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首页 美国海军陆战队的格斗教材 Us Marine Corps - Martial Arts

美国海军陆战队的格斗教材 Us Marine Corps - Martial Arts.pdf

美国海军陆战队的格斗教材 Us Marine Corps - …

静待花开
2009-04-02 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《美国海军陆战队的格斗教材 Us Marine Corps - Martial Artspdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

MCRPBMarineCorpsMartialArtsUSMarineCorpsFebruaryDEPARTMENTOFTHENAVYHeadquartersUnitedStatesMarineCorpsWashington,DCFebruaryFOREWORDPURPOSEToday’sMarinesoperatewithinacontinuumofforcewhereconflictmaychangefromlowintensitytohighintensityoveramatterofhoursMarinesarealsoengagedinmanymilitaryoperationsotherthanwar,suchaspeacekeepingmissionsornoncombatantevacuationoperations,wheredeadlyforcemaynotbeauthorizedDuringnoncombativeengagements,MarinesmustdetermineifasituationwarrantsapplyingdeadlyforceSometimesMarinesmustdecideinamatterofsecondsbecausetheirlivesorthelivesofothersdependontheiractionsTomaketherightdecision,MarinesmustunderstandboththelethalandnonlethalclosecombattechniquesneededtohandlethesituationresponsiblywithoutescalatingtheviolenceunnecessarilyMarineCorpsReferencePublication(MCRP)B,CloseCombat,providesthetactics,techniques,andproceduresofMarineCorpsclosecombatItalsoprovidesthedoctrinalbasisfortheMarineCorpsCloseCombatTrainingProgram(MCCCTP)SCOPEThispublicationguidesindividualMarines,unitleaders,andclosecombatinstructorsinthepropertactics,techniques,andproceduresforclosecombatMCRPBisnotintendedtoreplacesupervisionbyappropriateunitleadersandclosecombatinstructionbyqualifiedinstructorsItsroleistoensurestandardizationandexecutionoftactics,techniques,andproceduresthroughouttheMarineCorpsSUPERSESSIONMCRPBsupersedesFleetMarineForceManual(FMFM),CloseCombat,datedJulyTherearesignificantdifferencesbetweenthetwopublicationsMCRPBshouldbereviewedinitsentiretyWARNINGTechniquesdescribedinthispublicationcancauseseriousinjuryordeathPracticalapplicationinthetrainingofthesetechniqueswillbeconductedinstrictaccordancewithapprovedEntryLevelCloseCombat,CloseCombatInstructor(CCI),andCloseCombatInstructorTrainer(CCIT)lessonplansWhereseriousdangerexists,thereaderisalertedbythefollowing:CERTIFICATIONReviewedandapprovedthisdateBYDIRECTIONOFTHECOMMANDANTOFTHEMARINECORPSDISTRIBUTION:WARNINGJERHODESLieutenantGeneral,USMarineCorpsCommandingGeneralMarineCorpsCombatDevelopmentCommandOVERVIEWOFCLOSECOMBATPurposeofCloseCombatClosecombatisthephysicalconfrontationbetweentwoormoreopponentsItinvolvesarmedandunarmedandlethalandnonlethalfightingtechniquesthatrangefromenforcedcompliancetodeadlyforceThepurposeofclosecombatistoexecutearmedandunarmedtechniquestoproducebothlethalandnonlethalresultsUnarmedtechniquesincludehandtohandcombatanddefenseagainsthandheldweaponsArmedtechniquesincludetechniquesappliedwitharifle,bayonet,knife,baton,oranyweaponofopportunityContinuumofForceMarineswillfindthemselvesinbothcombativeandnoncombativesituationsThethreatlevelinthesesituationscanriseandfallseveraltimesbasedontheactionsofbothMarinesandthepeopleinvolvedTheescalationofforcestopswhenonepersoncomplieswiththedemandsimposedbyanotherpersonThisrangeofactionsisknownasacontinuumofforceContinuumofforceistheconceptthatthereisawiderangeofpossibleactions,rangingfromvoicecommandstoapplicationofdeadlyforce,thatmaybeusedtogainandmaintaincontrolofapotentiallydangeroussituation(MCO,ArmingofSecurityandLawEnforcementLEPersonnelandtheUseofForce)ContinuumofforceconsistsoffivelevelsthatcorrespondtothebehaviorofthepeopleinvolvedandtheactionsMarinesusetohandlethesituation(seethetablebelow)Closecombattechniquesareexecutedinlevelsthree,four,andfiveLevelOne:Compliant(Cooperative)ThesubjectcomplieswithverbalcommandsClosecombattechniquesdonotapplyLevelTwo:Resistant(Passive)ThesubjectresistsverbalcommandsbutcompliesimmediatelytoanycontactcontrolsClosecombattechniquesdonotapplyContinuumofForceLevelDescriptionActionsCompliant(Cooperative)VerbalcommandsResistant(Passive)ContactcontrolsResistant(Active)CompliancetechniquesAssaultive(BodilyHarm)DefensivetacticsAssaultive(SeriousBodilyHarmDeath)DeadlyforceNote:ShadingindicateslevelsinwhichMarinesuseclosecombattechniquesviMCRPBLevelThree:Resistant(Active)ThesubjectinitiallydemonstratesphysicalresistanceMarinesusecompliancetechniquestocontrolthesituationLevelthreeincorporatesclosecombattechniquestophysicallyforceasubjecttocomplyTechniquesincludelComealongholdslSofthandedstunningblowslPaincompliancethroughjointmanipulationandtheuseofpressurepointsLevelFour:Assaultive(BodilyHarm)ThesubjectmayphysicallyattackMarines,buthedoesnotuseaweaponMarinesusedefensivetacticstoneutralizethethreatDefensivetacticsincludethefollowingclosecombattechniques:lBlockslStrikeslKickslEnhancedpaincomplianceprocedureslNightstickblocksandblowsLevelFive:Assaultive(SeriousBodilyHarmDeath)ThesubjectusuallyhasaweaponandwilleitherkillorseriouslyinjuresomeoneifheisnotstoppedimmediatelyandbroughtundercontrolTypically,tocontrolthesubject,Marinesapplydeadlyforcethroughtheuseofafirearm,buttheymayalsousearmedandunarmedclosecombattechniquesMarineCorpsTacticalConceptsClosecombattechniquessupportthefollowingkeyMarineCorpstacticalconceptsTheconceptsarenotstandaloneideasbutaretobecombinedtoachieveaneffectthatisgreaterthantheirseparatesumAchievingaDecisionAchievingadecisionisimportantinclosecombatAnindecisivefightwastesenergyandpossiblyMarines’livesWhethertheintentistocontrolanopponentthroughrestraintordefendthemselvesinwar,MarinesmusthaveaclearpurposebeforeengaginginclosecombatandactdecisivelyonceengagedGaininganAdvantageAbasicprincipleofmartialartsistousetheopponent’sstrengthandmomentumagainsthimtogainmoreleveragethanone’sownmusclesalonecangenerate,therebygaininganadvantageInclosecombat,MarinesmustexploiteveryadvantageoveranopponenttoensureasuccessfuloutcomeThiscanincludeemployingvariousweaponsandclosecombattechniquesthatwillpresentadilemmatoanopponentAchievingsurprisecanalsogreatlyincreaseleverageMarinestrytoachievesurprisethroughdeception,stealth,andambiguitySpeedMarinesusespeedtogaintheinitiativeandadvantageovertheenemyInclosecombat,thespeedandviolenceoftheattackagainstanopponentprovidesMarineswithadistinctadvantageMarinesmustknowandunderstandthebasicsofclosecombatsotheycanactinstinctivelywithspeedtoexecuteclosecombattechniquesAdaptingClosecombatcanbecharacterizedbyfriction,uncertainty,disorder,andrapidchangeEachsituationisauniquecombinationofshiftingfactorsthatcannotbecontrolledwithprecisionorcertaintyForexample,acrowdcontrolmissionmaycallforMarinestoemployvarioustechniquesrangingfromnonlethalrestrainttomoreforcefulapplicationsMarineswhoadaptquicklywillhaveasignificantadvantageCloseCombatviiExploitingSuccessTypically,anenemywillnotnormallysurrendersimplybecausehewasplacedatadisadvantageMarinescannotbesatisfiedwithgaininganadvantageinaclosecombatsituationTheymustexploitanyadvantageaggressivelyandruthlesslyuntilanopportunityarisestocompletelydominatetheopponentMarinesmustexploitsuccessbyusingeveryadvantagethatcanbegained(reverseblank)CloseCombatTableofContentsPageOverviewofCloseCombatChapterFundamentalsofCloseCombatRangesofCloseCombatWeaponsoftheBodyTargetAreasoftheBodyPressurePointsoftheBodyBasicWarriorStanceAnglesofApproachandMovementBalanceandOffBalancingFallsChapterLethalandNonlethalWeaponsTechniquesBayonetTechniquesNonlethalRifleandShotgunRetentionTechniquesNonlethalHandgunRetentionTechniquesFirearmDisarmamentTechniquesChapterHandHeldWeaponsFundamentalsofKnifeFightingKnifeFightingTechniquesWeaponsofOpportunityFundamentalsofCombativeStickCombativeStickTechniquesBlockingTechniquesUnarmedAgainstHandHeldWeaponsCounterstoHandHeldWeaponAttacksChapterStrikesPrinciplesofPunchesPunchesStrikeswiththeUpperBodyStrikeswiththeLowerBodyCounterstoStrikesCloseCombativPageChapterThrowsTurningThrowHipThrowLegSweepChapterChokesandHoldsTypesofChokesChokesCounterstoChokesandHoldsChapterGroundFightingOffensiveGroundFightingDefensiveGroundFightingGroundFightingChokesChapterNonlethalTechniquesUnarmedRestraintsandManipulationNonlethalBatonAppendicesAPugilStickTrainingABSafetyPrecautionsDuringTrainingBCHAPTERFUNDAMENTALSOFCLOSECOMBATThischapterdescribesalltechniquesforarighthandedpersonHowever,alltechniquescanbeexecutedfromeithersideTheMarineisdepictedincamouflageutilitiesTheopponentisdepictedwithoutcamouflageThefundamentalsofclosecombatincluderanges,weaponsofthebody,targetareasofthebody,andpressurepointsofthebodyThesefundamentalsformthebasisforallclosecombattechniquesTheyprovideMarineswithacommonframeworkregardlessofthetypeofconfrontationorthetechniquesusedIfMarinesapplythesefundamentalsproperlyinaclosecombatsituation,theymaysavetheirlivesorthelivesoffellowMarinesRangesofCloseCombatClosecombatengagementsoccurwithinthreeranges:longrange,midrange,andcloserangeDuringanyengagement,theserangesmayblurtogetherormayrapidlytransitionfromonetoanotheruntileithertheopponentisdefeatedortheconflictisresolvedLongRangeDuringlongrangeengagements,combatantsengageeachotherwithrifles,bayonets,sticks,orentrenchingtoolsSeefigurebelowMCRPBMidrangeDuringmidrangeengagements,combatantsengageeachotherwithknives,punches,orkicksCloseRangeDuringcloserangeengagements,combatantsgrabeachotherCloserangeengagementsalsoinvolveelbowstrikes,kneestrikes,andgrapplingWeaponsoftheBodyHandsandArmsThehands,forearms,andelbowsarethearm’sindividualweaponsThehandsconsistofseveralareasthatcanbeusedasweapons:fists,edgesofhands,palms,andfingersFistsTominimizeinjurytothefists,MarinesusetheirfistsasweaponstotargetsofttissueareassuchasthethroatThefists’strikingsurfacesarethefirsttwoknucklesofthehandsorthemeatyportionsofthehandsbelowthelittlefingersEdgeofHandMarinesusetheedgeofthehand(knifeedge)asaweaponMarinesusetheedgeofthehandtostrikesofttissueareasPalmsBecauseofthepalm’spadding,Marinesusetheheelsofthepalmstostrike,parry,andorblockFingersMarinesusethefingerstogouge,rip,andtearsofttissueareas(eg,eyes,throat,groin)ForearmsMarinesusetheforearmsasadefensivetooltodeflectorblockattacksForearmscanalsobeusedasstrikingweaponstodamageorbreakanopponent’sjointsandlimbsMarinessustainlessselfinjurywhenstrikesareconductedCloseCombatwiththeforearmsthanwhenstrikesareconductedwithfistsandfingersElbowsMarinesusetheelbowsasstrikingweaponsBecauseoftheshortdistanceneededtogeneratepower,elbowsareexcellentweaponsforstrikingduringthecloserangeofclosecombatLegsThelegsaremorepowerfulthananyotherweaponofthebody,andtheyarelesspronetoinjurywhenstrikingThefeetareprotectedbybootsandarethepreferredchoiceforstrikingFeetMarinesusetheballsofthefeet,theinsteps,andthetoestokickanopponentMarinesusethecuttingedgeoftheheelsandtheheelstostomponanopponentMarinesmustbewearingbootswhenstrikingwiththetoesKneesLikeelbows,kneesareexcellentweaponsinthecloserangeofclosecombatKneestrikesaremosteffectivewhilefightingclosetoanopponentwherekicksareimpracticalTheopponent’sgroinareaisanidealtargetforthekneestrikeifheisstandinguprightKneestrikescandeliveradevastatingsecondaryattacktoanopponent’sfacefollowinganinitialattackthatcausedhimtobendatthewaistTargetAreasoftheBodyDuringclosecombat,Marinesstrivetoattacktheaccessibletargetareasofanopponent’sbodyThereadilyaccessibleareaswillvarywitheachsituationandthroughouttheengagementThetargetareasaredividedintofivemajorgroups:head,neck,torso,groin,andextremitiesThefigurebelowillustratestargetareasofthebodyHeadThevulnerableregionsoftheheadaretheeyes,temple,nose,ears,andjawMassivedamagetotheheadkillsanopponentEyesTheeyesareexcellenttargetsbecausetheyaresofttissueareasthatarenotprotectedbyboneormuscleAttackstothisareamaycausetheopponenttoprotecttheareawithhishands,allowingMarinestoexecuteasecondaryattacktootherExtremitiesExtremitiesJawTempleEarsCarotidSinusGroinRibsSolarPlexusEyesNoseClavicleCervicalVertebraeKidneysMCRPBtargetareaswhiletheopponentuseshishandstoprotecthiseyesTempleThetempleisoneofthemostfragileareasoftheheadPowerfulstrikestotheopponent’stemplecausepermanentdamageanddeathNoseThenoseisverysensitiveandeasilybrokenAnattacktothisareacausesinvoluntarywateringandclosingoftheopponent’seyes,renderinghimvulnerabletosecondaryattacksHowever,throughtraining,individualscanconditionthemselvestowithstandattackstothenoseTherefore,anyattacktothenosemustbepowerfullydeliveredEarsAttackstotheearsmaycausetheeardrumtoruptureButthismaynotstoporevendistractanopponentunlessMarinespowerfullydeliverthestrikeJawThejawregion,whenstruckforcefully,renderstheopponentunconsciousStrikestothejawcausepainfulinjuriestotheteethandsurroundingtissues(eg,lips,tongue),buttheriskofselfinjuryisgreatunlessMarinesdeliverstrikeswithahardobjectsuchasahelmet,riflebutt,orbootheelNeckThefrontoftheneck,orthroatarea,isasofttissueareathatisnotcoveredbynaturalprotectionDamagetothisregioncausestheopponent’stracheatoswell,closinghisairway,whichcanleadtodeathCarotidSinusThecarotidsinusislocatedonbothsidesoftheneckjustbelowthejawStrikestothecarotidsinusrestrictbloodflowtothebrain,causinglossofconsciousnessordeathCervicalVertebraeThecervicalvertebraeonthebackoftheneck,fromthebaseoftheskulltothetopoftheshoulders,containsthespinalcord,whichisthenervoussystem’slinktothebrainTheweightoftheheadandthelackoflargemusclemassallowdamagetothecervicalvertebraeandspinalcordExcessivedamagetothisareacausespain,paralysis,ordeathTorsoClavicleTheopponent’sclavicle(orcollarbone)canbeeasilyfractured,causingimmobilizationofthearmSolarPlexusAttackstotheopponent’ssolarplexusorcenterofthechestcanknockthebreathoutofhimandimmobilizehimRibsDamagetotheopponent’sribsimmobilizeshimItmayalsocauseinternaltraumaKidneysPowerfulattackstotheopponent’skidneyscauseimmobilization,permanentdamage,ordeathGroinThegroinareaisanothersofttissueareanotcoveredbynaturalprotectionAnydamagetothisareacausestheopponenttoinvoluntarilyprotecthisinjuredarea,usuallywithhishandsorlegsInmaleopponents,thescrotumisthemaintargetsinceevenanearmisscausesseverepain,contractionofthelowerabdominalmuscles,deteriorationofhisstance,andpossibleinternaltraumaExtremitiesRarelywillanattacktotheopponent’sextremities(armsandlegs)causedeath,buttheyareimportanttargetareasinclosecombatDamagetoanopponent’sjointscausesimmobilizationPressurePointsoftheBodyTherearenervesinthehumanbodythat,whenpressureisappliedorwhentheyarestruck,allowMarinestocontrolasubjectthroughpaincomplianceMarinesusepressurepointstocontrolanopponentwhendeadlyforceisnotauthorizedTheyalsousepressurepointstosoftenordistractanopponentsoalethalornonlethaltechniquecanbeemployedThefigureonpageillustratesCloseCombatthebody’spressurepointsMarinesexecuteattackstopressurepointsbylRapidlykickingorstrikingpressurepointslSlowlyapplyingsteadypressuretopressurepointsInfraorbitalNerveTheinfraorbitalnerveisjustbelowthenoseMarinesapplypressuretothisnervewithanindexfingertocontroltheopponentMastoidProcessThemastoidprocessisbehindthebaseoftheearandbeneaththeedgeofthejawMarinesapplyinwardandupwardpressuretothispressurepointwiththefingerstodistractandcontroltheopponentJugularNotchThejugularnotchisatthebaseoftheneckinthenotchformedatthecenteroftheclavicleMarinesapplypressureinaquick,stabbingmotionwiththeindexfingerStrikestothejugularnotchcauseseriousdamageBrachialPlexus(TieIn)Thebrachialplexus(tiein)isonthefrontoftheshoulderatthejointStrikesandpressureappliedwiththehandareeffectiveonthisnerveRadialNervesRadialnervesareontheinsideoftheforearmsalongtheradiusbonesStrikesandpressureappliedwiththehandtotheradialnerveserveasasofteningtechniqueMCRPBUlnarNerveUlnarnervesareontheoutsideoftheforearmsalongtheulnarbonesStrikesandpressureappliedwiththehandtotheulnarnerveserveasasofteningtechniquePressurePointontheHandThehandscontainapressurepointonthewebbingbetweenthethumbsandindexfingerswheret

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