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首页 马克·吐温从幽默到讽刺

马克·吐温从幽默到讽刺.pdf

马克·吐温从幽默到讽刺

vera
2009-04-03 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《马克·吐温从幽默到讽刺pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

第卷第期玉林师范学院学报(哲学社会科学)V.No.年JOuRNALFYULINTEACHERSCOLLEGE(PhilosophySocialScience)马克·吐温:从幽默到讽刺覃承华(南宁师范高等专科学校外语系助教广西龙州)【摘要】美国的幽默大师和现实主义作家马克·土温被认为是一个世界文学巨匠。他的幽默对其后辈文人产生了巨大的影响。批评家对此亦高度重视并就此提出了不同的阐释。然而幽默在马克·土温后期的作品里非但消失殆尽反而被辛辣讽刺所取代。马克·土温为何改变了他的写作风格和人生态度什么原因导致了他的这种巨变紧紧围绕上述问题文章从社会影响和个人遭遇两个方面分别分析了引起马克·吐温写作风格和人生态度改变的原因。旨在就他的这些改变提出理性分析从而使其作品更加通俗易懂。【关键词】马克·土温幽默讽刺【中图分类号】【文献标识码】A【文章编号】()一卜jMarkT访:ai玉F南前nd击矗矗S缸i南|鏊攀菱i}}}i|:||i攀。『。。}。。蓦≥¨¨一叠叠i≯乏董¨i|。芝≥誊毫蠹ii≤:、l¨ii鐾裂熙攀。㈣jii黍ii黍i(AssistalltEn酉ishDepartme∞Nanni【黪ache攀epn辫萼n譬bou卿印萨煦iij“AI碰船ct:MarkTwainj鋈前aste黼秘◇fh蝉攀i黼are缸is遴≥i迟seeo基百ant遗iiⅣddhterature.Hish啪ormad孕eatimpactonthe南llo、Ⅳingmenoflet七erScriticsalSo。jI.Introduction田Americanliterature”.”thetme白therofournationalarkTwainthepseud。nym。fSamueliterature””MarkTwain一一Mirr。r。fAmerica”areLan曲。meclemensistheforerunnerandusedt。highli曲thispinnaclesiniterature·His白ithfulreputedrealistinthearenaofAmericanitdiscipleEmestHerllingwaymoreoVeronceputiterature.Becauseofhisremarkablecontributiontothe”amodemiteraturecomes在omonebookbyMarknati。niterarycriticssp。kehi曲y。fhisachievements.Twaincalled月删叼局埘⋯”Forinstance.thesevenerabletitles”theLincnofAs矗rasaliterary舀antisconcemedTwainwaslllj{|Il{强Ilii{豳瞄一磷嗣万方数据remen】beredbvlnenofetcersrstLvasamaste删ndofhumorandthenasabittersadricwIiter.Inotherwor出TwaininhhwritiIlgcareere冲eriencedacha“ge丘ombelngchee血andopdmisdccodespairingandpessirnjstic.ButwhatcausehisshiR丘omhumortosadrePersonaUv.bothsocialinnuenceandpersonalencou呲ersPycridcalrolesinchan百r培hiswridn立丘omhumortosa石reandhisacdtudetoward】i癌aswell.II.Socialin丑uencesBodltheAmericancivilwar(hppenedinandlastedtill)andtherecoIlstrucdonaRerthewargreat】ya舵ctedTwain’swfitingstyle.MarkTwainwasbominFridaMissourion“Novemberinlintoalawyer矗m订y.Wim山eadventoftheciv丑waryoungTwaininbec枷easteamboatpnotpro任ssionaboutwhichhe、Ⅳrotethir七yyeaIslaterinthebook三妊叩如此铷出勃耐GenerallyspeabogtheAmericanpeoplee埘oyregardi”gware。pedenceastheircherishedadvaluableforcLlne姐dTwainw勰alsonoexcepdon.Aspilotheacdvelyparcicipatedintheciv丑war抽.Thecastofcharacterssetbeforehimillhispr忙ssionwaschadV撕ed一一acosmos.Hetookabundamnyparcinthisl洫listeni“gtop订oth。usetalkoffeudspiraciesynchin昏medicinesho、Ⅳsadsavlgewate商deslurm.NamelyhemadeimselfveryInuch矗nliharwidlaⅥaIksafli南aIldeachcomerofchesocietv.Twain.attheVerybe百nni“舀Ⅵ郴actuaⅡyopdmisdcaboutⅥ士athesawandwhathedid.HoweveLhehadtoleavetherivercountrvindlewakeoftheendoftllec砌waraRerfourandaholfvearsintheste枷b。at.Inocherwordscheendofci啊wa‘putanendtohish岳asp丑ot.Thenhetdedsoldieri“g。nceagainfoftwoweeks、Ⅳithmodeybandofconfederateguerr司aswhodiIigentlyaVoidedcontactwicll出eenemy.Twai“quita&erdecidi“g“Ikewmoreaboutrc七read“gthanchemanthatinventedretreatj“g”A丘erthathemadellism抽dtoestablishhis矗mebywfi石ng.Icw弧proVed山athipenwasreallymi出derthallhipickaxInhebecomeajoumalistandad。pted“MarkTwaill”ashispenn蛐e.Fouryearsater码ec&瑚据d廿蹲哦宇Rqg《c幽P黜c。“n咎waspubhshed.“coklmnwithhisjumpi“g疗og一岫e‘st“Lng#r$一一stra“gerhadno丘ogandCgothilnone一一inthemeandmestra”gef衄edC’sfrogfuuofshotandhecouldn’tjump.Thestr柚ger’s曲gwon.”Thhsuccess削story丘myestab】ishedhjsreputadonashumoristandstoⅣtelkr.In自ctchecivilwarwasatmi“gpointinTwain’sicerarycareeradit、抛s越soawate耐edbetweenhishumorandsatire.Thustlleware’币erienceforhimwasan。pochmaki“geventandithad最r.reachingin丑uence“pon墙wrid“g.WeknowTwainfullyanddil螗endyeInbracedintthesteamboatpiloton山eeVeoftheciⅧwar.Presumablyhisoriginalpursuitwas丘ghtfo‘peace在eedomandreuni右一cation“thenationandh叩pinessofAJnerica“people.AtthatdmeTw血’s。yes、vereUedwithhopesandoPpornlnidesaswelIascon丑ictsand曲ts.He肌lyuphddth武hecouldbeself.nladeandmadeafbr吣nebyjlIlme商“ginthewaT.HaweveronlytheoppositeⅥ礓sincttn】e.Itmmedout幻be出athetookev一。ry血i“gfo‘grantedat璐t.shordya丘erthewarcametoanenditleRnotllingbutcherislledremembranceswhichmadeimex仕emelyupsetanddisheanened⋯F。rnlmtelyhisfourandahalfyea巧intheste删boatmadehimselfeducatedandacquaimedwi出everypossiblecypeofhumannaturc柚dmostofwhichⅡadehimulti呦telyrecogIlizedthathipen、vouldm培hdertanhiswepom.Withouthedtadonanymoreheb。昏mdig画“ghiswaytorc垂onalfameasacorre一pondentandhumoristwitllrichwarXperience.Duetohisphon。g‘aphicmemoriesanddescriptiv。geniushemadeahppenedindlew盯vividlyresurfaced.scoresofsucces血workgraduaⅡysethimapart疗mt王lecommonmenofJettersandiceVenmaIhrmadehimareputedspok。spersonforthere“ismandawo订dwiderem盯kablehumoristinpanicular.AsawitnessofdledvilwarTwainsawckadyth。greatchangesinnadon’seconomicdevelopITlentandpoliticalife.Whhthe矗nalvictorvovertheSouththeNorthonceainenjoyeditswieldi“gpowerinthenadon’sadminis七ra石on.Nowtheacutecon丑ictathomewasundenninedandteAmerica“peopleagaln万方数据覃承华马克·吐温:从幽默到讽刺fbcusedtheir{bⅡatten石ononrecons衄lcdona丘er山e、varBecausel"ostmajori‘yoftheslaVeswefe锄ancipatedtheskLvebasedeconoIny。fdlede南atedSou出haditsprosperitybecameroocless.Indliscaseclustersofgroundlesssou出empoorwhitesandthenewly在eeddavesheadeddirectlyorindirecclyfor山enew一iberacedcitiestoseek。ppor【nies.Itmybecalledthe”GdRush”rejuvenatedorra出eritwassocaⅡedche’’AmericanDream”bvsomecridcs.TwainalsocouldnochelPrudli“gtotewesttowillhisAmericandrcam.Heoncebehevedmeideaofdeveloprnentandindustrializationsinceitwouldmodemizedl。you“gcoun在yandencouragetheent。rprisi“gpiritoftheAmericanwhohadngbeenmouforit.HewasmllyenthIaⅡedbysuchfhersoonceagainheheldanopdmiscicactjc【Ide亡owardscheposcwescwarde。pansi。nHedrewmuchispirad。“丘omthe“nparalleledandma口洫centeVent工dspokelligh】yofi如deci虹onmakefsanditspeople.Soc试consciomnessroobjnsocialbei“g.Asakindofsocialconscioumess.iteracllreshouldrenectthethensocidrealityinwhichit在m】yro。ts.Bei“garealisdcIitentiTw撕“graduaUynoticedthedarknessandhe血laUvfoundthedi自睡rencebetweenwhathesawupemciallymdwhatcheyreallywereindep出healsofoundthedi位rencebe附eenwhatpe。plechimcdtobe越dwhatth。yreallywere.Herealized山atpeopkbecameamora:Iandtenlhngclassbecameimpotentint}lccourse。fmaterialprosperity.Uthou曲b。ththeciv丑warandtherecoIls七rtlctionafterthewar(正ennachofthewestwarde坤amion)enabledhimtobe‰iliarwithpeople丘omawalksfifctobedchinwIid”gmaterialsⅥrhichedhimtobecomeAmericana埘bassadoratlargeandtacquireanintemadonareputadonashumo^stcum一矗ontierphilosopher。ncheotherhandt“socaIkedhimintoobseⅣi“gdeIibentely血esidee饪jctofindustrializationand山edarknessofthesode母.Namely山ematerialful右l】menconlybmughtaboutpiritvacan。y.Becausehisde。pso‘ryandincreasingdissatisfacdontowardthesephenomenaTwaincoI】ldnotbellumorousandoptimistica“ym。re.onthecontnrv.Twaininhjsaterworksshi在ed丘oman。pcimisttoamisanthrope行omhumortos撕re.Forinstaflceinbslacerworks刀缸日磁一尹柚d只d扬旅一形岱豌卫heintemelyaIld丘crcelys撕ried山eranlpanteVnsanddarknessofches。ciety.Unlikethee砷eriencesofwafandthewescwarde)中an矗onchacmadellimbecam。quiteoptilllistictheco肌pdonandinjusticemadehimbecamee【七remelypessimi难c.He缸edtondw棚ceradicatetheexacerbatedsocialdis髓seheheldahelplessanddusiveatcimdctowafdsb麾.Thus.Twainbecamedoub血abouttheideaofdeVdopmentand出epticalofmegoodneSsofhumannacLlre.历尼肠M奶矿幽点舭and乃咖砌蚴由矗越嘲heseverelycondemeddlenadon.simperiaandaggressivcbehaviortothercountriesespeci柚y山eSpanishAmerican可旷ar.Since出。P“blicanof乃口^参硝∞扫螂冱船留可iun石lhisdeachinl.hem血妇inedabittersadreandskepddsmtoala‘gedeg弦e.乃f以I幺日五甜(妇瑙p船矿占k跨而比秽and职协矗咖知are。印resent撕vesf出jssort.III.PersonalencountersAsIme埘onedforegoingsocialin丑lenceassercedpredorninant五铲语c蛆ceoVerTwain’sconVe巧i。n丘Dmhumorcs撕re.Icisno“嚣ention出atsoddi丑uenceofhkdaydo皿nandya&ccedllisa晒mdecowardsb南hisoutlookofsocie坼hwridng叫eandsoonandsofbr七h.I{owever.tllereisaIlomerelementhispersonal虹agedieswllichakocanItbeigIloredwhenwe岫escoanalyzehiswfi石“gstyle.Regardedasa百aIltinbo出AmericanhteratllreaIld、voddHccrature.Tw缸nencounteredcoundesspersonalhardships柚dsu伍:rill昏.ItislikelytatTwainismorc丘moIlsforhispersonaltragediesthan船ahumoristadarepresenbdveofrealism.Itisnowanderthathehadtochan辨hishumorintosatire抵erexperienci“gunexpectedpersonalsu跽rin昏and仃agediesInthe矗rstplacellisfatherdiedwhenhe、vasonlytwelveandw}lichdirecdybro“ghcab。uccheendofhlsfoundeduc撕on.However.Twaillweknowwasbominpedodthacchetwosideswere矗gh矗“gatthroatandwhentheconnictendeddlewestⅥ阻ss皿wideo臼en.Thenationwidea丘e瑚a山of万方数据wescwardmovementoncea铲in缸Ⅱofchances扭doppo枷desandhe山e雎forewasuttedydeHghtcdwi出出c丘cshhndmdiIlvi学。糟cedby出epioncefingsD砸t.Chanc舒aredlathis丘tbebdeathdidnotnlakedi睡rence“ponhisemo矗on.Lifewasbghtforhim棚edwi出i乜mysteriesala帆edbyitsteⅡorsandamusedbvi皓contrasc.Thushewasabletoaughwi山h曲messasth。greathumoristin山Paci丘cslope.HoweverwhentheagedTwainuldIllatelyrealized【hatthematerialwealdlonlvresulted缸corrupdonandinjusdceinsteadofman’smoraHtyimproVementhishumormdhu咖、耽托rePhcedbybi啦rseerandsadre.Indlesecondplacewhenhebec锄esophisdcatcdhewasonceal:ainhauntedin山econ出tentdea山sofhislovedones:hisbrodlerHenrvwaskilledbyaste枷btexplosion血edea出ofhissonLar培一domatmonthshisddestdau曲cersusydiedofsPinalmenin峁sMnclemenssucc哪bedtoahemattadkinFlorenceandyoungestdaughterJeaIlan印丑ep∞drownedinaIlupstairsbachmb.suchtra西cencounccrsTwainexperierlcedisreaⅡyikcthedescfi口donin』j锄}乃耽功能i冠矿∥o脚日呃:oz”Bit。tcmesSfbdonthemanwhohadmadedlewoddaugh.Themorahzingof磕eadierwrid“ghadbeenweⅡpaddedwi血hum饼.Now(hegIoVesc嬲K砸‘州thbitcerSare.”ThelastbutnotmeleastresonwhvTwailltIlmedhumorintosatire加llishterwoiksisdntd”total矗ilufeofllis可pe一一setd“gandpublishingcompnyin.The蜘ufembusinessallddledeadlsofhisvedonesmadeTwainmajn“nedabitterskepddsminishtcrp舡t硷.Twain是ltsodeSpairedand在us啦tedtllathewasde印yinVolvedinskepdcismandpredesdnadon.Just如heputinisownautobio铲aphy:”⋯出eyvanishhDmawofldwhere血eywereofnocons。qucncewheretheyachievednothingwheretheywereaⅡ血takeanda锄ureandfishnesSwheremeyhavee庇nosi辨出atthevhavee)dsted一一awoddwhichwiⅡlament出emadyandfo。getchemforever.”InawordMarkTwain飞hteryearSwas甜lofcotal缸ureinfkquentnanc瑚specul撕onthespeculadonbothintyP。一sec七i“gandpubhshillgcompalliesandhispersonalbereavementthebeIovedonesdiedonearanonler.UIlIikeStlal=espearesdlIcouIdwriteoutsonlecomediesa盘erhisfour铲eaceScworldknown锄gediesTwamchangedhiswfitings州eintobjt亡er强drea丘ermaki“gthewoddlaughbyhishumor.HislastyearsⅥ陀rc丘UedwidlacutepessiIllismstro“gskepticism姐dbi仕er钳tire.TwaindiedonAprilattheeofseVenty一丘Ve.IV.ConclusionTos啪up'血ndamentaⅡyTwain拓a乒eathumorist.Heoncesaid.”thertareseveralkindsofstoriesbutonlyonedi伍cuh一一thehumorous.”Sotobehum。rousin王lisw^ti“gIvemuretoayish虹ifelo“gpursuit.Icisak。und朗iable出acTwainistheordy百一姐twhohdbroughtbothlocalcrismandhumortowoddnmeMeanwhneheonceclaimedthathewasaseriouswritera舯dⅥmsacdvelvconceⅡ】edwidlmoralideasinⅡlanywys.ontllispointTwainwasbynomeallsshan。wor角volousandwecan’t正mplycaⅡhimahumoristoranironicwriter.Infactmost“Twain’swofksare山ecombinationofbochhumoraIldsadread刀殆爿函珊m蝌口/’酗r£阮e口y砌w越ansein口oint.ontheoneh卸ditishismascerpieceasahumoritwh丑ethenovdahocanbeeyedsasareonsenmencahtvandRom甜西cismonthether.RoughlysPeaki“gTwain’shumordeeplyrootedinsoc试ch血gesalldllispersonalsu位血乎.Whcnhemou曲th危wasbrightforbimand如nofchancesandifeverythingwentsmoothlyhewasquiteopdmisdcandhumorous.However.whenhefbundthedarknesscornlptioninjusticeand出epersonaIna百cencouncershehadtowiths亡andinparticu】a‘hebec拗e丘rSdvseousand出enbic七erironic.Itfws出ereforethatweshouldtaketheseelemen拓intocon~dderadonwhenaIlalyzi“gTwain'swridngcharaccerisdcsasweⅡashimse堆Inshortbothdlech柚gillgsocialreahty卸dtheu’lpredictabl。personatrlgediesdirect坤andevenmallyresultedinhischang。f曲mhu~mortsa臼re【参考文献】D∞gxu血勘而疏秘∞面加厶蛔撇胛∥西彩毋M.WuIl姐:WuhanU由ve耐时Press.二国国万方数据覃承华马克吐温:从幽默到讽刺wuwehen崩抛少耐^埘觚移’∥z拙咖“豳船P(Vol眦e)M.BeUjng:ForeignL孤guagcTeachiIlg越dR髓earchPr∞s..zhaIlgH蛐dwangLm.爿西黜耐点警茹域Reved.Boo“)MBe】=jing:Fo耐gIlL柚guageTeacJlingandRese“hP”女.李套昭.二十世纪美国文学导论M.西安:西安变通大学出版社..陶洁.美国文学选读M.北京:高等教育出版社王恩铭当代蔓国社会与文化M.上海:上海外语教育出版社张伯香.英美文学选读自学辅导M.北京:外语教学与研究出版社..【收稿日期】【责任编辑谢文海】(上接第页)提到但是雅各(J∞ob)和比尔哈(B丑hah)所生的儿子希伯来人的族长。《牛津当代百科大词典》对“D∞”这一名字的解释是“神的审判”瑚(““’从但(Dan)的一生中很难找出他有什么优点。在位期问他没有干出什么成就来在他父亲的眼里他是叛逆的毒蛇。作者在小说中给老太太的儿子取这么个姓名是为了突出蒂勒老太太的儿子但(D”)是个有着叛逆精神的人。与喜欢一辈子呆在林中过宁静生活的西尔维亚不一样他不愿意一辈子都呆在深山老林中他要到外面去闯荡去奋斗。他有着一切游子的共性那就是不爱写信回家。他既让家人感到骄傲和自豪。又让家人时刻为他牵肠挂肚。他的所作所为普通人包括他的母亲是无法作出正确的评价的那就只好让神去评判了。采用具有象征意蕴的暗示命名法是欧蓑小说一种富有生命力的传统很多作家都在他们的作品中反复运用。在《白苍鹭》中作者朱厄特分别给文本中出现的部分人和物取了名字并且巧妙地通过特定的语境赋予了这些普通的姓名丰富的象征意义从而大大增强了小说的表现力和感染力使它读起来义蕴深长耐人寻味深受读者喜爱。■【参考文献】AndlyofAmedcanLi胁mre(secorldEdidon)(VolmeII)z.NewYork:Macmiu柚Pub‰gcoInc.陈新.英美名家短篇小说精品赏析M.北京:中国时外翻译出版公司李正桂李翠亭.英国文学学习指南z.北京:清华大学出版社张世君.欧蔓小说模式M.广西:广西教育出版社霍恩比(著)。李北迭(译)牛津高阶英汉双解词典(第四版)z北京:商务印书馆封教.英文字椎字典z.北京:外文出版社李慎廉英语姓名词典z.北京:外语教学与研究出版社.昊衡康.牛津当代百科大词典z.北京:中国人民太学出版社.【收稿日期【责任编辑】吴庆丰】万方数据

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