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首页 新概念英语 1(教师用书)

新概念英语 1(教师用书)

新概念英语 1(教师用书)

m6ningbo
2009-04-07 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《新概念英语 1(教师用书)pdf》,可适用于考试题库领域

HowtousethiscourseTheteacher'snotesThenoteswhichaccompanyeachteachingunitshouldbetreatedassuggestionsTheteachermaydepartfromtheschemethatislaiddownifhewishesto,orhemayomitanyexercisewhichdoesnotseemtosuithispurposeHowever,theintentionbehindthenotesistoenabletheteachertodrillthepatternsthatareintroducedTheexerciseswithineachlessonare,wherepossible,gradedinorderofincreasingdifficultyThismeansthatifthereisinsufficienttime,thefinalexercisesmaybeomittedwithoutseriouslyhamperingthestudents'progressEachteachingunitprovidesenoughmaterialfortwohours'workIftheteachercanonlydevotefortyfiveminutestoeachpartoftheunit,hemayeditthedrillstosuitthetimeathisdisposalAllinstructionsandcommentslikeListen,Sitdown,Sayitagain,Alltogether,etcwhichanyteachermightusewhileconductingalessonshouldbegiveninEnglishIntheearlystages,themeaningoftheseexpressionsmaybeconveyedthroughgestureandmimeSuchpatternsmustberegardedasextraneoustothecourse,unlesstheyareformallyintroducedForthepurposeofthiscourse,itisnotassumedthatastudentisfamiliarwithapatternuntilheisactuallymadetouseitThatiswhymanyoftheinstructionscommonlyusedintheclassroomarenotgiveninthepatternandvocabularylistswhichprecedeeachlessonintheTeacher'sBookAlltheinformationinthenotesisgivenunderheadingsandeachitemwillnowbeconsideredContentandbasicaimsgeneralremarksTheinformationgivenunderthesetwoheadingssummarizesbrieflywhatWillbetaughtintermsofpatternsandcontentwordsThissummaryispurelyfortheteacher'sinformationListeningcomprehensionDetailedinstructionsaregivenatthebeginningofthecourse,whicharegraduallyreducedasteachersgetusedtotheprocedureThereareninerecommendedstepsforpresentingeachtextwhichwilltrainstudentstounderstandspokenEnglishThestepsareasfollows:IntroducethestoryUnderstandthesituationListeningobjectivePlaythetapeorreadthetextAnswerthequestionPlaythetapeorreadthetextagainRepetitionReadingaloudEveryoneofthesestepsmustbeverybriefLet'sseehowthisworksinpractice:IntroducethestoryTheteacherintroducesthetextwithafewwords,sothestudentclearlyunderstandswhat'sgoingonandisnotobligedtoguessAttheverybeginning,someChinesemaybeused,buttheteachershoulduseEnglishasearlyaspossibleForexample:Todaywe'listentoastoryaboutahandbagUnderstandingthesituationThestudentsareaskedtolookatthepicturestoseeiftheycanunderstandwhatisgoingoninthetextAttheverybeginning,afewpromptscanbegiveninChinese,buttheteachershoulduseEnglishasearlyaspossibleForexample:Lookatthepicturesandtellmewhatishappeninghere(Youmayaddoneortwoquestionsasprompts)ListeningobjectiveTheteachersetsthestudents‘alisteningobjective’,bysettingthemaquestiontheywilltrytofindtheanswertoThismeans,thestudentswilllistentothetextactivelyratherthanpassivelyForexample:Listentothestory,thentellme:WhosehandbagisitPlaythetapeorreadthetextTheteacherplaysthetapeorreadsthetextjustoncewhilethestudentssimplylistenwithoutinterruptionAnswerthequestionNowtheteacherasksthequestion(above)againandthestudentstrytoanswerit:Nowyou'veheardthestory,whosehandbagisitDon'tletstudentsshoutouttheanswerTrainthemtoraisetheirhandsiftheythinktheyknowtheanswerGetonestudenttoanswer,thenasktheothers,HowmanyofyouagreewithhimherPutupyourhandsifyouagreewithhimherYoudon'tagree(toanotherstudent)sowhatdoyouthinktheanswerisHowmanyofyouagreewithhimherPutupyourhandsThiskeepsthestudentsguessingandinvolvesthewholeclassStudentsshouldbetrainedtolistenrightfromthestartwithout‘preparation’or‘translation’TheywillsoongetusedtothesoundofEnglishandtounderstandingthemeaningofwhattheyhearIntensivereadingNowtheteacherplaysthetapeorreadsthetextagain,pausingaftereverylinetocheckthestudentsunderstandThisisanextremelyimportantpartofthelessonasthestudentsmustmakeeveryefforttounderstandthetextthroughthepicturesIfthestudentsfailtounderstandthemeaningofpartsofthetextthroughthepictures(andthiswillinevitablyoccurattimes),theteachershouldexplainbygestureandmimeIftheteacherstillfailstocommunicatethemeaning,heshouldaskthebeststudentsintheclassfora‘confirmatorytranslation’ofaparticularwordorphraseforthebenefitofotherstudentswhohaven'tgraspedthemeaningTranslation,however,mustberegardedasalastresortThisdifficultyofconveyingmeaningisacuteintheearlystages,butbecomeslessofaproblemasthecourseprogressesPlaythetapeorreadthetextagainPlaythetapeorreadthetextagainrightthroughwithoutinterruptionThistime,thestudentswillunderstanditwithoutdifficultybecauseofthecarefulexplanationyouprovidedinaboveRepetitionPlaythetapeorreadthetextagain,pausingaftereverylineAskthestudentstorepeat(a)inchorus,(b)insmallgroups(say,rowbyrowintheclass)and(c)individuallyWhenconductingchorusandgrouprepetition,makesurethestudentsrepeatalltogetherafteryougivethemaclearsignalYoucangivesuchasignalsimplybynoddingorwithapencilinyourhandImagineyou'reconductinganorchestra!Thebrokenlinesinthetextrepresent‘readingunits’,whichmatchthestudents'eyespanReadingaloudAskoneortwostudentstotakepartsandtoreadthetextaloudYouwillbeabletotellfromthishowwellparticularstudentscanpronouncecorrectlytheEnglishtheyhavealreadyheardThispresentationshouldnottakemorethanabouttwentyfiveminutesAsthestudentsmakeprogress,theteachermaysimplifytheprocedureifnecessary,sothatmoretimecanbedevotedtotheexercisesthatfollowStudentsworkingathomeontheirownshouldlistentotherecordingofeachtextasoftenasisnecessaryforthemtobecomecompletelyfamiliarwithit,andshouldevenlearnthetextsbyheartiftheywishtoComprehensionThisstageconsistsoftwoexercises:StudentsanswerquestionsStudentsaskquestionsStudentsanswerquestionsAfterpresentingthetext(theninestepsabove),theteacherasksindividualstudentsquestionsroundtheclassIfastudentfailstoanswer,movequicklyontoanotherstudent,sothatthispartofthelessonhaspaceAllthequestionsyouwillaskandtheappropriateanswersareprintedforyouintheTeacher'sBookOfcourse,youcanaskadditionalquestionsofyourownifyouwanttoThequestionsfallintotwocategories:aYesNoquestionsItisgenerallyconsideredrudetoansweraquestionwithjust‘Yes’or‘No’Thestudentistrainedtolistentothefirstwordintheyesnoquestionandtousethesamewordintheanswer:TEACHER:IsAnna'sdressnew(ThefirstwordinthequestionisIs)STUDENT:Yes,itis(isformspartoftheanswer)TEACHER:IsAnna'sdressblueSTUDENT:No,itisn'tbWhquestionsandquestionswithHowThestudentistrainedtoanswerquestionsbeginningwithWhen,Where,Which,How,etc(Ofcourse,thesetaketimetodevelopduringthecourse)Thestudentmayprovidecompleteanswers,orshortnaturalonesTEACHER:WhosedressisnewSTUDENT:Anna'sdressisnewOrsimply:Anna'sInthisway,thestudentistrainedoveraperiodtoassociateWhenwithtime,Wherewithplace,Whywithreason,Whowithidentity,Whosewithpossession,Whichwithchoice,Whatwithchoice,identityoractivity,Howwithmanner,etcStudentsaskquestionsInordertopreventincorrectformslike*Wherehewent*,studentsaretrainedtoasktwoquestionsatatimeThefirstoftheseisayesnoquestionandthesecondaWhquestionForexample:TEACHER:AskmeifSallyisinthegardenSTUDENT:IsSallyinthegardenTEACHER:Where⋯STUDENT:WhereisSally(Not*WhereSallyis?*or*WhereSally*)Ofcourse,thesequestionstaketimetodevelopduringthecourseAlltheaskingquestionsexercisesareprintedforyouintheTeacher'sBookYoucanaddsomeofyourownifyouwanttoActivitiesSuggestionsforactivitiesareusuallygivenattheendofthefirstpartofeachteachingunitIfthereisinsufficienttime,theymaybeomittedaltogetherEveryeffortshouldbemadetointroduceactivitiesoccasionallyastheylivenuptheclassandmakelanguagelearninganenjoyabletaskTwoformsofactivityaresuggestedGamesThereareanumberofideasforgameswhichenablethestudentstopractiseparticularpatternsTellthestoryThestudentsmaybeaskedtoreconstructthedialoguebyreferringonlytothepicturesAdultstudentsareusuallytooselfconsciousto‘act’thedialoguesinclassandthisisagoodcompromiseItisanextremelyvaluableexerciseinrecallandhelpstolaythefoundationsofspeechExtensionexercisesInthestudents'book,thesecondpartofeachteachingunit(allevennumberedlessons)consistsofnumberedpicturesandsometimesprintedwordsandstatementsAswaspointedoutearlier,wherepossible,anewwordisprintedafterithasbeenlearntorallyThatiswhythispageoftenconsistsonlyofpicturesWiththeaidoftheseillustrations,thestudentwillpractiseparticularpatterns(bothprogressiveandstatic,dependingonthelesson)TheExtensionexercisesusuallybeginwithashortdrillwhichdealswithaspecialproblem:egtheuseofnumbers,dates,tellingthetime,theuseofthealphabetandspellingdifficulties,etcDifficultiesofthissortarepractisedoveraverylongperiodandarenotdealtwithinsinglelessonsThestudentthencontinueswithRepetitiondrillandPatterndrillRepetitiondrillThestudentspractisethetapeddrillTheymaydothiswiththeaidofacassetteplayerintheclassroom,orathomeiftheyareworkingontheirownAlternatively,theteachermayconductthedrill‘live’fromthetapescriptprintedinthelessonPatterndrillThesemakeupthemainpartofthelessonInthesedrills,theteacherseekstoelicitanumberofdifferentpatternsfromtheclassThestudentsmayrespondinchorus,smallgroupsorindividually:thisisleftfortheteachertodecideEachtimeanewpatterndrillisintroduced,theteachershouldillustratethetypeofresponseherequiresHemaydothisorally,orbywritingtheresponseontheblackboardItshouldnotbenecessarytogivegrammaticalexplanationsEachnewpatternshouldsimplybepresentedasawayofsayingsomethingHowever,thewaynewpatternsaretobepresentedislefttotheteacher'sdiscretionWhenconductingadrill,theteacherprovidesastimulusandthestudentrespondstoitbyreferringtohisbook:ToelicitstatementsinvolvingtheuseofthepresentperfectTEACHER:LookatthefirstpictureWhathasshejustdoneSTUDENT(consultingillustration):ShehasjustairedtheroomTEACHER:LookatthesecondpictureWhathavetheyjustdoneSTUDENT(consultingillustration):TheyhavejustcleanedtheirshoesInanumberofdrills,thestudentisnotrequiredtorefertoillustrationsbuttomakeuseof“canwords”whicharesuppliedbytheteacherThecallwordstobeusedarealwaysprovidedintheteacher'snotesandaredrawnonlyfromvocabularythestudentknowswellHereisanexampleofthistypeofexercise:Toelicitstatementsinvolvingtheuseofverymuchandverymany:Ican'tbuyverymuchmanyTEACHER:WhataboutpencilsSTUDENT:Ican'tbuyverymanyTEACHER:WhataboutcoffeeSTUDENT:Ican'tbuyverymuchThefollowingcallwordswillbesubstitutedinthequestion‘Whatabout⋯’:bread,cheese,soap,steak,biscuits,eggs,vegetables,fruit,flowers,cakes,paper,ink,glueclothes,aspirins,medicine,jam,honey,envelopes,magazines,wine,milkThePatterndrillisfollowedbywrittenexercisesWritingWrittenexercisestaketwoforms:structuralexercisesanddictationStructuralexercisesInthefirstfewteachingunits,thestudentbeginswithcopyingbeforeproceedingtoactualexercisesExamplesofthescriptusedandthetypeofanswertobegivenarealwaysprintedinthestudents'bookItshouldbenotedthatintheearlystagestheinstructionsforthewrittenexercises,thoughsimple,willbeoutsidethestudents'vocabularyrangeandwillhavetobeexplainedTheaimoftheseexercisesisnottoteachthenewpatterns,buttoreinforceandconsolidatewhathasbeenlearntorallyTheyshouldalwaysbedoneaftertheoralexerciseshavebeencompletedandmaybesetashomeworkThestudentmustnotmerelyfillinblankspacesbutcopyoutthewholeexerciseDictationDictationexercisesarenotintroducedtillTeachingUnitNo‘unseen’dictationsaregivenTheteacheralwaysdictatestheanswertothewrittenexercisegivenintheprecedingteachingunitThereissufficientmaterialintheExtensionexercisesforaboutonehour'sworkAstheexercisesarearrangedinorderofincreasingdifficulty,itisalwayspossibletoomitthelastfewifthereisinsufficienttimeTestingAtestisincludedinthemiddleofthecoursetoenabletheteachertoassessthestudents'progressHomeworkThetapesApartfrombeinggivenwrittenexercises,studentswhopossessthetapesshouldbeencouragedtoplaytherecordingofthenewdialogueseveraltimesathomeandifpossibletomemoriseitTheyshouldalsobeadvisedtopractisetherecordeddrillsTakentogether,theseventytwopassagesformacarefullygradedandstructurallycontrolledsurveyofelementaryEnglishAllthepassagesareshortandeasytomemoriseandwillenablethecompletebeginnertousethelanguagewithincreasingconfidenceandskillFutureworkThiscourseiscompletelyselfcontainedandcoversoneyear'sworkAttheendofit,thestudentshouldhaveareasonablecommandofspokenEnglishIfhewishestoproceedfurther,thestudentmaygoontothefollowingbookswhich‘overlap’eachothersothathecancontinuehisstudieswithoutdifficulty:PracticeandProgress:AnintegratedcourseforpreintermediatestudentsDevelopingSkills:AnintegratedcourseforintermediatestudentsFluencyinEnglish:AnintegratedcourseforadvancedstudentsInthesebooks,thestudentcontinueswiththeoralworkbeguninthiscourseandisalsotaughttowriteEnglishinasystematicway本教材使用说明教师按语伴随每个教学单元的按语应该被视为建议。如果愿意教师可以偏离所规定的教学计划或是省略他认为不符合他教学目标的练习。然而写上按语的目的是帮助教师组织训练所介绍的句型。在可能的情况下每课书的练习均按难易程度分级。这就意味着如果时间不够最后的练习可以删去而不至于严重影响学生的学习进程。每个教学单元包含两小时的内容。如果教师仅有分钟用于每个单元的前半部分或后半部分那么他就要根据他所能使用的时间来重新编排这些练习。每个教师上课时都会使用的那些指令和评语如“请听”、“坐下”、“再说一遍”、“一起来”等等应该用英语来说。在初级阶段这些短语的含义可用手势和模仿动作来表述。这些短语必须被看成与课文无关除非它们正式在课文中出现。按照本教材的目的只有当学生学会使用某个句型他才算是熟悉了这一句型。这就是为什么课堂教学中常用的指令并没有列入教师用书课文之前的句型和词汇表内。按语分列在不同的标题之下。现在我们来介绍其中的每一项。内容和基本目标总体评论这两个标题下的内容简要地归纳了课文所教的句型和语项。归纳完全是为教师准备的。听力理解详尽的指令在课程之初便作了交代但随着教师慢慢适应这一程序指令便逐渐简化。我们推荐介绍课文的个步骤用以训练学生听懂英语口语的能力。这个步骤如下:介绍故事了解情景听力训练目标播放录音或朗读课文回答问题精读再次播放录音或朗读课文重复大声朗读每一个步骤都必须简洁。让我们来看一下如何在实践中运用这个步骤:介绍故事教师用几句话介绍课文使学生能清楚了解所发生的事情而不需要去猜测。开始可以用少量的中文但教师必须尽早开始用英语。例如:Todaywe'lllistentoastoryaboutahandbag(今天我们要听一个有关手提包的故事。)了解情景要求学生看插图以便检查学生是否了解课文中所发生的事情。在最初阶段可以给少量的中文作为提示但教师必须尽早开始使用英语。例如:Lookatthepicturesandtellmewhatishappeninghere(看图然后告诉我这里发生了什么事情。)(你可以再加上至个问题作为提示。)听力训练目标通过给学生提个问题让他们寻找答案的方式教师为学生确立一个“听力训练目标”。这就意味着学生会积极地而不是消极地去听课文寻音。例如:Listentothestorythentellme:Whosehandbagisit?(听故事然后告诉我:这是谁的手提包?)放录音或朗读课文教师播放录音或朗读课文在不停顿的情况下让学生静听一遍课文。回答问题现在教师再一次问第步骤中的问题让学生试看回答:Nowyou'veheardthestorywhosehandbagisit?(你现在听了这个故事这是谁的手提包?)训练学生不要集体回答如果他们认为自己知道答案就让他们举手。问一个学生然后问其他的人:“你们中有多少人同意他/她的回答?”“如果你们同意请举起手来。”“对另一个学生如果你不同意那么你认为答案是什么?”“你们中有多少人同意他/她的回答?”“同意的请举起手来。”这样就能让学生不断地猜测而且把全班学生都调动起来。从一开始就要训练学生不做“任何准备”地去听也不通过“翻译”。很快他们就会适应英语的语音并理解他们所听到的内容。精读现在教师重放录音或重读课文每行后稍稍停顿检查学生是否理解。这是课堂教学中非常重要的一个环节因为学生必须全力通过图片去理解课文。如果学生不能通过图片来理解部分课文的内容这种情况总会发生的教师必须用手势和模拟动作来进行解释。如果仍不能表述那一含义教师就应该请班上学得最好的学生给出一个单词或词组的译文以照顾尚未理解词义的学生。把翻译看成最后一种手段。在开始阶段传达意思是很困难的一个环节但随着课程的进展困难就会越来越小。再次播放录音或朗读课文不停顿地再次从头播放录音或课文。经过以上个步骤的精心讲解这次学生应毫无困难便可听懂。重复再次播放录音或朗读课文每行后停顿一下让学生全体、小组(如教室里每一行)和单个地重复。当全体和小组重复时要求学生在看到你的明确信号后一起开始。你可用点头或以手中的铅笔来做信号想像你自己在指挥一个交响乐团。课文中的断句标志着不同的“阅读单元”它们的长度与学生视线的宽度是一致的。大声朗读让一两个学生扮演对话中的角色大声朗读。从中你可以了解到不同学生是否能够准确地读出他们听到的英语。这个介绍课文的过程不应超过分钟。随着学生能力的提高教师可以根据需要简化其中的步骤这样就可以有更多的时间用于其后的练习。在家中自学的学生应尽可能多听课文录音使自己完全熟悉课文。如果愿意甚至可以把课文背出来。理解这个阶段包含两个练习:学生回答问题学生提问题。学生回答问题按照以上个步骤介绍课文后教师在班上向学生单独提问题。如果一个学生没能回答出来很快转向另一个学生因此这部分练习要很注意节奏。教师提的问题和相应的答案都包括在教师用书中。当然如果你愿意可以提一些额外的问题。问题分成两类:a一般疑问句一般来说仅用Yes(是)或No(不)来回答一个问题是不礼貌的。要训练学生注意听一般疑问句的第一个单词在回答时用同样的词。教师:IsAnna'sdressnew?(安娜的连衣裙是新的吗?)(问题中的第一个词是Is)学生:Yesitis.(是它是新的。)(is是答案的一部分)教师:IsAnna'sdressblue?(安娜的连衣裙是蓝色的吗?)学生:Noitisn't(不它不是。)b特殊疑问句(以Wh开头和以How开头的疑问句)训练学生回答以WhenWhereWhichHow等词开头的疑问句(当然在这本教材中要花一些时间才能逐渐达到这个目标)。学生可以用完整的句子回答也可以用简短的、较自然的回答方式。教师:Whosedressisnew?(谁的连衣裙是新的?)学生:Anna'sdressisnew.或Anna's.(安娜的连衣裙是新的。或简短回答:安娜的。)就这样经过一段时间的训练学生会把When和时间、Where和地点、Why和原因、Who和身份、Whose和所有权、Which和选择、What和选择、身份或活动、How和方式联系起来。学生提问题为了防止类似Wherehewent的错误问题需要训练学生同时问两个问题。第个是一般疑问句第个是特殊疑问句。例如:教师:AskmeifSallyisinthegarden.(问我萨莉是否在花园里。)学生:IsSallyinthegarden?(萨莉是不是在花园里?)教师:Where⋯?(⋯⋯在哪里?)学生:WhereisSally?(萨莉在哪里?)(而不是WhereSallyis?或WhereSally?)当然在这本教材中要经过一段时间问题才能发展到这个形式。所有的这类问题都包括在教师用书中。如果教师愿意可以增加一些问题。活动在每个教学单元第部分的结尾处有一些关于课堂活动的建议。如果没有足够的时间它们可以全部省略。应该尽一切可能不时地介绍一些课堂活动因为它们会活跃课堂气氛为语言教学增添乐趣。所建议的课堂活动有两种形式。游戏一系列关于游戏的建议可以帮助学生操练某些句型。讲故事可以要求学生仅仅依靠插图来重新组合对话。成年学生在课堂上“表演”对话通常会感到不自然讲故事活动是一个很好的折衷办法。这也是非常有用的锻炼记忆力的方式同时为讲话打下基础。附加练习在学生用书中每个教学单元的后半部分(所有双数课文)都有一些标了数字的插图有些还有单词和句子。正如前面所指出的在可能的情况下一个单词要在口语中出现后才正式在文字中出现。这就是为什么这些双数课文常常仅有插图。在这些插图的帮助下学生可以练习某些句型(句型既有渐进型的又有静态型的取决于课文)。附加练习往往从一个简短的练习开始这个练习仅仅针对一个特殊的问题如数字的用法、日期、时间、字母的使用、拼写难点等等。这类难点要在很长的一段时间里反复练习不可能在一两课中解决。在此练习之后学生继续进行重复训练和句型训练。重复训练学生进行重复训练。他们可以利用录音机和录音磁带在课堂上进行这种训练如果是自学也可以在家里进行。但也可采用另一种方式即由教师“现场”口头指导利用书中的录音材料进行训练。句型训练这种句型训练是双数课文的主体。在这些训练中教师试着引导班上的学生练习一系列不同的句型。学生可以全班、小组或个人进行回答形式可以由教师来决定。每次给学生介绍一个新的句型练习时教师应该说明所需要的回答形式可以用口头说明或将回答写到黑板上。不需要从语法上进行解释。每一个新句型都应该作为口头表述的形式来介绍。但介绍新句型的方法则由教师自己决定。在进行句型操练时教师提供诱导学生看着自己的书作出回答。例如引导有关现在完成时用法的句子可以这样进行:教师:LookatthefirstpictureWhathasshejustdone?(请看第幅画。她刚刚做完了什么?)学生:Shehasjustairedtheroom.(看插图她刚刚给房间通了通风。)教师:LookatthesecondpictureWhathavetheyjustdone?(请看第幅画。他们刚刚做完了什么?)学生:Theyhavejustcleanedtheirshoes.(看

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