加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 [美]万志英:旁门左道:中国宗教文化中的神与魔(加州大学 2004)

[美]万志英:旁门左道:中国宗教文化中的神与魔(加州大学 2004)

[美]万志英:旁门左道:中国宗教文化中的神与魔(加州大学 20…

Stlnz
2009-03-23 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[美]万志英:旁门左道:中国宗教文化中的神与魔(加州大学 2004)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

TheSinisterWayTheSinisterWayTheDivineandtheDemonicinChineseReligiousCultureRichardvonGlahnUNIVERSITYOFCALIFORNIAPRESSBerkeley·LosAngeles·LondonUniversityofCaliforniaPressBerkeleyandLosAngeles,CaliforniaUniversityofCaliforniaPress,LtdLondon,England©bytheRegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniaLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDatavonGlahn,RichardThesinisterway:thedivineandthedemonicinChinesereligiouscultureRichardvonGlahnpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexisbn(cloth:alkpaper)ChinaReligionHistoryDemonologyChinaHistoryITitleblv'dcManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaThepaperusedinthispublicationmeetstheminimumrequirementsofansinisoz–(r)(PermanenceofPaper)ForHitomiContentsListofIllustrationsixAcknowledgmentsxiIntroductionAncestors,Ghosts,andGodsinAncientChinaTheHanCultoftheDeadandSalvificReligionShanxiao:MountainGoblinsPlagueDemonsandEpidemicGodsTheSongTransformationofChineseReligiousCultureWutong:FromDemontoDeityTheEnchantmentofWealthConclusionAbbreviationsNotesBibliographyGlossaryIndexIllustrationsmapsChinaxiiiJiangnanJiangdongintheSongDynastyWuxianshrinesinSouthernSongHangzhoutablesPlagueDeitiesinDaoisttextsandpopularliteratureMotifsofShanxiaostoriesinHongMai’sTalesoftheListenerWuxianshrinesinSouthernSongHangzhouMotifsofWutongstoriesinLuCan’sGengsibian(ca)MotifsofWulang(Wutong)storiesinQianXiyan’sGardenofCunning()TemplesinNanjingandBeijingintheLateMingfigures–TaotiemotifsfromShangbronzes(HuflagonGuitureenDingcauldron)ChiyouandtheFourHeraldicCreaturesixFunerarybannerofLadyDai–Tombguardianfigures(fromChutombandHanpaintedlacquercoffin)ApotropaictalismanfromHantombQueenMotheroftheWest–QueenMotheroftheWestandKingFatheroftheEastHybridhumanbeastprodigiesWildYouthsandRovingLightsChiyouandexorcismGangmaoamuletFiveEmissariesofPlagueZhongKuiprocessionZhongKuivanquishesademonJudgmentinthecourtsoftheTenInfernalKings“TransformationImage”ofinfernalpunishmentGuanyinofaThousandArmsandaThousandEyesWhiteRobedGuanyinTheDaoistcelestialtrinityZhenwu,theTrueWarriorDongyueandtheCelestialandInfernalCourtsAoneleggedWutongWusheng(FiveSaints)–MarshalMatalismans(instructionsformakingapapertalismandeityandweapons)MarshalMatalisman(incantationforsummoningfirecrows)–HuaguangbattlesNezhaMarshalMaTheLengqiesipagodaatStoneLakeZhaoGongmingandtheFivePathstoWealthCivilandMartialGodsofWealth“SourcesofWealthforRichandPoor,BaseandMean”xIllustrationsAcknowledgmentsThisbookisanoutgrowthofresearchIconductedduringmytenureasavisitingfellowattheInstituteofOrientalCulture,TokyoUniversity,in–,whichwassupportedbyafellowshipfromtheAmericanCouncilofLearnedSocietiesSubsequentlyIcontinuedmyresearchinChinain–withtheaidofagrantfromtheCommitteeforScholarlyCommunicationwithChina,andIalsoreceivedagrantfromtheNationalEndowmentfortheHumanitiesforresearchandwritingduringthe–academicyearInaddition,throughoutthelifeofthisprojectIreceivedfinancialsupportfromtheAcademicSenateoftheUniversityofCalifornia,LosAngelesIamdeeplygratefulforthesupportofallofthesebenefactorsIoweaspecialdebtofgratitudetoUrsulaAngelikaCedzich,whopioneeredscholarlystudyoftheWutongcultandhasgenerouslysharedherfindingsandthoughtswithmeBarendterHaaralsoprovidedmewithinsightandguidanceinadditiontosharinghisownresearchontheWutongcultIhavebenefitedovermanyyearsfromthewisdomofTerryKleeman,whowaspresentatthebirthofthisprojectwhenweweresharinganofficeattheInstituteofOrientalCultureLotharvonFalkenhausenandStephenBokenkampreadsubstantialportionsofthebookmanuscript,whichhasbeenmuchimprovedbytheircriticismandadviceWangCh’iukuei’spainstakingreadingofpreviouslypublishedportionsofthisstudyhaslikewiserescuedmefromerrorIalsowishtothankanonymousreadersfortheUniversityofCaliforniaPressfortheirevaluationsxiandcriticismLiaoHsienhueimadeanenormouscontributiontothisbookinhermultiplerolesasassiduousresearchassistant,inquiringstudent,andaccomplishedscholarFinally,itwillbecleartoreadersthatthisbookrestsupontheworkofmanyscholarswithoutwhichthisenterprisewouldnothavebeenpossibleShibaYoshinobu,WangChunyu,andLiBozhonghavebeenextraordinarilyhelpfulinfacilitatingmyaccesstovariousarchivesandlibrariesForunstintingcourtesyandassistanceIwishtothankthelibrariansandstaffattheInstituteofOrientalCulture,TokyoUniversityTÖyÖBunkoNationalDietLibraryNationalArchivesofJapanSeikadÖLibraryInstituteofHistory,ChineseAcademyofSocialSciencesBeijingLibraryBeijingUniversityLibraryNanjingLibraryNanjingUniversityLibraryShanghaiLibraryLibraryofCongressandtheYoungResearchLibrary,UniversityofCalifornia,LosAngelesIalsowishtothanktheeditorsoftheHarvardJournalofAsiaticStudiesforpermissiontoreproduce(inmuchchangedform)twoessaysthatfirstappearedinthatjournal’spages:myarticle“TheEnchantmentofWealth,”publishedinvolume,number(),andareviewarticlethatappearedinvolume,number()xiiAcknowledgmentskmMountPutuoMountTaiYELLOWSEAEASTCHINASEAYangziRiverLTaiBeijingChang’anChangshaFuzhouHangzhouHankouKaifengLuoyangNanjingNingboShanghaiSongjiangSuzhouYangzhouDazuGanzhouJianglingJiningLizhouPutianShaowuTaizhouTingzhouWenzhouXiezhouSHANXIHEBEIKOREASHANDONGJIANGSUANHUIFUJIANGUANGDONGGUANGXIGUIZHOUHENANHUBEIHUNANJIANGXISHAANXISICHUANTAIWANYUNNANZHEJIANGNNanlingMtnsWuyiMtnsMapChinaIntroductionThisbookatheartisastudyofstoriestoldandretoldthusitisfittingthatitbeginswithastoryThefollowinganecdotewaspublishedinbytheprolificchroniclerofthestrangeandmiraculous,HongMai,intheeleventhinstallmentofhisTalesoftheListenerHonginformedhisreadersthatthestorywaspassedontohimbyZhuConglong,anotherwiseunknownfigurewhoapparentlywasarefugeefromtheJinkingdomthenrulingnorthChinaThestoryisundated,buttherestoftheanecdotesattributedbyHongtoZhudatefromthesands,andthisoneprobablydoesaswellLiuXiang,ashopkeeper,hadthegoodfortuneofmarryingabeautifulwifenéeZheng,buthisbusinessfaredpoorlyWretchedandhaggard,thedisheartenedLiuwouldspendhisdaysdrinkingwithratherunsavorycompanionsinthetavernZheng,abandonedtosufferhungerandprivationalone,bitterlyresentedherhusband’sabsenceOnedayZhengcontractedafeverishillnessAfterafewdayssherecoveredsomewhat,butshewithdrewtoherbedchamber,whereshewouldsitandstarewithoututteringawordWheneverherhusbandapproached,ZhengscowledandsneeredathimLiu,moredespondentthanever,lefthomealtogetherHiswifesealedherselfinthehouse,admittingnovisitors,yetitoftenseemedasifshewerewhisperingwithsomeinvisibleguestFamilymembersspiedonherthroughacrackinthewall,buttheyneversawanyoneSometimepassed,andLiuXiangeventuallyreturnedhomeUponenteringhishousehewasamazedtodiscoverthatitwasfilledwithgoldcoinsandrichlyworkedsilksWhenheaskedhiswifehowshecametopossessallofthesetreasures,shereplied,“ForseveralmonthsayoungmanhascomeeverynightafterthemidnightwatchhassoundedHecallshimselfSirWulangHesharesmybedandhasgivenmeeverythingyouseeIdarenothidethisfromyou”Liuwasoutragedathiswife’sinfidelity,buthehadenduredpovertyforsolongthat,finallyseeingsomereliefathand,hecouldnotbringhimselftorebukeherSubsequentlythestrangerappearedbeforeLiuinbroaddaylight,admonishinghimneveragaintospendthenightwithhiswifeFrightened,LiuheededthiswarningandmovedtoanotherlodgingAwedbytherichesthestrangespirithadbroughttohiswife,LiuhimselfcastabronzeimageofWulangandpaidhomagetoitmorningandnightSoonthespiritprocuredanewwifeforLiuNothavinganysons,LiuprayedtoWulangforassistanceWulangthereuponkidnappedtheninthsonofMarshalXi,thelocalgovernor,andpresentedthechildtoLiusothathecouldcontinuehisfamilylineThegovernorofferedalavishrewardforthereturnofhismissingchildAwomaninLiu’sneighborhoodhappenedtocatchsightofaninfantdressedinfinesilkswaddlinginLiu’shouseSuspectingthatthechildcouldnothavebeenraisedinthehouseholdofapoorshopkeeper,sherantotheconstablestomakeareportandcollecttherewardLiuandZhengwerearrested,andalloftheirgoodswereconfiscatedIncensed,theWulangspiritsummonedahostofdemonsandspecterswhothrewopenthegatesoftheprison,releasingLiuandhiswifeandatthesametimeallowingalltheotherprisonerstoescapeEnragedinturn,thegovernorhadLiuandhiswifeseizedthenextdayandorderedthattheybebeatenmercilesslyThatsamenightthespiritonceagainfreedthecoupleandthensetfiretothegovernor’scompound,whichburnedtothegroundBricksandtilesstreameddownlikerain,preventinganyonefromdrawingnearenoughtoextinguishtheblazeConcedingdefeat,MarshalXiconsentedtoallowworshipofthespirittocontinueandforesworeanyfurtherprosecutionofLiuandZhengSirWulangintheendkeptpossessionofZhengWulang,morecommonlyknownbythenameWutong,wasafamiliarfigureinthereligiouscultureofHongMai’sdayThediabolicalspiritappearsinnofewerthantwodozenstoriesinthesurvivingportionsofTalesoftheListenerCustodiansofpublicorder,likeMarshalXiintheanecdoterecountedhere,wereaghastatthetenacityofpopulardevotiontosuchphantomspiritswhoflagrantlyviolatedthecherishedvaluesoffidelity,chastity,anddeferencetoimperialofficersThoughHongIntroductionMaihimselfwasdeeplyversedinclassicallearning,histale,whichconcludeswiththetriumphofthewantonspiritovertheforcesoforder,contradictedthefundamentalConfuciantenetthatrighteousnessinevitablyprevailsoverevilManyConfuciansscoffedatthekindofsupernaturalaccountsrecordedbyHong,dismissingthemaswildconfabulationsofcredulousbumpkins,buttheimperialstatekeptvigilantwatchonthosewhowouldexploit“sinisterdoctrines”(zuodao)toenthrallitssubjectsZuodaothe“sinisterway,”asopposedtothe“correctway”(zhengdao)necessarytothegoverningofawellorderedsocietyhadcommonlybeenusedtodescribethehereticalteachingsofsorcerersandconjurerssincethebeginningoftheimperialeraThe“RegulationsoftheKing”chapteroftheCanonofRitual,composedduringtheHandynasty(bce–ce),deemedrecourseto“sinisterdoctrines”aheinouscrime:Thosewhousecleverspeechtoviolatethelaw,subvertorcircumscribethestatutesbyexceedingtheirproperduties,orresorttosinisterdoctrinesinordertodisruptimperialgovernance,shallbeputtodeathThosewhocreatelewdmusic,strangecostumes,andmysteriousdevicesorperformoutlandishstuntsinordertodeludethemassesshallbeputtodeathThosewhopersevereinevilconduct,engageinspecioussophistry,spreadfalselearning,orhidetheirevildoingbehindabeguilingcountenanceinordertodeludethemassesshallbeputtodeathThosewhofalselyclaimtoconjureghostsandspirits,predictluckyorillomeneddays,orpracticedivinationinordertodeludethemassesshallbeputtodeathNoappealsshallbeallowedforthesefourcapitalcrimesThewordzuodaoappearsinthefirstofthefourcrimesenumeratedinthispassage,whichseemstoreferstrictlytopoliticalmachinations,specificallytheselfservingcantofunscrupulousofficialsseekingtodeceivetheemperorIncontrast,theotherthreesetsofcriminalactsallconcernedvariouskindsofsorcery,soothsaying,andmanticartsintended“todeludethemasses”Overtime,zuodaotoocametobeassociatedwithsorceryandmaledictionInthefirstcenturybce,thelanguageusedinthispassage,“resorttosinisterdoctrines,”wasonseveraloccasionscitedinindictmentsthatchargedministersofstatewiththebroadlyinsidiouscrimeofimpiety(budao)InothercaseszuodaoreferredtotheextravagantclaimsofsoothsayersandfortunetellersseekingtocurryfavorwiththeemperorEspeciallynoteworthywastheallegationof“resorttosinisterdoctrines”inmemorialsseekingthedeathsentenceforpalacewomenaccusedofengaginginwitchcraftmoreprecisely,“spellsandcurses”Introduction(zhouzu)toharmorkilltheemperororothermembersoftheimperialfamilyInbce,whenXuMi,sisterofthedisownedconsortofEmperorCheng,wascondemnedtodeathforusingwitchcraftagainsttheemperor’snewfavorite,shewasspecificallychargedwith“resortingtosinisterdoctrines”BytheendoftheHanzuodaohadbecomesynonymouswithsorceryIn,EmperorWenofWei,successortotheHan,decreedthatthoseaccusedofsorceryandofferingimpropersacrificestospiritsshouldbetriedonthebasisofthestatuteagainst“resorttosinisterdoctrines”Insubsequentlegalcodes“resorttosinisterdoctrines”wasinvariablylinkedtowitchcraftandsorceryInHongMai’sday,localmagistratescontinuedtoinvokethestatuteoutlawing“resorttosinisterdoctrines”toprosecutesorceryandillicitformsofworshipAcenturyearlier,in,aprefectbythenameofXiaSongservinginHongMai’snativeprovinceofJiangxicalledthecourt’sattentiontotheprevalenceofselfanointed“spiritmasters”espousing“sinisterdoctrines”inhisjurisdictionandthroughoutsouthChinaThesecharlatanthaumaturges,Xiareported,smuglyclaimedtobeabletoconjurespiritsandhealthesick,yettheyforbadefamilymembersfromgivingfoodormedicineto,orevenremaininginthehousewith,sickpersonsInstead,thespiritmasterssetupaltarsonwhichtheyplacedgravenorpaintedimagesof“goblinsandfairies”(chimei)asXiacalledthemandtriedtoexorcisethedemonsafflictingtheillbymeansofcharmsandtalismansMostabominableofallinXia’seyes,localpeopleoftenentrustednewborninfantstothesesorcerers,whoraisedtheirwardsasacolytes,trainingthemindiabolicalartswiththeexpectationthattheyouthswouldeventuallysucceedthemXiaclaimedtohavearrestedanddefrockedmorethannineteenhundredsuchsorcererswithinhisjurisdiction,andhecalledupontheimperialgovernmenttoenforcethestrictlawsagainst“sinisterdoctrines,”“spellsandcurses,”and“wantonpracticeofhereticalrites”HongMai’saccountoftheWulangspiritshowsthat,despitesuchperiodicpersecutions,civilofficialsfailedtoshakepopularfaithintheabidingpresenceofghostsanddemonsinthepeople’slivesAlthoughhistoriansofChinesereligionhavedevotedconsiderableattentiontotheoriginanddevelopmentofcultscenteredonindividualgods,lessattentionhasbeenpaidtothedemonicaspectofthesupernaturalrealmNosinglefigureinChinesereligiouscultureembodiedevilliketheSatanofChristianreligion,nordidtheChineseimagineadivineworldstarklydividedbetweenforcesofgoodandevilMisfortunecouldbeattributedtotheinexorableworkingsofaninscrutableIntroductiondestiny,butitwasmostcommonlyblamedonahostofdemonicentitiesAlmanacsfromthethirdcenturybcedetailinauspiciousdaysforparticularactivities(becauseofthepresenceoractivityofmaliciousspirits),taboos(oftenbasedonthefearofoffendingspirits),sourcesofillness(includingdisgruntledancestorsaswellasdemonicattack),andthecausesofdozensofformsofaffliction(rangingfromspiritsinheringinanimalformsandinanimateobjectstonaturalphenomena)Lateranecdotesandfolkloresuggestthatbeingsbestdescribedasspecters,fairies,andgoblinspopulatedthemostintimatesphereofthesupernaturalandhadthegreatestimpactonthedailylivesofordinarypeopleYethistoricaldocumentationforsuchfiguresisscantMostunsavorygodsanddemonicspiritslackedshrines,ortheirshrineswereexcludedfromofficialrecords,andtheircultsweretypicallydescribedinahighlystereotypicalfashionthatshedslittlelightonactualbeliefsandworshipThisstudyseekstorepairthisomissioninthestudyofChinesereligionbyexaminingtheremarkablehistoryofthecultofWutongwithinthelargercontextofChina’sevolvingreligiouscultureChinesereligion,pastandpresent,hasfunctionedaboveallasameansofinvokingsupernaturalpowerstogainsomemeasureofcontroloverone’smortalexistenceIthasalsoprovidedmoralinjunctionsexplanationsforsin,suffering,andthedispositionofthedeadsymbolsandmetaphorsforstructuringsocialorderandtemporalauthorityandspiritual,ritual,andphysicaldisciplinesfortheattainmentofimmortalityButChinesereligionneverproducedaconceptionofthedivinethatstoodapartfromthecosmos,andthemundaneworldhumanbeingsinhabitedwasnotgovernedbylawsfashionedbyatranscendentcreatorgodThusthedivineandthemundaneremainedorganicallyconnected,eachsubjecttopowersofchangeandtransformationinherentinthephysicaluniverseThese“powers”wereoftenrepresentedasgods,althoughChinesecivilizationalsoproducedphilosophictraditionsthatconceivedofthecosmosasspontaneouslyselfgenerating,aproductofinsuperablemysticalprocessesunbeholdentoanygodordivinewillexternaltoitselfInboththegrandorganizedreligioustraditionslikeDaoismandBuddhismandthemultitudeoflocalreligioustraditionswithoutchurchorscripture,thesacredwasweddedtotheabilitytowielddivinepowerinpursuitofhumanaspirationsPowersofmiraculousintervention(ling)demonstratedtheefficacyofthegods,thesacrificesemployedtopropitiatethem,andtheintercessorswhomediatedbetweenthemundaneandthedivineChinesereligiousculturenotonlyadmittedavastnumberofgodsbutIntroductionalsoacknowledgedtheinvolvementoflesserspirits,especiallytheghostsofthedead,inhumanaffairsIndeed,theghostsofthedeadoftenloomedlargerinthepopularreligiousimaginationthantheheavenlygodsWhileexalteddeitiesremaineddistantandalooffromthemortalrealm,thespiritsofthedead,both

用户评价(1)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/49

[美]万志英:旁门左道:中国宗教文化中的神与魔(加州大学 2004)

仅供在线阅读

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利