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首页 单向度的人 英文版

单向度的人 英文版

单向度的人 英文版

zhanglibo0575
2009-04-05 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《单向度的人 英文版pdf》,可适用于职业教育领域

FrankfurtSchool:OneDimensionalMan,byHerbertMarcuseHerbertMarcuseOneDimensionalManStudiesintheIdeologyofAdvancedIndustrialSocietyWritten:Source:cartooniguwtuwienacatchristianmarcuseodmhtmlMarkedupandcorrected:AndyBlundenContentsIntroduction:TheParalysisofCriticism:SocietyWithoutOppositionONEDIMENSIONALSOCIETYTheNewFormsofControlTheClosingofthePoliticalUniverseTheConquestoftheUnhappyConsciousness:RepressiveDesublimationTheClosingoftheUniverseofDiscourseONEDIMENSIONALTHOUGHTNegativeThinking:TheDefeatedLogicofProtestFromNegativetoPositiveThinking:TheLogicofDominationTheTriumphofPositiveThinking:OneDimensionalPhilosophyTHECHANCEOFTHEALTERNATIVEShttp:wwwmarxistsorgreferencearchivemarcuseworksonedimensionalmanindexhtm(第/页)::FrankfurtSchool:OneDimensionalMan,byHerbertMarcuseTheHistoricalCommitmentofPhilosophyTheCatastropheofLiberationConclusionFurtherreading:GeorgLukacsArchiveTheSearchforMethod,JeanPaulSartre,TheLogicofModernPhysics,PercyBridgman,JürgenHabermasArchiveHerbertMarcuseArchivehttp:wwwmarxistsorgreferencearchivemarcuseworksonedimensionalmanindexhtm(第/页)::InformationaboutAndyBlundenName:AndyBlundenAge:(born)PoliticalParty:CurrentlywithoutpoliticalaffiliationUnion:NationalTertiaryEducationUnionGeneralNotes:(frommyHomePage)BornOctoberMyparentsBettyandRalphBlundenwereadvertisingpeople,andmembersoftheArtistsBranchoftheCommunistPartyofAustraliaIwenttoBalwynStateandBalwynHighSchoolsandbeganEngineeringatMelbourneUniinInIwasdrafted,andwithtwoothers,wewerethefirstinthisStatetoburnourdraftcardsILeftforBritainjustbeforetheelectionandthusavoidedtheVietnamWarDidmyPhDatUniversityCollegeLondonduringwhichtimeIbeganstudyingMarxismIn,IbeganworkasateacherinBrixton,andthesameyearbecameBranchSecretaryofthelocalschoolbranchoftheNUT,andsoonhttp:wwwmarxistsorgadminvolunteersbiographiesablundenhtm(第/页)::InformationaboutAndyBlundenafterjoinedthe"Healyite"WRPIremainedanactivememberoftheWRPinEastLondonuntilIwasalsoSecretaryoftheASTMSsubbranchatNorthEastLondonPolywhereIworkedasatechnicianinthePhysicsDepartmentAftersupportingtheexpulsionofGerryHealyfromtheWRP,IreturnedtoMelbournewhereIwentbacktotheUniversityofMelbournetoworkintheBuildingsDepartmentwhereIlaterjoinedtheCommitteeoftheGeneralStaffAssociationAfteramalgamationoftheGSAwiththeStatePublicServicesFederation,IbecameaStateExecutivememberoftheSPSF,butinJuneIresignedtheSPSF,alongwithaboutothersintheVictorianHigherEducationsection,andjoinedtheNTEU(NationalTertiaryEducationUnion)Currently,IliveintheinnerNorthernsuburbofMelbourne,Brunswick,withmyfriendsince,VonneyIworkedatMelbourneUniversity,responsiblefordevelopmentofteachingspaces,untilretiringinDecembertoconcentrateonstudyIcurrentlybelongtonopartyIfirststudiedHegelin,totrytomakesenseofLenin'sAnnotationsinthePhilosophicalNotebooks,whichwerethecentreofHealy'sorientationatthetimeAfterreturningtoAustraliaandafterthefinalcollapseoftheSovietUnionin,whichtomysurpriseaffectedtheTrotskyistmovementjustasnegativelyasitaffectedtheStalinists,IspentacoupleofyearsstudyingthehistoryofStalinism,andthisiscontainedinmybookStalinism:ItsOriginandFutureItwasthenonlyin,strugglingtounderstandtheobviousinadequacyofMarxisttheoryasIknewit,thatIreturnedtoastudyofHegel'sLogicUnabletofindanyonetodiscussthematerialwith,IstartedtheHegelbyHyperTextwebsiteandadvancedbothmyownstudyandthepromotionofHegelstudyviatheInternetTheoutcomeofthatfirstyearofstudywasthelittlebookTheMeaningofHegel'sLogicandtheUnderstandingHegel'sLogicSummerSchoolinFebruaryThisworkapproachesHegelina"Leninist"way,thatistosay,focussingonthelogic,interpretingitinthespiritofamaterialisttheoryofknowledgeFollowingthisthen,IbeganreadingmywaythroughWesternPhilosophyfromhttp:wwwmarxistsorgadminvolunteersbiographiesablundenhtm(第/页)::InformationaboutAndyBlundenGalileotoDerrida,andthisstudyledmetoabroaderunderstandingofwhatIthoughtwererelativelycutanddryquestions,andthesecondSummerSchoolinFebruarywasbasedonthisstudyandisreflectedintheValueofKnowledgewebsiteDiscussionsontheInternetalsocausedmetofacethefactthatHegelhimselfwasmotivatedalsobypoliticalandsocialquestions,andafterreadingThePhilosophyofRightandMarx'scritiqueofit,IbegantoseethewayinwhichthinkingreproducessocialrelationsandtheroleHegelplayedinelaboratingthisviewThisthenledmetoaseriesofpapersonCapitalandLabour,whichsufferedfrombeingsomewhatchaoticmethodologically,butlaidthebasisforamoresystematicconsiderationMyreadingofHegelfurtherdeveloped,aswrittenupfortheHegelSeminar:GettingtoKnowHegelTheSummerSchoolshavecontinuedeachyear,withtheFebruaryseminarentitled:HegeltheClashofideals,andrecentlypublishedabook:ForEthicalPoliticsTheHegelSeminarfocusedonNeoLiberalism,andwasruninconjunctionwithGeoffBoucherJoinedMIA:MIAResponsibilities:MIASecretary,MaintainerofHegelReferenceArchive,thePhilosophySubjectReferenceSection,theMarxEngelsArchiveSectionDirectoroftheReferenceArchive,"LinkNazi"fortheMIA,helpingtokeepthenumberofbadlinksincheckacrossallarchives,coeditoroftheglossary,thedropdownmenusandtheCrossLanguageAuthorsIndexandCrossLanguageMarxEngelsIndex,andmaintainerofnumeroussmallerarchives:dietzgen,dunayevskaya,ilyenkov,jamesclr,leontev,lukacs,luria,mikhailov,pillingandvygotskythereferencesubjectarchives,subjectarchivesforalienation,anarchism,ethics,philosophy,psychology,war,workershistoryarchivesforinternationalhttp:wwwmarxistsorgadminvolunteersbiographiesablundenhtm(第/页)::FrankfurtSchool:fromOneDimensionalMan,byHerbertMarcuseHerbertMarcuseOneDimensionalManIntroductiontotheFirstEditionTheParalysisofCriticism:SocietyWithoutOppositionDoesnotthethreatofanatomiccatastrophewhichcouldwipeoutthehumanracealsoservetoprotecttheveryforceswhichperpetuatethisdangerTheeffortstopreventsuchacatastropheovershadowthesearchforitspotentialcausesincontemporaryindustrialsocietyThesecausesremainunidentified,unexposed,unattackedbythepublicbecausetheyrecedebeforethealltooobviousthreatfromwithouttotheWestfromtheEast,totheEastfromtheWestEquallyobviousistheneedforbeingprepared,forlivingontheblink,forfacingthechallengeWesubmittothepeacefulproductionofthemeansofdestruction,totheperfectionofwaste,tobeingeducatedforadefensewhichdeformsthedefendersandthatwhichtheydefendIfweattempttorelatethecausesofthedangertothewarinwhichsocietyisorganizedandorganizesitsmembers,weareimmediatelyconfrontedwiththefactthatadvancedindustrialsocietybecomesricher,bigger,andbetterasitperpetuatesthedangerThedefensestructuremakeslifeeasierforagreaternumberofpeopleandextendsman'smasteryofnatureUnderthesecircumstances,ourmassmediahavelittledifficultyinsellingparticularinterestsasthoseofallsensiblemenThepoliticalneedsofsocietybecomeindividualneedsandaspirations,theirsatisfactionpromotesbusinessandthecommonweal,andthewholeappealstobetheveryembodimentofReasonAndyetthissocietyisirrationalasawholeItsproductivityisdestructiveofthefreedevelopmentofhumanneedsandfaculties,itspeacemaintainedbytheconstantthreatofwar,itsgrowthdependentontherepressionoftherealpossibilitiesforpacifyingthestruggleforexistenceindividual,national,andinternationalThisrepression,sodifferentfromthatwhichcharacterizedthepreceding,lessdevelopedhttp:wwwmarxistsorgreferencearchivemarcuseworksonedimensionalmanintroductionhtm(第/页)::FrankfurtSchool:fromOneDimensionalMan,byHerbertMarcusestagesofoursociety,operatestodaynottramapositionofnaturalandtechnicalimmaturitybutratherfromapositionofstrengthThecapabilities(intellectualandmaterial)ofcontemporarysocietyareimmeasurablygreaterthaneverbeforewhichmeansthatthescopeofsociety'sdominationovertheindividualisimmeasurablygreaterthaneverbeforeOursocietydistinguishesitselfbyconqueringthecentrifugalsocialforceswithTechnologyratherthanTerror,onthedualbasisofanoverwhelmingefficiencyandanincreasingstandardoflivingToinvestigatetherootsofthesedevelopmentsandexaminetheirhistoricalalternativesispartoftheaimofacriticaltheoryofcontemporarysociety,atheorywhichanalyzessocietyinthelightofitsusedandunusedorabusedcapabilitiesforimprovingthehumanconditionButwhatarethestandardsforsuchacritiqueCertainlyvaluejudgmentsplayapartTheestablishedwaroforganizingsocietyismeasuredagainstotherpossibleways,wayswhichareheldtoofferbetterchancesforalleviatingman'sstruggleforexistenceaspecifichistoricalpracticeismeasuredagainstitsownhistoricalalternativesFromthebeginning,anycriticaltheoryofsocietyisthusconfrontedwiththeproblemofhistoricalobjectivity,aproblemwhicharisesatthetwopointswheretheanalysisimpliesvaluejudgments:thejudgmentthathumanlifeisworthliving,orrathercanbeandoughttobemadeworthlivingThisjudgementunderliesallintellectualeffortitistheaprioriofsocialtheory,anditsrejection(whichisperfectlylogical)rejectstheoryitselfthejudgmentthat,inagivensociety,specificpossibilitiesexistfortheameliorationofhumanlifeandspecificwaysandmeansofrealizingthesepossibilitiesCriticalanalysishastodemonstratetheobjectivevalidityofthesejudgments,andthedemonstrationhastoproceedonempiricalgroundsTheestablishedsocietyhasavailableanascertainablequantityandqualityofintellectualandmaterialresourcesHowcantheseresourcesbeusedfortheoptimaldevelopmentandsatisfactionofindividualneedsandfacultieswithaminimumoftoilandmiserySocialhttp:wwwmarxistsorgreferencearchivemarcuseworksonedimensionalmanintroductionhtm(第/页)::FrankfurtSchool:fromOneDimensionalMan,byHerbertMarcusetheoryishistoricaltheory,andhistoryistherealmofchanceintherealmofnecessityTherefore,amongthevariouspossibleandactualmodesoforganizingandutilizingtheavailableresources,whichonesofferthegreatestchanceofanoptimaldevelopmentTheattempttoanswerthesequestionsdemandsaseriesofinitialabstractionsInordertoidentifyanddefinethepossibilitiesofanoptimaldevelopment,thecriticaltheorymustabstractfromtheactualorganizationandutilizationofsociety'sresources,andfromtheresultsofthisorganizationandutilizationSuchabstractionwhichrefusestoacceptthegivenuniverseoffactsasthefinalcontextofvalidation,such“transcending”analysisofthefactsinthelightoftheirarrestedanddeniedpossibilities,pertainstotheverystructureofsocialtheoryItisopposedtoallmetaphysicsbyvirtueoftherigorouslyhistoricalcharacterofthetranscendenceThe“possibilities”mustbewithinthereachoftherespectivesocietytheymustbedefinablegoalsofpracticeBythesametoken,theabstractionfromtheestablishedinsituationsmustbeexpressiveofanactualtendencythatis,theirtransformationmustbetherealneedoftheunderlyingpopulationSocialtheoryisconcernedwiththehistoricalalternativeswhichhaunttheestablishedsocietyassubversivetendenciesandforcesThevaluesattachedtothealternativesdobecomefactswhentheyaretranslatedintorealitybyhistoricalpracticeThetheoreticalconceptsterminatewithsocialchangeButhere,advancedindustrialsocietyconfrontsthecritiquewithasituationwhichseemstodepriveitofitsverybasisTechnicalprogress,extendedtoawholesystemofdominationandcoordination,createsformsoflife(andofpower)whichappeartoreconciletheforcesopposingthesystemandtodefeatorrefuteallprotestinthenameofthehistoricalprospectsoffreedomfromtoilanddominationContemporarysocietyseemstobecapableofcontainingsocialchangequalitativechangewhichwouldestablishessentiallydifferentinstitutions,anewdirectionoftheproductiveprocess,newmodesofhumanexistenceThiscontainmentofsocialchangeisperhapsthemostsingularachievementofadvancedindustrialsocietythegeneralacceptanceoftheNationalPurpose,bipartisanpolicy,thedeclineofpluralism,thehttp:wwwmarxistsorgreferencearchivemarcuseworksonedimensionalmanintroductionhtm(第/页)::FrankfurtSchool:fromOneDimensionalMan,byHerbertMarcusecollusionofBusinessandLaborwithinthestrongStatetestifytotheintegrationofoppositeswhichistheresultaswellastheprerequisiteofthisachievementAbriefcomparisonbetweentheformativestageofthetheoryofindustrialsocietyanditspresentsituationmayhelptoshowhowthebasisofthecritiquehasbeenalteredAtitsoriginsinthefirsthalfofthenineteenthcentury,whenitelaboratedthefirstconceptsofthealternatives,thecritiqueofindustrialsocietyattainedconcretenessinahistoricalmediationbetweentheoryandpractice,valuesandfacts,needsandgoalsThishistoricalmediationoccurredintheconsciousnessandinthepoliticalactionofthetwogreatclasseswhichfacedeachotherinthesociety:thebourgeoisieandtheproletariatInthe'Capitalistworld,theyarestillthebasicclassesHowever,thecapitalistdevelopmenthasalteredthestructureandfunctionofthesetwoclassesinsuchawaythattheynolongerappeartobeagentsofhistoricaltransformationAnoverridinginterestinthepreservationandimprovementoftheinstitutionalstatusquounitestheformerantagonistsinthemostadvancedareasofcontemporarysocietyAndtothedegreetowhichtechnicalprogressassuresthegrowthandcohesionofcommunistsociety,theveryideaofqualitativechangerecedesbeforetherealisticnotionsofanonexplosiveevolutionIntheabsenceofdemonstrableagentsandagenciesofsocialchange,thecritiqueisthusthrownbacktoahighlevelofabstractionThereisnogroundonwhichtheoryandpractice,thoughtandactionmeetEventhemostempiricalanalysisofhistoricalalternativesappearstobeunrealisticspeculation,andcommitmenttothemamatterofpersonal(orgroup)preferenceAndyet:doesthisabsencerefutethetheoryInthefaceofapparentlycontradictoryfacts,thecriticalanalysiscontinuestoinsistthattheneedforqualitativechangeisaspressingaseverbeforeNeededbywhomTheanswercontinuestobethesame:bythesocietyasawhole,foreveryoneofitsmembersTheunionofgrowingproductivityandgrowingdestructionthebrinkmanshipofannihilationthesurrenderofthought,hope,andfeartothedecisionsofthepowersthatbethepreservationofmiseryinthefaceofunprecedentedwealthconstitutethemostimpartialindictmenteveniftheyarenottheraisond'etreofthissocietybutonlyitsbyproduct:itssweepingrationality,whichpropelsefficiencyandgrowth,isitselfirrationalhttp:wwwmarxistsorgreferencearchivemarcuseworksonedimensionalmanintroductionhtm(第/页)::FrankfurtSchool:fromOneDimensionalMan,byHerbertMarcuseThefactthatthevastmajorityofthepopulationaccepts,andismadetoaccept,thissocietydoesnotrenderitlessirrationalandlessreprehensibleThedistinctionbetweentrueandfalseconsciousness,realandimmediateintereststillismeaningfulButthisdistinctionitselfmustbevalidatedMenmustcometoseeitandtofindtheirwayfromfalsetotrueconsciousness,fromtheirimmediatetotheirrealinterestTheycandosoonlyiftheyliveinneedofchangingtheirwayoflife,ofdenyingthepositive,ofrefusingItispreciselythisneedwhichtheestablishedsocietymanagestorepresstothedegreetowhichitiscapableof“deliveringthegoods”onanincreasinglylargescale,andusingthescientificconquestofnatureforthescientificconquestofmanConfrontedwiththetotalcharacteroftheachievementsofadvancedindustrialsociety,criticaltheoryisleftwithouttherationalefortranscendingthissocietyThevacuumemptiesthetheoreticalstructureitself,becausethecategoriesofacriticalsocialtheoryweredevelopedduringtheperiodinwhichtheneedforrefusalandsubversionwasembodiedintheactionofeffectivesocialforcesThesecategorieswereessentiallynegativeandoppositionalconcepts,definingtheactualcontradictionsinnineteenthcenturyEuropeansocietyThecategory“society”itselfexpressedtheacuteconflictbetweenthesocialandpoliticalspheresocietyasantagonistictothestateSimilarly,“individual,”“class,”“private,”“family”denotedspheresandforcesnotyetintegratedwiththeestablishedconditionsspheresoftensionandcontradictionWiththegrowingintegrationofindustrialsociety,thesecategoriesarelosingtheircriticalconnotation,andtendtobecomedescriptive,deceptive,oroperationaltermsAnattempttorecapturethecriticalintentofthesecategories,andtounderstandhowtheintentwascancelledbythesocialreality,appearsfromtheoutsettoberegressionfromatheoryjoinedwithhistoricalpracticetoabstract,speculativethought:fromthecritiqueofpoliticaleconomytophilosophyThisideologicalcharacterofthecritiqueresultsfromthefactthattheanalysisisforcedtoproceedfromaposition“outside”thepositiveaswellasnegative,theproductiveaswellasdestructivetendenciesinhttp:wwwmarxistsorgreferencearchivemarcuseworksonedimensionalmanintroductionhtm(第/页)::FrankfurtSchool:fromOneDimensionalMan,byHerbertMarcusesocietyModernindustrialsocietyisthepervasiveidentityoftheseoppositesitisthewholethatisinquestionAtthesametime,thepositionoftheorycannotbeoneofmerespeculationItmustbeahistoricalpositioninthesensethatitmustbegroundedonthecapabilitiesofthegivensocietyThisambiguoussituationinvolvesastillmorefundamentalambiguityOneDimensionalManwillvacillatethroughoutbetweentwocontradictoryhypotheses:()thatadvancedindustrialsocietyiscapableofcontainingqualitativechangefortheforese

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