,hewasreleasedfromjailFewmonthslater,hewasinjailagainforanotheryearsDeclarationofIndependence,hewasreleasedagainHislicenseoflaypreacherwastemporarilycancelledandhewasinprisonagainThroughouthislife,heonlyreadonebooktheBibleHismostfamousworkisThePilgrim'sProcessBunyan'spurposeofwritingThePilgrim'sProcessUrgepeopletoabidebyChristiandoctrineToseeksalvationthroughstrugglingwithhisownweaknessandsocialevilsThecontentofThePilgrim'sProcessisaboutChristianityThetitlemeans"lifeisajourney"It'sametaphorFormofThePilgrim'sProcess:AllegoryAstoryinverseorprosewithdoublemeaningsormeaningsattwolevelsHigherleverconcerningmoral,religious,orpoliticalideasLowerlevelyourunderstandingofthestoryMaincharactersinthestoryChristian,Faithful,HopefulThedescriptionofthestoryisrealisticreligiousallegorySelectedReadingofJohnBunyan:"TheVanityFair"fromThePilgrim'sProcessWhy"TheVanityFair"isasatireontherulingclassofEgnlandIt'sasymbolicpictureofLondonatthetimeofRestorationInVanityFair,everythingcanbesoldandbought,dailynecessities,butalsohonor,kingdom,lust,pleasureandevenlivesEvilthingssuchascheating,roguery,andadulteryarenormalintheVanityFairwherethereisnomoralIt'sasatireofthenonmoralEnglishrulingclassFaithfulisputtodeathforhisdespisingoftheVanitiesIt'saparallelofBunyan'sexperienceofimprisonedforpreachingJohnBunyan'swritingstylemodedaftertheBibleLanguageeasytoread,colloquial,concreteandconciseFormallegoricalform,realistic,truetolifeAlexanderPope()BornintheyearofGloriousRevolutioninamerchantRomanCatholicfamilyBecauseofhisillhealth,hedidn'tgotouniversityHereceivedhiseducationfromalearnedpreacherBecauseheisaCatholic,hecan'tdothingforthegovernmentPopeisadeformedpersonHesufferedsevereillnessinhischildhoodIllnessaccompaniedhimthroughouthislifeAlexanderPope'smajorworkAnEssayonCriticismThepoemisamanifestoofEnglishneoclassicismIt'sexpressedPope'saesthetictheoriesofpoetryThepoemisdividedintopartswithlinesPartI:bewailingthelackoftruetasteincriticspraisingtheancientslikeHomer,VirgilPartII:enumeratingdangersofcriticismreferringtoliterarysceneofhisdayPartIII:givingrulesforcriticismtracingthehistoryofliterarycriticismThepoemisacomprehensivestudyonliterarycriticismItwaswritteninheroiccoupletasPopeisamasterinheroiccoupletHeroiccoupletislineswiththesamerhymes,samelengthsyllables,stressed,unstressedHeroiccoupletwasfirstusedbyChaucerTheRapeofLockisbasedonarealeventBellinaisasbeautifulwomanasaGoodnessSheisadmiredbyallthepeoplearoundher,espayoungmannameABaroncutasmallamountofBellina'shairInBellina'sopinion,it'sanoffenceBaronjustcutherhairforfunandadmirationSohatredisarousedbetweenthetwofamiliesTheybecomeenemiesInthispoem,Popesatirestheidle,meaninglesslifeofmiddleclasspeopleTheDunciadisconsistedofbooksIt'sthebestsatireofPopeIt'saveryfamoussatiricalpoemaboutagainstpersonalenemiesPopetriestoattackonallpersonalenemiesAnEssayonManPopegainedhisfameasapoetItincludesepistles(letters)PeoplereviewhisphilosophicalandpoliticalviewsasanenlgitenerSelectedReadingofAlexanderPope:AnexcerptfromPartofAnEssayonCriticismDanielDefoe()Hewasborninabutcher'sfamily(wealthybutlowsocialstatus)Defoeneverwenttouniversity,butreceivedgoodeducationinaDissentingAcademyDefoehastwointerests:interestinbusinessandinterestinpoliticsInterestinbusinessHestartedfromsmallbusinesstobecomerichHeisagiftedmaninbusinessInterestinpoliticsHispoliticalstandswangbetweentheWhigsandtheToriesHewrotepoliticalpamphletstoattacktheWhigs,butbothofthetwopartiesthoughtthepamphletsinsultedthemSoDefoewassenttojailandpilloryHenegotiatedwiththePrimeministertobecomeaspytoScotlandHetriedtomaketheunionofScotlandandEngland,heissuedaperiodicalTheReview,onwhichhevoicedhisconcernsforwoman'sright,economy,childrenandparentsrelationships,politicsandotherhotissuesofthetime,hebegantowritenovel,hisfirstnovelRobinsonCrusoewaspublishedIt'sbasedonatruestorypublishedonanewspaper(AlexanderisaScottishwholivesinanuninhabitedislandforyears)Thestoryisaboutthehero'slifeontheislandThefirstpartisaboutthecareerofRobinsonCrusoeThebodyofthenovelisabouthislifeontheislandaftertheshipwreckThestoryrevealstheessenceofBritishcolonialismThethemesofRobinson'sCrusoeaman'sstrugglesagainstnaturebglorificationofthebourgeoismenwhohasthecourageandwilltofacehardshipanddeterminationtoimprovehislivelihoodcGlorificationoflabor(Robinsonlivesonhisownhands)ThestyleofRobinson'sCrusoearealisticstyle,truetolife,indetailsbsmooth,simple,colloquiallanguageclongsentencesarelooseshortsentencesareplain,easytounderstanddpresentsfactsinorder,themeaningisclearInthefollowingyears,Defoewroteanothernovels:CaptainSingleton(),MollFlanders(),ColonelJack()andRoxana()DefoewrotetheminthesamepatternThefeatureofthepattern:aTracesthepersonalhistoryofthetitularheroorheroineofaloworiginAftersomeupsanddowns,heshefinallygetsprosperitybDealswithmoralizing,repentance,andrevolutionstobegoodcExpressesthestrugglesformereexistenceShowtheconflictsbetweenexistenceandsocialenvironmentdBlamesthesocietyfordrivingpeopletosinning,CaptainSingletonissenttoAfricawhenhewasmonthsoldInAfrica,heexperiencesmanyadventuresWithgoodluck,hewinsmuchgoldBacktoEngland,hegoesbankruptandbecomesapirate,MollFlandersisthedaughterofawomanthiefSheisbornintheNewgatePrisonInherlife,shemarriedtimeswithoverchildrenHowever,shenevernursesasinglechildShebecomesathiefherselfSheistransferredtotheAmericancolonyasacriminalSheaccumulatesawealthandbuysafareplantthereAttheageof,shecomesbacktoEngland,ColonelJackisdesertedbyhisparentsataveryyoungageHebecomesapickpocketHeiskidnappedandsenttotheAmericancolonyHeisverycleverandfinallybecomesarichplantowner,RoxanaisthedaughterofaProtestantrefugeeSheisbeautifulandcleverShemarriesanEnglishmerchantBecausethemerchantdesertsher,shebecomesafamousinternationalprostituteInHolland,shemarriedaDutchmerchantAfterhisdeath,shefindsthathewasingreatdebtsShecan'tpayoffthedebtsandisputintojailanddiedinjailDanielDefoe'ssatiricalpoems,TheTrueBornEnglishman,inthepoem,DefoedefendedKingWilliam,whichwonhimthefriendshipoftheKingHeattackedtheracialandfamilyprideofthearistocratsinEngland,AHymntothePilloryHevoicedhisangerovertheshamefulpunishment,courageousattackontheinjusticeofEngland'slegalsystemHewascheeredbypeopleasaherotodefendhimselfSelectedReadingofDanielDefoe:AnexcerptfromRobinsonCrusoeJonathanSwift()HewasborninDublin,Ireland,ofanEnglishfamilyHisfatherdiedbeforehewasbornArichunclesentSwifttotheTrinityCollegeHismostdeedisagainsttherulingclassofEngland,heworkedasaprivatesecretarytoSirWilliamTemple,aretireddiplomatOnthepost,Swiftmademanyfamouspoliticianfriendsandcametoknowmanydirtyanddishonestpoliticiansoftheday,Swiftpublishedthesatire,TheBattleoftheBooks,whichwroteaboutthequarrelsbetweentheAncientsandtheModernsTheAncientswerecomparedtobeeTheModernswerecomparedtospiderInliteratetheory,beerepresentsgood"bringhoney"spiderrepresentsselfish,ATaleofaTubattacksonreligionorChristianityInthesatire,thefatherrepresentstheGodHissonsindicatethebranchesofChristianity:RomanCatholic,EnglishChurch,andDissentersTheBattleoftheBooks,andATaleofaTubestablishedSwift'snameasasatirist,hebecameaclergyman,hemovedtoLondonandbecameapoliticianHetriestospeakfortheIrishpeopleHewastheeditorofTheExaminer,aTory'speriodical,hewasappointedtheDeanofStPatrick'sCathedralinDublin,Swiftmarriedawoman,thereweregreateventsinEnglandaWoolindustryEnglishCongresspassedthepersuasionofdevelopingwoolindustryinEnglandIrishpeoplecan'tmakemoneyfromwoolbecausetheyhavetoreturnthelandIrishpeoplehadtoliveamiserablelifeAfamoussloganinIrelandatthattimeis"BurneverythingthatcomefromEnglandexceptthecoal"whichvoicedIrishpeople'sdeterminationofrefusingEnglandbCoineventAministersuggestedandpermittedtomakenewcoinsTheexchangeratebetweenIrishcoinandthenewEnglishcoinwasunfairTheministerandKinggotprofitfromtheexchange,SwiftpublishedthesatireTheDrapier'sLetterstoattacktheeventTheexchangeofnewcoiniscanceled,hiswifediedIt'saheavyblowonhimHewroteandpublishedhisgreatestsatiricalwork,Gulliver'sTravelsThestoryisdividedintopartsPartITravelsinLilliputisaminipictureofmodernEnglishsocietyTwoparties:HighHeelandLowHeelindicatestheToriesandtheWhigsHere,SwiftsatiresthetwopartiesThewarbetweenLilliputanditsneighboringcountryabouthowtobreakeggs(bigsmallend)BigendRomanChurchSmallendEnglishChurchSwiftsatiresthepartyandchurchfightsaremeaninglessPartIITravelsinBrobdingnagPartIIIAshowofthecrueltyoftheEnglishrulingclassTheFlyingIslandrulesthebelowcountriesPartIVIt'sthesharpestandbitterestsatireInthispart,humanbeingsarereducedtoanimalsAwisercreaturegovernshumanbeingsGulliverwantstobeahorseratherthanamanItshowshowmeanthehumanbeingsare,thepublicationofthepamphletAModestProposalIt'sagreatestandbitterestsatireThethemeofAModestProposalaThepoorIrishpeoplewereforcedtoselltheironeyearoldchildfortherichpeopleforfoodbEnglishKingallowedFrenchKingtorecruitsoldiersfromIrelandtosolvetheproblemofoverpopulationcSomepoliticianssuggestedsendingIrishpeopletoAustraliatobeconcentratedservantsbecauseofoverpopulationdSwiftlistssometerriblescenesintheprose:abeggarmotherfollowedbychildreninrugspoorparentss

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英美文学选读笔记

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