加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 雅斯貝爾斯《大學之理念》(英文版)

雅斯貝爾斯《大學之理念》(英文版)

雅斯貝爾斯《大學之理念》(英文版)

seasky
2009-03-31 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《雅斯貝爾斯《大學之理念》(英文版)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

JiJaspersTheideaoftheuniversityJiOJaspers$*TheideaoftheuniversityKANSASCITY,MOPUBLICLIBRARYDSHSTHEIDEAOFTHEUNIVERSITYSEEDSOFTHOUGHTSERIESeditedbyKarlWDeutschRelativityARicherTruth,byPhilippFrank,withaforewordbyAlbertEinsteinTheIdeaoftheUniversity,byKarlJaspersTragedyIsNotEnough,byKarlJaspersGermanHistory:SomeNewGermanViews,editedbyHansKohnFreedomIstheRighttoChoose,byArchibaldMacLeishTheStateVersusSocrates,editedwithanintroductionbyJohnDMontgomeryTheDrivingPowerofWesternCivilization,byEugenRosenstockHuessyalsoeditedbyKarlWDeutsch(withHTMoore)TheHumanProspect,byLewisMumfordTHEIDEAOFTHEUNIVERSITYByKarlJaspersEditedbyKarlWDeutschPrefacebyRobertUlichTranslatedbyHATReicheandHFVanderschmidtBeaconPressBeaconHillBostonbytheBeaconPressLibraryofCongresscatalogcardnumber:PrintedinUnitedStatesofAmericaThisbookwaspreviouslypublishedinGermanunderthetitle,DieIdeederUniversffitToKARLHEINRICHBAUERProfessorofSurgeryPresidentofHeidelbergUniversityandinchargeofitsreconstructionInFriendshipandGratitudeBiographicalNoteKarlJasperswasborninOldenburg,GermanyinEquallyoutstandingasanauthorityonphilosophy,psychiatry,andliterature,heisperhapsbestknownasanexponentofExistentialismOneofthegreatestfiguresinGermanuniversitylife,hetaughtphilosophyattheUniversityofHeidelbergfromuntilhissuspensionbytheNazisinHerefusedtosupportHitlerandcontinuedtostandbyhisrefusalwithinGermanythroughouttheNaziregimeSparedfromscheduleddeportationbytheentryoftheUSArmy,hewasreinstatedinasUniversityPresidentandelectedHonorarySenatoroftheUniversityinSincehehasbeenProfessorofPhilosophyattheUniversityofBasel,SwitzerlandAmonghisotherworksare:PsychologiederWeltanschauungen()DiegeistigeSituationderZeit()(translatedasManintheModernAge}:,Existenzphilosophie()DieSchuldfrage:einBeitragzurdeutschenFrage()(translatedasTheQuestionofGermanGuilt)andDerPhilosophischeGlaube()(translatedasThePerennialScopeofPhilosophy}Amajorwork,VonderWahrheit()stillawaitstranslationAsectionofthisworkhasbeentranslatedasTragedyIsNotEnoughContentsEditor'sNote:Jaspers*ChallengetotheUniversitiesixPrefacebyRobertUlich:OnJaspers'PhilosophyofExistenceandEducationxvINTRODUCTIONPARTi:TheIntellectualLifeCHAPTERi:TheNatureofScienceandScholarshipBasicCharacteristicsofScienceandScholarship,TheNarrowerandtheWiderConceptofScience,TheLimitsofScience,ScienceasUtilitarianversusScienceasanEndinItself,TheBasicAssumptionsofScience,ScienceNeedsDirection,ScienceasthePresuppositionofTruthfulness,ScienceandPhilosophy,CHAPTER:Spirit,HumanExistence^ReasonCHAPTER:CulturePAUTn:TheObjectivesoftheUniversityCHAPTER:Research,EducationandInstructionResearch,EducationasFormationoftheMind,Instruction,CHAPTER:CommunicationDebateandDiscussion,TheFormationof"SchoolsofThought"asanInstanceofIntellectualCooperation,TheUniversityastheMeetingPlaceofDifferentDisciplinesandWorldOutlooks,CHAPTER:TheUniversityasanInstitutionTheFailureoftheInstitutiontoLiveUptotheIdeaoftheUniversity,TheNecessityforInstitutions,TheRoleofPersonalitywithintheFormalStructureoftheUniversity,viiVUTABLEOFCONTENTSCHAPTER:TheCosmosofKnowledgeTheClassificationofKnowledge,AcademicDepartments,TheExpansionoftheUniversity,PARTin:TheRequisitesfortheExistenceoftheUniversityCHAPTER:TheHumanFactorTypesofAptitude,TheDistributionofAptitudesandtheCharacteristicsoftheMasses,TheProcessofSelection,CHAPTER:StateandSocietyTheUniversityasaStatewithintheState,ChangesintheUniversityinaChangingWorld,TheMeaningofGovernmentSupervision,ThePrincipleofanIntellectualAristocracy,TheSearchforTruthandItsRelationtoPolitics,TheUniversityandtheNation,Editor'sNoteKarlJaspers'TheIdeaoftheUniversitywaswrittenattheendofHitler'sdictatorshipandthedefeatofGermanyinWorldWarII,aftertheworstoutwardandinnercatastrophieshadbefallentheGermanuniversitiesTheoutwarddestructionwasevidentintherubbleoftheGermancitiesTheinnerdevastationwaslessmanifestbutworseItwasthememoryofthethousandsofstudentswhohadforsakenthebooksofKantfortheloudspeakersofGoebbelsandthejackbootsoftheeliteguardstheprofessorswhohadeagerlybelievedthenationalisticandracialpropaganda,forsakingtheirstandardsofcriticalthinkingandthoseotherprofessorswho,whilenotbelievingthedoctrinesoftheThirdReich,yetfounditprudenttopretendbelief,andnotdeceived,yetaidedthedeceiversAmidstthismoralruin,aminorityofGermanstudentsandteachersheldfirmtotheircommitmentstohonestyandindependentthoughtManyofthempaidforthiscommitmentwiththeirlives,orwithyearsinconcentrationcampsorexileStillothers,likeKarlJaspers,livedinGermany,nominallyfreebutbarredfromteaching,andinconstantdangerThesestudentsandprofessorspreservedandredeemedthehonoroftheGermanuniversitiesinoneofthemostterribleperiodsoftestingthatanycommunityofstudentsandscholarseverhadtomeetKarlJaspers,weknow,wasoneofthesepeopleButhedidmoreHewasoneofthefirstafterthecollapseofthenightmareempireoftheNazistocafltoreconstructiontotherebuildingoftheGermanuniversitiesfromtheirfoundationsHeofferedaphilosopher'ssearchforthedeepestrootsandtheinnermostcoreofthosestrangehumanenterprisesthatwecalluniversitiesinthetraditionoftheWesternWorldInsodoing,heshowedinabriefsamplethecontinuingvitalXTHEIDEAOFTHEUNIVERSITYityandgreatnessoftheGermanphilosophictradition:hewroteapamphletforhistimeandplace,theshatteredGermanyof,andatthesametimeadeepprobingstatementformanytimesandmanyplacesHisviewshaveacontributiontooffertoourownunendingAmericandebateaboutthenatureandfunctionofhighereducationinthiscountryWearecommittedinthiscountrytomakehighereducationavailableultimatelytoallofourpeoplecapabletobenefitfromitButinmovingtowardthisgoalwemustbeconcernedthatthishighereducationshouldnotbecomedilutedordebasedintheprocessMorethanever,wemusttrytopreserveandstrengthenitsessentialsandwehavereasontoattendtoaphilosopher'sadviceastowhattheseessentialsareIfwethuslistentoJaspers,wemaysometimesfindourselvessurprisedSomeofhisideasmayshockus,orstrikeusasimpracticalorworseYeteventhosemostatvariancewiththepracticesatmanyofourownuniversitiesmaydeserveathoughtfulhearingJaspersbelievesthatinanytrueuniversitythreethingsacademicteaching,scientificandscholarlyresearch,andcreativeculturallifeareindissolublylinkedtoeachotherandthateachoftheseactivitieswillwitheranddeclineinthelongrunifseparatedfromtheothersThustoJaspers,anincreaseinthenumbersoffulltimeresearchmenandfulltimeteachersatauniversitywouldbringforebodingsofintellectualdeclineandheinsiststhatnomanwhoisnothimselfcarryingonresearchcantrulyteachandeducatestudentsatauniversityInhisphilosophy,JaspershasbeenanuncompromisingenemyoffascismandcommunismWhilerefusinganyintellectualconcessionstotheadversariesoffreedom,heinsistsoncontinuingcommunicationattheleveloftheuniversitywithoutanypoliticalorideologicalcurtainsNotoutofanynaiveignoranceofpoliticalreality,butduetofirsthandexXiTHEIDEAOFTHEUNIVERSITYperienceoftwelveyearsunderatotalitariantyranny,Jaspersbelievesthatauniversitymustremaincommittedtosuchfreeintellectualcommunication,andhencethatintoitscommunityitshouldevenadmitpeoplewhohavemadewhatiscalledthesacrificiodelinteUetto(thesacrificeoftheintellect):eventhosewhowouldbeintolerantiftheycouldTheuniversityfeelsconfidentthatitcanaffordtodosoItwantstolivedynamically,notstaticallyInitswilltocommunicateitseekstoassociateevenwiththosewhoresistcommunicationItwouldbecontrarytotheideaoftheuniversitytodenyadmissiontoamanofintellectualrankwhoshowsproofofintellectualachievementandworksinascholarlywayevenifhisscholarshipultimatelyservesanalieninterestHecarefullyqualifieshispoint:Thedemandthateveryworldoutlookberepresentedattheuniversity,forexampleinphilosophy,history,sociologyandpoliticalscience,isjustasunsuitedtotheideaoftheuniversityIfagivenworldoutlookfailstoproducescholarsofthefirstrank,thenthisoutlookhasnoclaimtoscientificstatusTheindividualcertainlypreferslivingtogetherwiththosewhosharehisideasAslongasheacknowledgestheideaoftheuniversityandhasavoiceintheselectionofcandidatesforadmission,however,hewillbeinclinedtodrawthemostdiverseviewpointsintotheuniversityHedoesthisinordertocreateopportunitiesforfruitfulconflicttobroadentheintellectualrangeatwhateverriskaboveall,toallowscholarlyachievementandintellectualqualityalonetobethedecisivefactorsTheuniversitynotonlytoleratesbutdemandsthatpersonswhoopposeitsaimsbeadmittedtoitSolongasthesepeoplearecontenttostateanddiscusstheirparticularbeliefsandauthoritieswithintheuniversity,solongastheyallowtheirbeliefstobeanimpulsefortheirresearch,theyareusefultotheuniversityButiftheyseektodominatetheuniversitywiththesebeliefs,ifintheselectionofcandidatesfortheuniversitytheyarepartialtofellowbelievers,iftheyreplaceintellectualXiiTHEIDEAOFTHEUNIVERSITYfreedombypropheticpropaganda,thentheycomeintothesharpestofconflictwiththerestoftheuniversitywhichaimstoupholdtheidealoftheuniversityItiseasytothinkofargumentsagainsttheseviewsSuchcounterargumentswillseemstrongestagainstthebackgroundofsomecurrentemergencyorcrisis,somewarornearwarsituation,wherealllongrangeprinciplesseemovershadowedbytheneedforexpediencyinmeetingthedangerofthemomentYet,ascrisisfollowsuponcrisis,ourmindsandinstitutionswillrequirelongerviewsanddeeperthoughtsInaworldofmanyandlonglastingemergencieswestillmustthinkaboutourhighereducationnotonlyintermsoftheneedofthepresentandtheshortrunfuture,butalsointermsofthelongrunfutureasitseemsilluminatedbytheexperiencesofthelongrunpastNototalitariandictatorshiphaslastedforthreegenerations,buttheinstitutionoftherelativelyfreeuniversitiesoftheWesternWorldhasenduredbynowforalmostninehundredyears,witharecordofalmostunparalleledvitalityandgrowthIfwewishthisgrowthtocontinue,wemaywellaskwhathasbeenitssecretandKarlJaspers'attemptataphilosophicanswermaywellberelevanttosomeofthedecisionsthatfaceallofus,citizens,students,andteachers,hereandnowThepresenttranslationincludesalloftheGermanbook,exceptforthelastpartoftheninthchapterandthewholeofthetenthTheomittedpassages,correspondingtopages,oftheoriginal,refertoconditionsspecifictoGermanyortotheimmediatepostwarsituationof,andarenotdirectlyrelevanttoAmericanconditionsAbriefdiscussionofJaspers'approach,byaphilosopherofeducationthoroughlyfamiliarwithconditionsintheUnitedStates,willbefoundimmediatelyfollowinginthe"Preface"byProfessorRobertUlichFurthernotesonJaspers,abibliographyofhiswritingsto,andadiscussionbyProfessorHaraldATReiche,ofXiiiTHEIDEAOFTHEUNIVERSITYJaspers'styleandtheproblemsofitstranslationintoEnglish,arecontainedinanothersmallvolumeofJaspers'writings,TragedyIsNotEnough,inthissame"SeedsofThought**seriesandpublishedbytheBeaconPressYaleUniversityKAKLwDEUTSGHPrefaceKarlJaspers,togetherwithMartinHeidegger,isGermany'sleadingrepresentativeof"existentialism"Certainly,amanofhisceaselesslyinquiringmindisindifferenttofindingMsideasandreputationaffixedwithafashionablelabel,particularlyifthatlabelisusedtodenotesomanyvarietiesofphilosophicalthoughtthatitisoftenmoreconfusingthanclarifyingStill,hehimselfchosethetitleExistenzphilosophie:ThreeLectures(WalterdeGruyter,)foroneofhisbestknownpublicationsAtatimewhenGermanacademicphilosophywasprimarilyinterestedinthehighlytechnicalsubtletiesof"NeoKantianism'Jaspersbecameprofoundlyconcernedwithanissuefarmorecomprehensivethanmeretheoryofknowledge(thoughbynomeansunrelatedtoit),namelythatofthehumanbeingandhisultimaterelationtohimselfandtheuniverse"WhatiscalledPhilosophyofExistence"hesaysinhisabovementionedlectures"isbutanewformoftheoneandperennialphilosophy"Thefactthat'existence'hasnowbecomeawordofcentralsignificanceisnotmerelyaccidentalForitemphasizesthealmostforgottenpurposeofphilosophy,namely,tointuitandcomprehendtheoriginandessenceofrealitybythemodeinwhich,asathinkingperson,andinakindofinwarddirectedaction,,IamconcernedwithunderstandingmyownindividualexistenceThisformofphilosophizingintendstofindawaybacktothatwhichreallyis,awayfromthemereknowingabouttheworld,awayfromthecustomaryfashionsofspeaking,fromconventionsandtheplayingofpartsawayfromallthatismereforegroundandsurfaceExistenceisoneoftheconceptswhichpointstowardreality,withtheaccentgivenitbyKierkegaardonlybyvirtueofbeingfullymyselfcanIgraspthetruthofreality"XViTHEIDEAOFTHEUNIVERSITYSeveralinfluencesledJasperstothisdepthofphilosophicalconcernInconsequenceofourmoderntendencytoenclosetheworkofscholarsintodepartmentalboxes,animpressiveandimportantfactinJaspers'careerhasremainedratherunknown,namelythatafterstudyingjurisprudenceandmedicinehebeganhisprofessionalcareerasapsychiatrist*HeistheauthorofoneofthebestknownGermantextbooksinthisfield(AllgemeinePsychopathologie)whichafterwentquicklythroughseveraleditionsandwasalsotranslatedintoFrenchThistrainingnotonlyenabledhiminhistreatiseonTheIdeaoftheUniversitytowritecompetentlyaboutthescientificresponsibilitiesofhighereducation,butalsoandperhapsmoreimportant,itsharpenedhisinsightintothetransphysicallayersofhumanexistencehencehisfrequentemphasisonthegreatness,yetalsothelimitationsofempiricalscienceAnothersourceofinfluencecamefromhisencounterwiththetwothinkerswho,probablymorethananyothers,duringthenineteenthcentury,hadaskedthemostradicalquestions(thoughfromtheoppositepointofview)aboutman'srelationshiptohimself,hiscivilization,hissociety,andtheUltimate:theDanishtheologian,SoerenKierkegaard,andtheGermanphilosopher,FriedrichNietzscheButtocharacterizeJaspers,oranyotheroriginalthinker,withreferencesolelytoinfluencesheunderwentduringtheformativephaseofhisphilosophywouldbepartialandonesidedForeverycreativemindnotonlytransformssuggestionsandinspirationsfromoutsideduringtheprocessofabsorption,howevergratefullyhemayacknowledgethem,buthealsoexpandshissearchtowarddirectionsinherentinhisown*JaspershimselfhaswrittenanintellectualautobiographytheEnglishtranslationofwhich,withthetitleOnMyPhilosophy,iscontainedinExistentialismfromDostoevskytoSartre,selectedandintroducedbyWalterKaufmann(NewYork:MeridianBooks,)and,evenmorerecently,thelengthyAutobiographyespeciallywrittenforthevolume,ThePhilosophyofKarlJaspers,theLibraryofLivingPhilosophers,edPSchilpp(NewYork:Tudor,)THEIDEAOFTHEUNIVERSITYworkandpersonalityThesheervolumeofwritingswhichJaspers,nowagedseventyfour,canlookbackuponisenormous,ranging(tomentiononlyhisphilosophicalinvestigations)allthewayfromstudiesofthepsychologicalbasesofthegreatsystemsofthoughttomodernepistemologicalproblems,andfromanalysesofindividualpersonalities,egNietzsche,tocomprehensivesynthesesdealingwiththemeaningofcivilizationsandofhumanhistoryasawholeWhoisbetterqualifiedtowriteontheideaandtheidealsofhighereducationthanamanofsuchintellectualbreadthItwouldbepreposteroustousethisintroductiontosummarizeforthereaderwhathewillbereadingforhimselfOnlytworemarksmaybeappropriatehereFirst,thoughinTheIdeaoftheUniversityJaspersdoesnotspeakexpresslyofexistentialphilosophy,theinformedreadersensestheexistentialistquestOnthefirstpagetheleitmotifofthewholebookisstated:theuniversityistheplacewheremanhasthefreedomtosearchfortruthandtoteachtruthindefianceofanyonewhowishestocurtailthisfreedomToparaphraseJaspers*definitionofexistentialphilosophy(givenabove),theuniversityisaplacewheremanmustbeallowedtofindhimselfthroughauthenticthinkingandliving,"awayfromthecustomarymodesofspeaking,fromconventionsandtheplayingofpartsawayfromallthatismereforegroundandsurface"Second,inemphasizingtheroleoftheuniversityasthecommunityoftheguardiansoftruth,JaspersalignshimselfwiththattraditionwhichhadaccountedforthegreatnessoftheGermanuniversityeversinceKantwrotehistreatiseonTheStrifeofFaculties(DerStreitderFakultaten,),andtihetheologianSchleiermacher,whosodeeplyinfluencedliberalreligioninEuropeandtheUnitedStates,wrotehisessayonthespiritoftheuniversity(GelegentlicheGedankenuberUniversitaten,)XVliiTHEIDEAOFTHEUNIVERSITYThoughGermanymayclaimthat,attheturnoftheeighteenthcentury,itwasthefirstoftheEuropeancountriestotakeseriouslythedemandforthefreedomofthoughtwhichSpinozahadraisedinhisTractatusTheologicoPoliticusof,itisbynomeansGermanyalonefromwhichgreatdocumentsontheidealfunctionoftheuniversityhaveissuedAfterthelongsuppressionofacademiclibertyinFranceundertheancientregime,therevolutionandNapoleon,twoFrenchauthors,VictorCousinandErnestRenan,bothinfluencedbyGermanthought,restoredthedignityofFrenchhighereducationaboutandafterthemiddleofthenineteenthcenturyInEngland,aboutthesametimeOxfordandCambridgewereawakeningfromalongandcomfortableslumber,CardinalNewmanwrotehisfamoustreatise

用户评价(2)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/34

雅斯貝爾斯《大學之理念》(英文版)

仅供在线阅读

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利