下载
加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 认知语言学入门 (英文,2006)

认知语言学入门 (英文,2006)

认知语言学入门 (英文,2006)

binphon
2009-04-12 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《认知语言学入门 (英文,2006)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

COGNITIVELINGUISTICSANINTRODUCTIONVyvyanEvansandMelanieGreenEDINBURGHUNIVERSITYPRESS©VyvyanEvansandMelanieGreen,EdinburghUniversityPressLtdGeorgeSquare,EdinburghTypesetinSabonandGillSansbyServisFilmsettingLtd,Manchester,andprintedandboundinGreatBritainbyAntonyRoweLtd,Chippenham,WiltsACIPrecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBN(hardback)ISBN(paperback)TherightofVyvyanEvansandMelanieGreentobeidentifiedasauthorsofthisworkhasbeenassertedinaccordancewiththeCopyright,DesignsandPatentsActContentsPrefacexixAcknowledgementsxxiiiAbbreviations,symbolsandtranscriptionxxvPartIOverviewoftheCognitiveLinguisticsEnterpriseIntroductionWhatdoesitmeantoknowalanguageWhatislanguageforThesymbolicfunctionoflanguageTheinteractivefunctionoflanguageThesystematicstructureoflanguageEvidenceforasystemThesystematicstructureofthoughtWhatdolinguistsdoWhatWhyHowSpeakerintuitionsConvergingevidenceWhatitmeanstoknowalanguageSummaryFurtherreadingExercisesvThenatureofcognitivelinguistics:assumptionsandcommitmentsTwokeycommitmentsThe‘GeneralisationCommitment’The‘CognitiveCommitment’TheembodiedmindEmbodiedexperienceEmbodiedcognitionExperientialrealismCognitivesemanticsandcognitiveapproachestogrammarSummaryFurtherreadingExercisesUniversalsandvariationinlanguage,thoughtandexperienceUniversalsinthoughtandlanguageTypologicaluniversalsUniversalsinformallinguisticsUniversalsincognitivelinguisticsCrosslinguisticpatternsinsemanticsystemsPatternsintheconceptualisationofspacePatternsintheconceptualisationoftimeCrosslinguisticvariationinsemanticsystemsVariationintheconceptualisationofspaceVariationintheconceptualisationoftimeLinguisticrelativityandcognitivelinguisticsWhorfandtheLinguisticRelativityPrincipleLanguageasashaperofthoughtThecognitivelinguisticspositionSummaryFurtherreadingExercisesLanguageinuse:knowledgeoflanguage,languagechangeandlanguageacquisitionLanguageinuseAusageeventTherelationshipbetweenusageandlinguisticstructureComprehensionandproductionContextCOGNITIVELINGUISTICS:ANINTRODUCTIONviFrequencyCognitiveGrammarAbstraction,schematisationandlanguageuseSchemasandtheirinstantiationsPartialsanctionThenonreductivenatureofschemasFrequencyinschemaformationAusagebasedapproachtolanguagechangeHistoricallinguisticsandlanguagechangeTheUtteranceSelectionTheoryoflanguagechangeTheGeneralisedTheoryofSelectionandtheTheoryofUtteranceSelectionCausalmechanismsforlanguagechangeTheusagebasedapproachtolanguageacquisitionEmpiricalfindingsinlanguageacquisitionThecognitiveview:sociocognitivemechanismsinlanguageacquisitionComparingthegenerativeviewoflanguageacquisitionSummaryFurtherreadingExercisesPartIICognitiveSemanticsIntroductionWhatiscognitivesemanticsGuidingprinciplesConceptualstructureisembodiedSemanticstructureisconceptualstructureMeaningrepresentationisencyclopaedicMeaningconstructionisconceptualisationPhenomenainvestigatedwithincognitivesemanticsThebodilybasisofmeaningConceptualstructureEncyclopaedicsemanticsMappingsCategorisationWordmeaningandpolysemyMethodologySomecomparisonswithformalapproachestosemanticsCONTENTSviiSummaryFurtherreadingExercisesEmbodimentandconceptualstructureImageschemasWhatisanimageschemaPropertiesofimageschemasImageschemasandlinguisticmeaningAprovisionallistofimageschemasImageschemasandabstractthoughtConceptualstructureSemanticstructureSchematicsystemsSummaryFurtherreadingExercisesTheencyclopaedicviewofmeaningDictionariesversusencylopaediasThedictionaryviewProblemswiththedictionaryviewWordmeaningversussentencemeaningTheencyclopaedicviewFramesemanticsWhatisasemanticframeFramesincognitivepsychologyTheframeSpeecheventframesConsequencesofadoptingaframebasedmodelThetheoryofdomainsWhatisadomainBasic,imageschematicandabstractdomainsOthercharacteristicsofdomainsProfilebaseorganisationActivezonesTheperceptualbasisofknowledgerepresentationSummaryFurtherreadingExercisesCOGNITIVELINGUISTICS:ANINTRODUCTIONviiiCategorisationandidealisedcognitivemodelsCategorisationandcognitivesemanticsTheclassicaltheoryThedefinitionalproblemTheproblemofconceptualfuzzinessTheproblemofprototypicalityFurtherproblemsPrototypetheoryPrinciplesofcategorisationThecategorisationsystemTheverticaldimensionThehorizontaldimensionProblemswithprototypetheoryThetheoryofidealisedcognitivemodelsSourcesoftypicalityeffectsRadialcategoriesasafurthersourceoftypicalityeffectsAddressingtheproblemswithprototypetheoryThestructureofICMsSummaryFurtherreadingExercisesMetaphorandmetonymyLiteralversusfigurativelanguageLiteralandfigurativelanguageascomplexconceptsCanthedistinctionbemaintainedWhatismetaphorConceptualMetaphorTheoryTheunidirectionalityofmetaphorMotivationfortargetandsourceMetaphoricalentailmentsMetaphorsystemsMetaphorsandimageschemasInvarianceTheconceptualnatureofmetaphorHidingandhighlightingPrimaryMetaphorTheoryPrimaryandcompoundmetaphorsExperientialcorrelationMotivatingprimarymetaphorsDistinguishingprimaryandcompoundmetaphorsCONTENTSixWhatismetonymyConceptualmetonymyMetonymyasanaccessmechanismMetonymyproducingrelationshipsVehiclesformetonymyMetaphormetonymyinteractionSummaryFurtherreadingExercisesWordmeaningandradialcategoriesPolysemyasaconceptualphenomenonWordsasradialcategoriesThefullspecificationapproachImageschematransformationsMetaphoricalextensionsProblemswiththefullspecificationapproachThePrincipledPolysemyapproachDistinguishingbetweensensesEstablishingtheprototypicalsenseIllustrationofaradialcategorybasedonPrincipledPolysemyBeyondprepositionsTheimportanceofcontextforpolysemyUsagecontext:subsensesSententialcontext:facetsKnowledgecontext:waysofseeingSummaryFurtherreadingExercisesMeaningconstructionandmentalspacesSentencemeaninginformalsemanticsMeaningconstructionincognitivesemanticsTowardsacognitivetheoryofmeaningconstructionThearchitectureofmentalspaceconstructionSpacebuildersElementsPropertiesandrelationsMentalspacelatticesCounterpartsandconnectorsTheAccessPrincipleCOGNITIVELINGUISTICS:ANINTRODUCTIONxRolesandvaluesAnillustrationofmentalspaceconstructionThedynamicnatureofmeaningconstructionTenseandaspectinEnglishThetenseaspectsysteminMentalSpacesTheoryEpistemicdistanceSummaryFurtherreadingExercisesConceptualblendingTheoriginsofBlendingTheoryTowardsatheoryofconceptualintegrationThenatureofblendingTheelementsofconceptualblendingFurtherlinguisticexamplesNonlinguisticexamplesVitalrelationsandcompressionsVitalrelationsAtaxonomyofvitalrelationsandtheircompressionsDisintegrationanddecompressionAtaxonomyofintegrationnetworksSimplexnetworksMirrornetworksSinglescopenetworksDoublescopenetworksMultipleblendingConstrainingBlendingTheoryComparingBlendingTheorywithConceptualMetaphorTheoryContrastsWhenisametaphornotablendWhatBlendingTheoryaddstoConceptualMetaphorTheorySummaryFurtherreadingExercisesCognitivesemanticsincontextTruthconditionalsemanticsMeaning,truthandrealityCONTENTSxiObjectlanguageversusmetalanguageTheinconsistencyofnaturallanguageSentencesandpropositionsTruthconditionalsemanticsandthegenerativeenterpriseCompositionalityofmeaningTranslatingnaturallanguageintoametalanguageSemanticinterpretationandmatchingComparisonwithcognitivesemanticsRelevanceTheoryOstensivecommunicationMutualcognitiveenvironmentRelevanceExplicatureandimplicatureMetaphorComparisonwithcognitivesemanticsSummaryFurtherreadingExercisesPartIIICognitiveApproachestoGrammarIntroductionWhatisacognitiveapproachtogrammarGuidingassumptionsThesymbolicthesisTheusagebasedthesisThearchitectureofthemodelDistinctcognitiveapproachestogrammarThe‘ConceptualStructuringSystemModel’CognitiveGrammarConstructionalapproachestogrammarCognitiveapproachestogrammaticalisationGrammaticalterminologyGrammarUnitsofgrammarWordclassesSyntaxGrammaticalfunctionsAgreementandcaseCharacteristicsofthecognitiveapproachtogrammarCOGNITIVELINGUISTICS:ANINTRODUCTIONxiiGrammaticalknowledge:astructuredinventoryofsymbolicunitsFeaturesoftheclosedclasssubsystemSchemasandinstancesSanctioningandgrammaticalitySummaryFurtherreadingExercisesTheconceptualbasisofgrammarThegrammaticalsubsystem:encodingsemanticstructureTalmy’s‘ConceptualStructuringSystemModel’TheconfigurationofandConceptualalternativitySchematicsystemsThe‘ConfigurationalStructureSystem’The‘AttentionalSystem’The‘PerspectivalSystem’The‘ForceDynamicsSystem’Langacker’stheoryofCognitiveGrammarTheconceptualbasisofwordclassesAttentionForcedynamicsCategorisationandpolysemyingrammar:thenetworkconceptionSummaryFurtherreadingExercisesCognitiveGrammar:wordclassesWordclasses:linguisticcategorisationNominalpredications:nounsBoundingHomogeneityversusheterogeneityExpansibilityandcontractibilityversusreplicabilityAbstractionsNominalversusrelationalpredicationsTemporalversusatemporalrelationsTemporalrelations:verbsAtemporalrelationsClassschemasNominalgroundingpredicationsCONTENTSxiiiDeterminersandquantifiersGroundingSummaryFurtherreadingExercisesCognitiveGrammar:constructionsPhrasestructureValenceCorrespondenceProfiledeterminacyConceptualautonomyversusconceptualdependenceConstituencyTheprototypicalgrammaticalconstructionWordstructurePhonologicalautonomyanddependenceSemanticautonomyanddependencePrototypicalstemsandaffixesCompositestructureConstructionalschemasGrammaticalmorphemesandagreementClausesValenceattheclauselevelGrammaticalfunctionsandtransitivityCaseMarkedcoding:thepassiveconstructionSummaryFurtherreadingExercisesCognitiveGrammar:tense,aspect,moodandvoiceEnglishverbs:formandfunctionTheclausalheadThepassiveconstruction:beVTheprogressiveconstruction:beingVTheperfectconstruction:haveVThegroundingpredication:moodandtenseMoodTenseTheepistemicmodelSituationaspectCOGNITIVELINGUISTICS:ANINTRODUCTIONxivSituationtypesPerfectiveandimperfectiveAspectandthecountmassdistinctionSummaryFurtherreadingExercisesMotivatingaconstructiongrammarConstructionsversus‘wordsandrules’ExploringidiomaticexpressionsTypologyofidiomaticexpressionsCasestudyI:theletaloneconstructionCasestudyII:thewhat’sXdoingYconstructionConstructionGrammarTheConstructionGrammarmodelConstructionGrammar:a‘broadlygenerative’modelComparingConstructionGrammarwithCognitiveGrammarThe‘GeneralisationCommitment’SummaryFurtherreadingExercisesThearchitectureofconstructiongrammarsGoldberg’sconstructiongrammarAssumptionsAdvantagesofaconstructionalapproachtoverbargumentstructureTherelationshipbetweenverbsandconstructionsRelationshipsbetweenconstructionsCasestudiesRadicalConstructionGrammarTaxonomyofconstructionsEmphasisondiversityFivekeyfeaturesofRCGEmbodiedConstructionGrammarEmphasisonlanguageprocessingAnalysisandsimulationComparingconstructionalapproachestogrammarSummaryCONTENTSxvFurtherreadingExercisesGrammaticalisationThenatureofgrammaticalisationFormchangeMeaningchangeMetaphoricalextensionapproachesCasestudy:Casestudy:InvitedInferencingTheoryCasestudy:theevolutionofmustThesubjectificationapproachCasestudy:begoingtoCasestudy:theevolutionofauxiliariesfromverbsofmotionorpostureComparisonofthethreeapproaches:begoingtoSummaryFurtherreadingExercisesCognitiveapproachestogrammarincontextTheoriesofgrammar:assumptions,objectives,methodologyCognitiveapproachestogrammarGenerativeapproachestogrammarCognitiveversusgenerativemodelsFunctionaltypologicalapproachestogrammarCoreissuesingrammar:comparingcognitiveandgenerativeaccountsWordclassesConstituency:headsanddependentsThestatusoftreediagramsGrammaticalfunctionsandcaseTheverbstring:tense,aspectandmoodThepassiveconstructionSummaryFurtherreadingExercisesCOGNITIVELINGUISTICS:ANINTRODUCTIONxviPartIVConclusionAssessingthecognitivelinguisticsenterpriseAchievementsRemainingchallengesSummaryAppendix:TablesandFiguresReferencesIndexCONTENTSxviiPrefaceThenatureofthisbookThisbookrepresentsageneralintroductiontotheareaoftheoreticallinguisticsknownascognitivelinguisticsItconsistsofthreemainpartsPartIprovidesanoverviewofsomeofthemainaims,assumptionsandcommitmentsofthecognitivelinguisticsenterprise,andprovidesanindicativesketchofsomeofthedescriptiveanalysesandtheoreticalpositionsthatarerepresentativeofcognitivelinguisticsThenexttwopartsfocusonthetwobestdevelopedresearchframeworksincognitivelinguistics:cognitivesemantics(PartII),andcognitiveapproachestogrammar(PartIII)Althoughsomecognitivelinguists(notablyLangacker)haveextendedtheirtheoriestoaccountforphonologyaswellasmeaningandgrammar,wewillbemainlyconcernedwithmeaningandgrammarinthisbook,andwillhavelittletosayaboutphonologyInpart,thisreflectsthefactthatphonologyhasreceivedrelativelylittleattentionwithincognitivelinguistics(althoughthissituationischanging),andinpartthisreflectsourowninterestsWhoisthisbookforOuraimhasbeentoprovideareasonablycomprehensivegeneralintroductiontocognitivelinguisticsthatisaccessibleenoughforundergraduatestudentsattheuniversitylevel,whilealsoservingasaworkofreferencebothforlinguistsandforscholarsfromneighbouringdisciplinesWhilestrivingforaccessibility,wehavealsoretainedconsiderabledetail(includingrelevantcitationsintherunningtext),sothatreaders(includingresearchstudentsandprofessionallinguistsunfamiliarwithcognitivelinguistics,aswellasinterestedreadersfromxixneighbouringdisciplines),areprovidedwitharouteintotheprimaryliteratureInselectingthematerialpresented,andinthepresentationitself,wehaveattemptedtoprovideasbalancedaperspectiveaspossibleHowever,cognitivelinguisticsrepresentsacollectionofapproachesratherthanaunifiedtheoreticalframework,anddifferentauthorsoftentakequitedistinctpositionsonsimilarphenomena,sometimesrelyingondistinctterminologyItfollowsthatwhatwepresenthereunderthenameof‘cognitivelinguistics’shouldbeunderstoodasapresentationofthecognitiveapproach‘asweseeit’UsingthebookWehavedesignedthebooksothat,ingeneralterms,eachchapterbuildsonprecedingchaptersInparticular,ourdecisiontopresentthematerialoncognitivesemantics(PartII)beforethematerialoncognitiveapproachestogrammar(PartIII)reflectsthefactthatcognitivegrammari

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

评分:

/49

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利