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首页 如何撰写博士学位论文(英文版—鼎力推荐!)

如何撰写博士学位论文(英文版—鼎力推荐!)

如何撰写博士学位论文(英文版—鼎力推荐!)

365hope
2009-03-22 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《如何撰写博士学位论文(英文版—鼎力推荐!)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

xiPrefaceForthepasttwentyfiveyearsIhavebeenworkingwithdoctoralstudents,guidingtheirevolutiontodoctoralrecipientsDuringthetimeweworktogether,IbecomeintenselyconsciousoftheirneedtounderstandthecultureoftheuniversityasitimpactsontheirprogressConcurrently,theyneedtobereceptivetoengaginginatransformative,lifechangingexperience,theessenceoflearningAsIrecallmyowndaysasadoctoralstudent,IrememberbeingatatotallosstounderstandwhatwashappeningtomeIhavediscoveredthisisnotuniqueMosthavenoideawhatadissertationlookslikeorhowitevolvesWhilemostdoctoralstudentsexpecttodrawontheirearliercollegiateexperiences,nothingintheacademicworldpreparesthemforthecomplexityandintensityinherentinthedoctoralprocessIhaveidentifiedthecrucialissuestoincludeinWritingYourDissertation:InvisibleRulesforSuccessfrommultiplesources:•myexperienceinguidingmorethanseventyfivedoctoraldissertationstocompletion•morethananonymousresponsesbydoctoralstudentsandgraduatestoopenendedquestionnaires•focusgroupswithdoctoralstudentsandgraduatesand•informalconversationswithcurrentdoctoralstudentsandgraduates,includingsomeofwhomteachindoctoralprogramsacrossthenationIncreasingnumbersofadultsarereceivingdoctoraldegrees(Magner,),butitisacultureinwhichmostadmitalackofknowledgeoftherulesTheyfrequentlysearchforexplicitinformationaboutwhatthiscomplex,highlyinteractive,academic,social,andpoliticalprocessinvolvesAccesstoknowledgeablesourcesofinformationislimited,yetessentialforemotionalandintellectualsurvivalThisbookservesasapracticalguideforstudentstoprogressinplanning,writing,anddefendingtheirdissertationsWhenstudentsseektounderstandtherulesoftheprogram,theyarefrequentlyreferredtotheuniversityBulletinortoldtoseetheiradvisorThereislittleexplicitdocumentationofwhatoccursinadoctoralprogramWhatisparticularlymissingfromthesesourcesisinformationaboutthehumanPrefacexiielement,thesocialinteractionswhicharethehallmarkofdoctoralprograms,andprobablythemostproblematicformostdoctoralstudentsRecognizingtheneedtoaddressthisgap,Ihavedevelopedacomprehensiveguidetomanydimensionsofthedoctoralprocess,particularlyfocusingonthewritingofthedoctoraldissertationWhiletheprimarygoalinwritingthisbookistohelpcurrentdoctoralstudentstosurviveandflourishintheirprograms,IhavealsobecomeawareoftheneedtoconsidermajorreformsinthedoctoralprocessThishasbeensupportedbyrecentpublications(eg:Kennedy,Lovitts,Menand,OlsonandDrew,)Forcurrentenrollees,survivalisprobablythekeyissue,butfromalongtermperspective,Ithinkweintheacademicworldneedtoreflectonwhatisexpectedofstudents,andfindwaystocreatemoresupportivesettingsforstudentsandtheacademiccommunityatlargeWhiletheprimaryaudienceforWritingyourDoctoralDissertationiscurrentstudents,doctoralstudentsmayfinditproductivetosharethisbookwithfriendsandrelatives,helpingthemtounderstandandprovidemoresupportivesettingsincompletingadissertationInaddition,graduateshaveimpressedmewiththeirdesire,nowthattheyaredone,tocomparetheirexperienceswithothers,aswellastoobtainaclearersenseofthetotalityoftheexperienceCertainlyfacultywouldbenefitfromunderstandingthestudents’perspectivesaswellEachacademicinstitutioncreatesuniquerulesandproceduresforcompletingadoctoraldegree,buttherearemanysimilaritiesacrossinstitutionsWritingyourDoctoralDissertationoffersacombinationofthegeneralrules,alongwithstrategiesforcopingwiththerangeofexperiencesyoumayencounterinyourprogressThebookwillprepareyouforsomeofthelikelyhurdles,offeringguidancetoavoidingconflicts,andtoworkingthroughproblemswhichareimpossibletopredictbutwillinevitablyoccurIfrequentlyremindyouto“checkwithyouradvisor,”“checkwithyourpeersupportgroup,”“checkwithyourchair”TheseindividualsknowyourlocalterrainThemoreinformationyouhave,themorepreparedyouwillbetoaddresseachoftheissuesinyourprogramandtohandleyouruniqueexperiencesAcasecouldbemadethatdoctoralstudentsarerequiredtobethemostrigorousresearchersResearchersareresourceful,seekinginformationinawidearrayofsitesAsareaderofthisbook,youarearesearcherWritingyourDoctoralDissertationsupplementsanymaterialsavailableatyourinstitutionItcannotsupplantanyinstitutionaldocumentsorexplanatoryrequirementsReadallpublicationsfromyourinstitutionwhichenumeratethestepsintheprocess,aswellasanyacademiccalendarswhichmightoffercluesaboutmandatedactivities(egpreliminaryexaminations,matriculationinterviews,oraldefenses)andtheirfrequencyofoccurrence(egonceeachsemester,annually)TheBulletinisagoodstartingpoint,butdon’tstopthereLookforbrochures,pamphlets,fliers,bulletinboardnotices,advertisementsincampusnewspapers,andprogramnewslettersExplorethematerialsavailableintheGraduateOfficeandtheOfficeoftheDeanofGraduatePrefacexiiiStudies,orlike,whichmightdescribesomeoftherequirementsInquireaboutprogrammeetings,informalgatherings,andadvisementmaterialswhichmayofferamapofwhattoexpectToobtaintheinformationcontainedinthesepages,Ihaveengagedinintensiveresearch,obtainingnumerouslensesonthisphenomenonwhichwecall“goingformydoctorate”SomepeopleprovidedinformationontheirownexperiencesasdoctoralstudentsanddoctoraladvisorsWithinthetext,andasepigraphsatthebeginningofchapters,youwillseedirectquotationsfromthesesourcesFormoreinformationaboutmyresearchprocedures,seeBrause()andAppendixAAcritiqueofthedoctoralprocessbasedonthisresearchisinpreparationWhilethereareincreasingnumbersofbookswhichareoutliningthepartsofadissertation(seeAppendixBforsomeusefultitles),thereisaneedforstudentstounderstandboththeacademicandthesocialelementswhichcontributetotheirprogressThisbookcombinesbothoftheseelementsasitprovidesstepbystepguidanceinmovingfromidentifyingaresearchproblemtodefendingyourdissertationMoststudentsindoctoralprogramsproceedthroughthestepswithonlyavagueunderstandingofwhatadissertationisorwhatisinvolvedingettingoneHavingasenseoftypicalissues,youwillbereadyforwhatliesaheadforyouThisbookwillprobablybeusefultoreadintwoways:•first,asaquickreadofferinganoverviewof“theterrain”andanexplanationofallthestepsintheprocessofwritingadissertation•second,asreadyreferenceprovidingastepbystepguidetocreatingyourcommittee,writingyourproposal,andpreparingforyouroraldefense,forexampleIexpectthatyouwillinitiallyreviewthetotalcontents,notingtherangeofinformation,realizingtheimpossibilityofattendingtoallthedetails,buthappytoknowthattheyareavailableforlaterreferenceRecognizingthedepthofdetailprovided,youwillintelligentlyreadcarefullyuptothepointwhereyouareinwritingyourdissertationThen,youwillreadthenextchapterveryslowlyYouwillrefertoeachchapterinturn,asyouprogressthroughyourresearchapprenticeship(ThisassumptionfollowsfromGailSheehy()’sexperiencewithPassages:PredictableCrisesofAdultLife,inwhichpeopletendedtoreadtothechapterwhichrepresentedtheircurrentstage,anddeferredreadingsubsequentchaptersuntilthetimewhentheywereatthatnextstage)Eachpersonwillstartthisintensereadingatadifferentplace,eventuallyproceedingtothefinalchaptersasyoutriumphinwritingyourdoctoraldissertationIamwritingthisbookasastudentadvocateIacknowledgetherearenumerous,significantproblemsintheprocess,manyofwhichwerehighlightedintheprocessofcollectingthedataforthisbookThemostnotableeventwastherecentsuicideofadoctoralstudentwhichwasattributedtouniversityproceduresthatisolatedstudentsandmadethemvulnerabletothewhimsofonefacultymember(seePrefacexivSchneider,)Forstudentstomakeaninformedcommitmenttoadoctoralprogram,thereisaneedtoknowwhat’sexpected:topreparethemselvesandtheirsignificantothersforthetimeandemotionalpressureslikelytodeveloptoparticipatemoreknowledgeablyintheprocessandtotakeadvantageofthewealthofopportunitiesavailableinthisprocessWritingYourDissertationmakesexplicittheinvisiblecultureofdissertationwritingandtherebyincreasesthelikelihoodofyoursuccess,avoidingthepossibilitythatyouwilldropoutofyourprogramneverhavingaclueaboutwhatwasreallyexpectedYouwillneverbethesamepersonyouwerebeforeyourdoctoralexperienceIhopethatbyreadingthisbookyouwillfindyourselfmuchenrichedbytheprocessofcompletingyourdoctoralprogramTherearethreemajorpartstothisbookwhichcorrespondtotheseveralstagesinvolvedinwritingadissertationInitiallyyouwillneedanoverview,offeredinPartI,entitled“Gettingasenseoftheterrain”PartIIiscalled“Preparingforyourstudy,”andPartIIIprovidesdetailsfor“Doingyourstudy”Theappendixescontainresources,specificallyasamplechecklistfordocumentingyourprogresssuggestionsforreadingonthedissertation,theacademicworld,andresearchmethodologyandapresentationofsomeofmyresearchfindingsfromthestudyofthedissertationprocessYourexperiencesasadoctoralstudentwillbememorableIhopeyouwillhavemanyhappymemoriesIencourageyourcommentsandquestionsabouteachsectionalongwithsuggestionsforimprovingthisvolumeforfuturedoctoralstudentsxvAcknowledgmentsWritingthisbookhastakenatremendousamountofcooperationfromfriendsnearandfar,andmanyanonymousparticipantsThewrittenresponseswhicharriveddailyinthemailpostmarkedfrommostofthefiftystatesandafewfromothernationsprovidedadepthofinformationaboutdissertationsthatisunprecedentedThelengthyandemotionallychargedstatementsconfirmedtheneedforthisbookaswellastheneedforrethinkingthedissertationprocessIamindebtedtotheanonymousrespondentstothequestionnaireandtotheindividualswhoparticipatedinroundtablediscussionsandindividualinterviewsabouttheirexperiencesintheirdissertationprogramsTheseincluded:MariaCataneo,SrStJohnDelaney,JaneDorian,RitaGuare,LouisGuinta,JohnHoutz,RitaKing,StephenKucer,SandraLanzone,DellaLevine,LewisLevine,KathyMalu,LillianMasters,BrianMonahan,WilliamRonzitti,RitaSeidenberg,MichaelShaw,RobertJStarratt,CliffordWilliams,andJeanWinterTheircommentsabouttheneedforthisbookhelpedmetokeepgoingwhentimesweretoughAtconferenceswhenItalkedaboutthisproject,Ialsoreceivedsupportforthisprojectfromdoctoralstudentsatnumerous,anonymousinstitutionsTheofficeofResearchatFordhamUniversityalsoprovidedimportantsupportIwouldliketoacknowledge,withthanks,permissiontoreproducethedrawingsonpagesandtoKellyAClarkandScottArthurMaesarrespectivelyThisbookhasbenefitedgreatlyfromthecarefulreadingofearlydraftsbyKathyMalu,RenéeFrankHoltz,JackieStone,andCliffWilliamsTheyeachprovideddifferentlensesthroughwhichtoviewthebookKathy,particularly,readandreadandreadagainneverbeingworndownbythenumerousdraftswhichthistexthasgonethroughMalcolmClarksonhadfaithearlyonthatIcoulddothisHisvoteofconfidencehelpedmetobringthistocompletionaswellAsthemanuscriptprogressed,IbenefitedfromenthusiasticresponsesfromAnnaClarksonandShankariSanmuganathanMostofall,IamindebtedtomyfamilyandfriendswhonudgedmewhenIneededit,andcelebratedwithmewhenIwasdoneTheseincludedRobertaAcknowledgmentsxviBrause,ChristineDonohue,JaneDorian,LouGuinta,DorothyKirshenberg,StephenKucer,SandraLanzone,KathyMalu,BrianMonahan,AliceRyan,RitaSeidenberg,andMichaelShawIamsohappythedayhascomewhenIfeellikeIhavedonethebestIcanandawaityourcommentsandsuggestionsIwishyouluckandstrength!JanuaryComparingaDissertationtoaLongTermPaperIaffirmedthatIcanachieveagoalIsetformyselfbyusingintelligence,acombinationofpriorexperience,hardwork,determination,andfocusedeffortWritingadissertationisnotadifficulttaskonceyouhaveestablishedyourprioritiesandhavethedesiretocompleteitIhadthedesireandmadewritingthedissertationapriorityinmylifeMywillanddeterminationhelpedmealongthewayNothingyouhavedoneinyouracademiccareerisquitelikewritingadissertationButthereareresemblancestotermpapers,forexampleDrawingonyourwealthofexperienceswithtermpaperswillexpediteyourdissertationwritingYouhaveconsiderablefamiliaritywithwritingtermpapersWiththoseproficienciesinplace,itisnowusefultobringthemtoalevelofconsciousnessWritingatermpaperentailsnotonlywritingperse,butnecessitatesextensivereadingandlearningpriortoandduringthewritingprocessThesameholdstrueforyourdissertationwritingYourlearningandunderstandingofthetopicyouarestudyingwillbemagnifiedmanytimesintheprocessofwritingyourdissertationWritingapaperpromoteslearning,asdoeswritingadissertationIntheprocessofwritingyourdissertationyouwilllearnmanythings:•Youwilllearnmoreaboutyourdiscipline•Youwilllearnmoreaboutwritingtoanaudiencebeyondtheoneprofessorwhotaughtthecourse,extendingtoyourdissertationcommitteeandultimatelyyouracademicdisciplineglobally•Youwilllearntoorganizelargechunksofinformation•Youwilllearntodooriginalresearch•YouwilllearntoorganizeyourtimesothatyouareasproductiveasyouwanttobeMostdissertationwritersfindthisexperienceamazinginretrospectWritingadissertationisatruelearningexperiencewritlargeAcontrastbetweenthetermpapersyou’vewrittenandthedissertationisusefulDissertationvslongtermpaperClearlyyouhavebeensuccessfulinyourpaperwritingThesuccessesyouhaveaccumulatedoverthespanofyouracademiccareeronsmallerprojectsprovidetheconfidencethatyoucanmeetthisnewchallengeofwritingyourdissertationYouknowthatadissertationisalengthydocumentwhichiswrittenbyagraduatestudentintheprocessofcompletingadoctoraldegreeYoualsoknowthatwritingadissertationincludes:reportingonresearch,workingwithacommitteeandachair,andhaving“orals”Butbeyondthesevaguelabels,thereisgenerallylittleunderstandingofthisvirtuallyinvisibleactivitywithinuniversitiesChancesarethatoneofyourstrengthsasastudenthasbeenyourabilitytowriteacceptable,evenhighlypraised,termpapersYouappropriatelyexpecttodrawonthatexperienceinyourdissertationwritingYoumightassumethatthecourseworkprecedingyourdissertationpreparesyouforwritingyourdissertation,particularlythinkingofallthetermpaperwritingrequiredinyourcoursesClearlythoseexperienceswillbeuseful,butit’simportanttounderstandthatwritingadissertationisbothdifferentfromandsimilartoatermpaperWritingaDissertationIfwelookatjustthetitlepageofadissertation,wewillhaveaccesstoadditionalinformationaboutdissertationsThetitlepagegivesususefulinsightsintothetotaldocumentifweexamineitverycloselyAsyoustudyFigure,considertheinformationwhichyoucaninferfromthisonepageandjotthesedownNowthatyou’vehadachancetothinkaboutsomeinferences,wecanidentifysomeoftheinformationexplicitlyandimplicitlyprovidedonthetitlepageofRebeccaStrear’sdissertation:•Thespacingofinformationonthepagesuggeststhedissertationisaformaldocumentwithaprescribedformat,distinctfrommostotherwritingwehaveseen•Theuseoftechnicaltermsinthetitle(eg“ProfessionalDevelopmentSchools”)suggeststhetextisaddressedtoasmallsubsetofoursocietywhichisfamiliarwiththetechnicallanguage•ThetitleofthedissertationishighlyfocusedFromthetitlewecanidentifyuniquecharacteristics:•Thereisananalysisofdata(Aspecialtypeofanalysiswillbereportedaqualitativeanalysiswillbereported)•Thesourceforthedatawhichinformsthestudyisidentified(Theperceptionsofteacherswillbestudied)•Theresearchreportsonahighlyfocusedissue(Onlytheissueofteacherperceptionsofcollaborationwillbeinvestigated,excluding,forexample,anydocumentationoftheircollaborations)Dissertationvslongtermpaper•Thedataarecollectedinarestrictedsetting(Thesiteforthesecollaborationsisrestrictedtoplacesidentifiedas“ProfessionalDevelopmentSchools”)•Theacademichistoryofthedegreecandidateisdocumented•Thedissertationistheproductofcollaborationamong“theCommittee,”alongwithStrear•Eachmemberofthecommitteeholdsadoctoraldegree•Oneoftheseindividualsonthecommitteeisidentifiedas“Chair”•Thedissertationisnottheonlyrequirementforthedoctoraldegreethereareadditionalrequirements•AwordprocessororcomputerisusedinthewritingoratleastinthepresentationofthedissertationJustfromstudyingthetitlepage,onesliceofdata,wehaveidentifiedimportantelementsofadissertationButthisisonlyonesourceWeneedtoFigureTitlepagefromdissertation:sampleADissertationvslongtermpapercomparethiswithotherdatabeforewemakeanyhastygeneralizationsorassumptionsAndso,let’slookatanothertitlepagefromadissertationcompletedatadifferentuniversity,aspresentedinFigureWecancompareFiguresandTheybothhavelengthy,descriptivetitles,namesofcommitteemembers,andastatementaboutthe“partialfulfillmentofrequirements”foradegreeTheybothhaveaformal,professionalpresentationstyleOnsomeleveltheylookfairlysimilar,withrelativelyminorvariationsJotdownanyadditionalinformationyoucaninferaboutdissertationsfromthesetwosamplesbeforereadingmyinterpretationCombiningourinsightsfromsamplesAandB,weknowthat:•thesearetitlepagesfromdissertations,notdissertationproposalsortermpapers•dissertationsmayusedifferentresearchmethodologiesandFigureTitlepagefromdissertation:sampleBDissertationvslongtermpaper•thestyleofthepresentationsuggestsarequiredformatratherthanauniqueonecreatedbyeachindividualstudentTherearealsoseveralcontrasts,someofwhichmightindicatesubtledifferencesintherelationshipbetweenthestudentandthecommitteeThesenuancesmayhavelittleimportforyou,ortheymaysuggestaspecificstancewhichyoushouldconsideradoptinginyourconversationswithyourcommittee,forexample•TheroleofthecommitteeisnotclearInsampleAtheco

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