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首页 包弼德著:历史中的新儒家思想(英文原版)

包弼德著:历史中的新儒家思想(英文原版)

包弼德著:历史中的新儒家思想(英文原版)

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2009-03-30 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

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NeoConfucianisminHistoryHarvardEastAsianMonographsPublicationofthisbookwaspartiallyunderwrittenbytheMrandMrsStephenCMKingPublishingandCommunicationsFund,establishedbyStephenCMKingtofurtherthecauseofinternationalunderstand­ingandcooperation,especiallybetweenChinaandtheUnitedStates,byenhancingcrossculturaleducationandtheexchangeofideasacrossna­tionalboundariesthroughpublicationsoftheHarvardUniversityAsiaCenterNeoConucianisminHistoryPeterIZBolPublishedbytheHarvardUniversityAsiaCenterDistributedbyIfarvarclUniversityPressCambridge(Massachusetts)andLondon©bythePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegePrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaTheHarvardUniversityAsiaCenterpublishesamonographseriesand,incoordinationwiththeFairbankCenterforChineseStudies,theKoreaInstitute,theReischauerInstituteofJapaneseStudies,andotherfacultiesandinstitutes,administersresearchprojectsdesignedtofurtherschol­arlyunderstandingofChina,Japan,Vietnam,Korea,andotherAsiancountriesTheCenteralsosponsorsprojectsaddressingmultidisciplinaryandregionalissuesinAsiaLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataBol,PeterKeesNeoConfucianisminhistoryPeterKBolpcm(HarvardEastAsianmonographs)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(akpaper)INeoConfucianismITitleBNB'IIdcIndexbytheauthorPrintedonacidfreepaperLastfigurebelowindicatesyearofthisprintingIIIFrontispiece:XuQian(),knownasMasterBaiyun,establishedtheBahuaAcademyinthemountainsofDongyangCounty(Zhejiang)toteachZhuXi'slearningTodaytheacademyisareligioussiteandXuisworshippedasagodwhowill"respondtoanysupplication"AbovethealtarhangtwolateMingplaques,reading"LeadingProgenitoroftheLearningoftheWay"and"HisHonorXuBaiyun"Photographbytheauthor,AprilforKeesandMargaretBolandSatomiMatsumuraandChristopherBolAcknowledgmentsIdeasforthisbookweredevelopedfirstaspartofapaperfortheACLSConferenceontheSongYuanMingTransition,publishedas"NeoConfucianismandLocalSociety,TwelfthtoSixteenthCentury,"inTheSongYuanMingTransitioninChineseHistory,editedbyPaulJakovSmithandRichardvonGlahn(Cambridge:HarvardUniversityAsiaCenter,),Earlyversionsofsomeoftheargumentappearedin"NeoConfucianismandChineseHistory,"ChineseHistoryChiigokushigaku():andin"Shierzhishiliushijidewenhua,shehuijilixue"£ri!!:�agXt,�ltJ!�,Zhongguowen­zheyaf!Jiutongxun'fiiiXtlflffti!'Mt():Iamgratefultotheparticipantsintheseveralcolloquiaatwhichpartsofthisbookwerepresented:asaSpeciallyInvitedVisitingScholaroftheInstituteofChineseLiteratureandPhilosophyatAca­demiaSinicainspring,theTompkinsLecturesofDepartmentofEastAsianLanguagesandCulturesoftheUniversityofCaliforniaatBerkeleyinspring,theNewHistoryLecturesattheInstituteofHistoryandPhilologyatAcademiaSinicainspring,theDepart­mentofHistoryattheChineseUniversityofHongKonginspring,theHistoriansatHarvardfacultyseminarintheDepartmentofHistoryatHarvardinspring,theTangJunyiLectureattheUni­versityofMichiganinspring,theHarvardChinaHumanities•••AcknowledgmentsvllSeminarinfall,andatvariousmeetingsoftheColumbiaSeminarinNeoConfucianStudiesIthanktheChiangChingkuoFoundationforaSeniorScholar'sGrantduringthespringofMyparticularthankstoChuPingtzu,KimYoungmin,andOngChangWoeiforreadingandcommentingonthemanuscriptTheirdis­sertations,andthoseofChenWenyi,HildeDeWeerdt,PeterDitman­son,RobertFoster,AnneGerritsen,MinByounghee,DouglasSkonicki,SongJaeyoon,andCurieViraghavecontributedtomythinkingaboutNeoConfucianismDetailedreportsfromRobertHymesandananonymousreaderwereinvaluableinrevisingthemanuscriptIhavebeenveryfortunatetobeinadepartmentofexceptionalcol­leaguesandstudents,whoovertheyearshavebroadenedmyviewofChinaanditshistoryButIhavealsobenefitedfromhavingmorewonderfulteachersthananyonehasarighttoexpectIthankVirginiaPZimmermanforgettingmetothinkabouttheworldbeyondtheUnitedStates,HenryNDrewryforshowingmehowinterestingthestudyofhistorycouldbe,AisinGioroYiiyiinfordemonstratinghiswayoftakingtheFourBooksandFiveClassicsseriously,andWillardJPetersonforguidingmeinstudyingChina'sintellectualtraditionsaspartofitshistoryPKB•ContentsIntroduction:NeoConfucianisminHistoryITheNewWorldoftheEleventhCentury:andComparedForeignRelationsNorthandSouthCommerceandUrbanizationSocialChangeSearchingforaNewFoundationintheEleventhCenturyLiteratiOpinionandtheCivilSeroiceExaminationsTheClassicsintheExaminationsExaminationLearningasWenxueTheAncientStyle(Guwen)inWritingandtheAttackonExaminationLearningTakingAparttheTangModelofAntiquityTheTangModel:HeavenandEarth,Antiquity,andEmpireChallengingtheTangModelSomeSignsofCommonGroundLearningandtheSelfReconceivedTheNewPolicies:LegislatingaSystemIxContentsTheNeoConfuciansNeoConfuciansandConfuciansAnExternalReadingiftheInternalHistoryNeoConfucianisminSouthandNorthinYuanNeoConfucianismandtheImperialStateDuringtheMingNeoConfucianismasPhilosophy,NeoConfucianismasCultureApproachesandQuestionsAppendixPoliticsIITheQuestionifAutocraryTheRhetoncifEmpireIIEarlyImperialModelsforRulersandMinistersQuestioningImperialAuthorityinNorthernSongNeoConfucianismandPoliticsChallengingtheImperialClaimtoMoralAuthorityTheNeoConfucianRulerTheNeoCotifucianMissionandtheLiteratiAFactionandaFellowshipLearningasPoliticsAVisionoftheSocialOrderTheLaterImperialStateandNeoCotifucianism:TheSignificanceiftheEarlYMingLearningINeoCotifucianLearningasTheoryandPractice'HeavenandEarth}}}Civilization}andtheHumanCondition"HeavenandEarth"asqiandIiAntiquityandSagesTheHumanConditionLearningastheSolution}LearningastheProblemLearningHowtoLearnandThinkingforOneselfTheRevivalifDiscoursingonLearningDuringtheMingContentsBeliefTheProblemifudgmentandMotivationUnityasBeliefTheUnityoftheCosmosTheUnityofSocietyinAntiquityTheUnityofDoctrineTheUnityoftheMindII•XlSocietyCreatingaChoiceinLiteratiLearninginSongandYuanANewCurriculumTheAcademiesAnAlternativefortheFamilYinSongandYuanLiteratiVoluntarismandCommunityinSongandYuanFromVoluntarismtoLegislation:TheMingFoundingTheGreatRevivalandtheReturnifVoluntarismAfterword:China'sHistoryandNeoConfucianismNotesBibliograpfyCharacterListIndexReferenceMatterNeoConfucianisminHistoryINTRODUCTIONNeoConfucianisminHistoryWheredoesNeoConfucianismasaschoolofthoughtbuiltontheteachingsofeleventhcenturymoralphilosophersandasanelitesocialmovementthattookshapeinthetwelfthcenturyfitintoourstoryofChina'shistoryInthestudyofChina'sintellectualtraditions,therehasalwaysbeenaspecialplaceforthethinkersandtextsofearlyChina,theagewhenpeoplebegantoargueovertheideasthatshouldguiderulersandindividualsThereligiousmovementsthattookmatureformduringthemedievalera,especiallyBuddhism,continuetogarnerattentionforthenewwaysofthinkingtheyintroducedandthenewkindsofcom­munitiestheycreatedModernChinesethoughtdealswiththepressingquestionofwhatvaluesshouldguideChinainaglobalcontextNeo­ConfucianismiscaughtinthemiddleItisakindofConfucianism,butonethatclaimstoberediscoveringwhatConfuciusandMenciusreallymeantandthatoftenspeaksthroughitsinterpretationsoftheancienttextsZhuXi,itsConfucius,wrotetoomuchratherthantoolittle,andheassumedreadersalreadywellschooledinConfuciusandtheClassicsSomemodernscholarsholdthatitgavetraditionalethicsanewphilo­sophicalfoundationbycooptingbasicconceptsfromBuddhismandDaoism,althoughthefirstNeoConfuciansthoughttheyweremakingBuddhismandDaoismunnecessaryItwastheorthodoxyofthelateimperialsystemandforthatreasonwascondemnedbythoseseekingtocreateamodernnationstateAndthemodernphilosopherswhohaveINeoConfucianisminHistorybecometheprimaryinterpretersofNeoConfuciandoctrinearecaughtupwithquestionsoffindinganintellectualandmoralbasisforaChinainaglobalcontextNeoConfucianismis,moreover,noteasytoteach,orsomycolleaguestellmeitistooabstruse,tooesotericItisasdiffi­culttograspasmedievalChristianitywouldbeinaChinesecollegeclassroomNeoConfucianswerenotgreatlyinterestedinhistoryorliterature,excepttotheextenttheycouldputtheminserviceoftheirownpro­gramofmoralcultivation,andfewhistoriansorliteraryscholarshavewantedtospendmuchtimeonNeoConfucianismSomewouldsaythereisgoodreasonforthis,thatNeoConfucianismwaslittlemorethantheideologicaljustificationfortheorderofthingsduringthelastthousandyearsofimperialChina'shistory:asocietystagnatingundertheexploitationofanevermoreautocraticstateandarulingclassthathadturnedinonitself,ignoringeverythingthatwashappeninginsoci­etyandtheworldaroundthemIdisagreewitheverysinglephraseintheprecedingsentence,butitisstill,Ifear,awayofsummingupthefinalmillenniumof"premodern"or"traditional"ChinaAnditisnotentirelywithoutabasisinhistoricalfact,itsdefenderswillremindyou,pointingtothepervasivenessoftheChinesecivilserviceexaminationsystemTheexaminationsystemextendedtoeverycountyschoolfromtheeleventhcenturyon,andineveryoneofthoseschoolsstudentspracticedwritingessaysbasedontheNeoConfucianFourBooksAl­though,ofcourse,theydidnotdosountiltwohundredyearsafterNeoConfucianphilosophyfirstappeared,andonlythen,in,attheorderoftherulingMongols,whowerenotChinesebuthadincorpo­ratedallofChinaintotheirempirefortyyearsbeforeAllthishasmadeitdifficult,orperhapssimplylesspressing,tothinkaboutNeoConfucianisminhistoryThislackofattentionisallthemoreironicgivenhowmuchNeoConfucianswrotemanyimportantphilosophicalwritingshavebeentranslatedintoEnglishandhowmuchwecanknowaboutthetimesandplacesinwhichtheylivedNeoConfucianismwasspreadingatpreciselythemomentwhencom­mercialprintingwasbecomingcommon,andmanycountieshadaprinterortwo,thusensuringthatmoretextswereputintocirculationandmoresurvivedcommunitieswereinvestinginlocalschoolsandacademies,providingintellectualswithcareersandstudentswithplacesNeoConfucianisminHistorytogatherlocalhistoricalrecordswerebeingcompiled,givinglocalpeopleawaytorecordtheiraccomplishmentsandprovidinguswithdetailsunavailableforearlierperiodsandprivatewealthwasincreasing,makingitpossibleforNeoConfucianstoraisethemoneynecessarytoprinttheirbooks,buildtheirshrinesandacademies,organizecharitableactivities,andgainfamelocallywhentheycouldnotnationallyInotherwords,wecanknowmoreabouttheNeoConfuciansthemselvesandtheworldinwhichtheylivedthanwecanaboutintellectualsofanyear­lierperiodButhowdidNeoConfuciansfitintotheworldinwhichtheylivedandwhatdifferencedidtheymakeThesearenotquestionsthateitherthephilosophicallyorthehistoricallymindedhaveaskedinmuchdepth,althoughfordifferentreasons:thephilosophicallymindedrightlydenythatsocialinterestsexplainphilosophicalideas,andthehistoricallymindedrightlydoubtthatideologydeterminesthecourseofhistoryIfindmyselfcaughtinthemiddle,betweenthosewhothinkthatweareallNeoConfucianbyourverynatureashumanbeingsandthosewhothinkNeoConfucianphilosophyissolipsisticdrivelIseeNeo­Confucianismasamovementthatfromthetwelfthcenturyintotheseventeenthprofoundlyinfluencedthewaypeopleunderstoodtheworldaroundthemandmadechoicesabouthowtorespondtothatworld,andthusIseeitasofthegreatesthistoricalconsequenceInlookingatNeo­Confuciansintheirtimeswemustbehistorical,andinunderstandingtheirideasweneedtobephilosophicalIhopethatdoingsowillspeaktothestudyofbothphilosophyandhistoryinChina'spastThisisagoodmomenttobeconsideringtheconnectionsbetweenNeoConfucianismandhistory,becausesomuchhasbeendonetore­viseourunderstandingofthehistoryofChina'smiddleperiodandofthesouth,whereNeoConfucianismfirstbecameestablishedamongtheso­cialandpoliticaleliteAmoreinterestingstoryhasbeenemerging,mak­ingitfareasiertoseehowNeoConfucianswerespeakingtotheirtimesDuringthepasttwodecades,therehasalsobeenanexplosionofinterestinNeoConfucianisminChina,somethingthatmaybemorethanapass­ingacademicinterestForNeoConfucianismbegan,inthelateeleventhcentury,asoneofseveralattemptstofindanalternativetotheorthodoxyofthatday,whichheldthatthehumanconditioncouldbeimprovedonlyifthestateworkedtotransformsocial,economic,andculturallifeNeoCotifucianisminHistoryThisisaninterpretive,attimespolemical,inquiryintotheNeo­Confucianengagementwiththeliteratiasthesocialandpoliticalelite,withlocalsociety,andwiththeimperialstateduringtheSong,Yuan,andMingdynasties,fromtheeleventhcenturyintotheseventeenthItisalsoareflectiononwhatmakesthisperioddifferentfromprecedingperiodsandthekindsofquestionsthatwemightaskinthinkingaboutitIhavetriedtoofferaninquiryintoNeoConfucians'engagementwiththeworld,ratherthanthekindofhistoryofNeoConfucianphilosophythathasalreadybeenwritteninmanylanguagesInwriting,IhavetriedtorememberthatwestillneedbooksforthosewhodonotalreadyhavethekindofknowledgeofChinesehistoryandthoughtthattheNeo­Confuciansassumed,althoughattimesthistendstolengthenmyexpla­nationsIhopethatthosewhostudyChinesethoughtwillfindthehis­toricalcontextworthreexamining,andthatthosewhostudyChina'shistorywillfindNeoConfuciansandtheirideasworththinkingaboutIbeginwithanaccountofthemanydifferencesbetweentheworldofthegreatTangempireattheheightofitspowerinthemideighthcenturyandthesmaller,butnolessambitiousstateofSongintheelev­enthThedifferencesallthatwaslostandallthatwasnewsetthestageforareexaminationoftheideologicalgroundsoftheimperialstateandtheroleofliteratiinitThisreexamination,thesubjectofChapter,resultedinwhatweknowasthe"NewPolicies,"thecon­certedefforttocreategovernmentinstitutionsthatwouldtransformsocietybyincreasingwealthandspreadingeducationononehandandstrengthenthestateontheotherTheNeoConfucians,whosehistoryissurveyedinChapter,beganonthemargins,asmoralthinkerswhoopposedtheNewPoliciesInthelatetwelfthandthirteenthcenturies,despitethecourt'sattempttosuppressthem,theysucceededinper­suadinglargenumbersofliteratitosharetheirvisionWhatthatvisionentailedisthesubjectofthefinalfourchaptersChapterarguesthattheNeoConfucians'viewofpoliticsshiftedmoralauthorityawayfromthepoliticalsystemandtowardtheindividual,withanewconceptionoftheselfasgroundsformoralityinsocietyandpoliticsThebasisforthisshiftwasatheoryoflearning,setoutinChapter,whichexplainshow,throughthepracticeofNeoConfucianteachingsandthestudyofNeoConfuciantexts,onecanrealizeone'sinnatepotentialtobeamoralactorinsociety,apotentialthateveryhumanbeingpossessesNeoConfucianisminHistoryequallyasoneofthelivingthingsinthelargerorganismofthenaturalworldMuchofNeoConfucianwritingwasdevotedtotheoriesoflearning,andthepracticeofteachingandlecturing,sometimestoaudi­encesnumberinginthetensofthousands,wasknownas"discoursingonlearning"Learningwasmeant,ultimately,toenabletheindividualconsistentlyandspontaneouslytodothemorallycorrectthingwhat­everthecircumstancesBut,asChapterargues,theideathatachoicecouldbecalledmorallyrightrestedonabeliefessentialtotheNeo­Confucianideaofmorality:abeliefinunityandcoherenceasthefunda­mentalnatureofallthingsintheuniverseIneffect,theidealizedunityofempirewasinternalizedandmadethefoundationforindividualmoralityandsocialactionThefinalchapterarguesthat,asNeo­Confuciansputtheirlearningintopracticeinlocalsociety,theycreatedanewsocialideal,inwhichsocietyatthelocallevelwouldbeled,withthebackingofthestate,bythevoluntaryeffortsofliteratiThespreadofthisethicinthesouthduringthethirteenthandfourteenthcenturiesculminated,duringtheearlyMingdynasty,inthestate'spromotionofNeoConfucianlearningandmandatingthecreationofselfsupervisinglocalcommunitiesthroughoutthecountryWhentheselegislatedinsti­tutionsbegantofail,NeoConfucianlearningregaineditssocialmis­sion,andwiththatcameaseconderaoflocalactivismandliterativol­untarismEvenafterNeoConfucianismlostitsholdonthecenterofintellectualcultureintheseventeenthcentury,itcontinuedasthefoun­dationoflocaleducationandthelateimperialordercontinuedtoac­ceptlocaleliteleadershipasnecessarytothestate'sownexistenceItisthecontentionofthisbookthatNeoConfucianismmadethatorderpossibleTheNewWorldoftheEleventhCentury:andIComparedThefirstNeoConfuciansappearedinthelatterhalfoftheeleventhcenturyduringaperiodofintenseideologicaldebate,whenmanyclaimedthattheyhadfoundtheonewayoflearning,thewayoflearn­ingthatallcouldshareandthatcouldguidealltheirchoicesTheNeo­Confuciansdifferedintheparticularstheyweremoreconcernedthanmostwithpersonalethicsbuttheysharedtheircontemporaries'gen­eralbeliefthatthereoughttobearealbasisforknowledge,meaning,andactionThesearchforcertaintyintheeleventhcenturywasbothaproductofthebeliefthatnow,atlast,ithadbecomepossible

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包弼德著:历史中的新儒家思想(英文原版)

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