下载
加入VIP
  • 专属下载券
  • 上传内容扩展
  • 资料优先审核
  • 免费资料无限下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 【柏拉图】会饮篇

【柏拉图】会饮篇

【柏拉图】会饮篇

philohoho
2009-03-19 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【柏拉图】会饮篇pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ThispageintentionallyleftblankPLATOTheSymposiumCAMBRIDGETEXTSINTHEHISTORYOFPHILOSOPHYSerieseditorsKARLAMERIKSProfessorofPhilosophyattheUniversityofNotreDameDESMONDMCLARKEProfessorofPhilosophyatUniversityCollegeCorkThemainobjectiveofCambridgeTextsintheHistoryofPhilosophyistoexpandtherange,variety,andqualityoftextsinthehistoryofphilosophywhichareavailableinEnglishTheseriesincludestextsbyfamiliarnames(suchasDescartesandKant)andalsobylesswellknownauthorsWhereverpossible,textsarepublishedincompleteandunabridgedform,andtranslationsarespeciallycommissionedfortheseriesEachvolumecontainsacriticalintroductiontogetherwithaguidetofurtherreadingandanynecessaryglossariesandtextualapparatusThevolumesaredesignedforstudentuseatundergraduateandpostgraduatelevelandwillbeofinterestnotonlytostudentsofphilosophy,butalsotoawideraudienceofreadersinthehistoryofscience,thehistoryoftheology,andthehistoryofideasForalistoftitlespublishedintheseries,pleaseseeendofbookPLATOTheSymposiumeditedbyMCHOWATSONStAnne’sCollege,OxfordFRISBEECCSHEFFIELDKing’sCollege,LondontranslatedbyMCHOWATSONCAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITYPRESSCambridge,NewYork,Melbourne,Madrid,CapeTown,Singapore,SãoPauloCambridgeUniversityPressTheEdinburghBuilding,CambridgeCBRU,UKFirstpublishedinprintformatISBNISBNISBN©CambridgeUniversityPressInformationonthistitle:wwwcambridgeorgThispublicationisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionofrelevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPressCambridgeUniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyofurlsforexternalorthirdpartyinternetwebsitesreferredtointhispublication,anddoesnotguaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriatePublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyCambridgeUniversityPress,NewYorkwwwcambridgeorgpaperbackeBook(EBL)hardbackContentsIntroductionpageviiChronologyxxixFurtherreadingxxxiiTranslator’snotexxxivTheSymposium(‘TheDrinkingParty’)GlossaryofGreekwordsGlossaryofnamesIndexofsubjectsvIntroductionPlato’swritingsaretypicallyintheformofdialoguesinwhichSocrates(bornBC)discussesphilosophicalquestionswithothercharactersofhisdayMostofthesearebasedonknownhistoricalfigures,butthedialoguesarenotfactualaccountstheyarefictional,andoftenrichlydramatic,productsofPlato’sphilosophicalimaginationTheSymposiumisaparticularlydramaticworkItissetatthehouseofAgathon,atragicpoetcelebratinghisrecentvictoryinBCatoneofthegreatdramaticfestivalsThosepresentareamongsttheintellectualeliteofthedayTheyincludeanexponentofheroicpoetry(Phaedrus),anexpertinthelawsofvariousGreekstates(Pausanias),arepresentativeofmedicalexpertise(Eryximachus),acomicpoet(Aristophanes)andaphilosopher(Socrates)Theguestsparticipateinasymposium,adrinkingpartyforaristocraticcircles,onthisoccasiondesignedtohonourAgathon’svictoryEachguestdeliversaspeechinpraiseoferos,‘passionatelove’,or‘desire’ThefinalspeechisdeliveredbyAlcibiades,anotoriousassociateofSocrates,whotalksopenlyabouthisloveforSocrates,inparticularTheconversationisdisruptedbyagroupofdrunkenrevellers,butSocratescontinuestotalkwayintothenightashetriestopersuadeAristophanesandAgathonthatForallnames,suchasSocrateshere,seeGlossaryofnamesPlatowasbornsometimeinthesAlthoughweknowAgathondidwinatheatricalcompetitioninBC,andthattheguestsarerealhistoricalfigures,thereisnohistoricalevidenceforacelebrationofthesortPlatodescribesintheSymposiumTheworkitselfisbelievedtohavebeencomposedsometimebetweenBCandBCFordiscussionofthedateofcomposition,seeHMattingly‘ThedateofPlato’sSymposium’,Phronesis():–andKDover‘ThedateofPlato’sSymposium’,Phronesis():–Symposiumliterallymeans‘drinkingtogether’ForallGreektermsmentionedintheIntroduction,suchaseroshere,seeGlossaryviithesameauthorshouldbeabletocomposebothcomedyandtragedyTheeventsofthisgatheringareretoldsomeyearslaterbyApollodorus,anotherSocraticintimate,whoseloveforSocrateshasledhimtomemorisetheentireoccasionbyheartThedramaticaspectsofthisworkarenotlimitedtothelivelysettingandrichcharacterisationDuringthetimebetweenAgathon’sdrinkingpartyanditsrecollectionbyApollodorus,theAthenianshadlostsomeoftheconfidenceshownherebyAgathonandhispeersJustayearafterAgathon’svictory,AlcibiadeshadpersuadedtheAthenianstoembarkonthedoomedSicilianexpeditionTheAtheniandefeatheremarkedaturningpointinanalreadybitterstrugglewithSparta(thePeloponnesianWar)Tworeligiousscandalsalsotooktheirtoll:thesocalledprofanation(ieparodying)ofthesacredMysteriesandthemutilationofthehermsSincethoseinvolvedinthisdesecrationwerefromtheAthenianaristocracy,itwaswidelyheldthattheperpetratorsweretryingtounderminethedemocraticgovernmentOneoftheseeventswasbelievedtohavebeencommittedbyagroupofrowdysymposiastsafteraneventmuchlikeAgathon’ssymposiumdescribedhere,andamongstthoseaccusedofinvolvementwereAlcibiadesandPhaedrusandverypossiblyEryximachusTheinclusionofthesefiguresatadialoguesetatasymposium,andtherecollectionofthisoccasionaftertheseeventshadalreadyoccurred,invitesthereadertoconsiderthesecharactersonthebrinkoftheirimpendingtragedyThelivesandlovestheyrevealintheirspeechesmaywellbePlato’scontributiontoapostwardebateaboutsuchmattersErosandeducationThespeechesabouteroseachmakeaverydistinctivecontributiontoanunderstandingofthenatureofhumandesireandtheaimoflovingrelationshipsAlthoughthistopicmaynotbeprominentwithmanyphilosopherstoday,norsettingtheirworkatadrinkingparty,thesefeaturesofthislivelydialoguewill,infact,takeusdeepintotheseriousbusinessofPlato’sethicsAmongmembersoftheAthenianeliteduringthefifthandfourthcenturiesrelationshipsbetweenanoldermalelover(erastes)andayoungermalebeloved(eromenos)werenotuncommonTypicallyinsuchrelationshipsanolderpartnersoughtsexualfavoursfromayouthontheSeeGlossaryofnamesfordetailsoftheseeventsviiiIntroductionvergeofmanhoodinreturnforprovidingsocial,politicalandmoraltrainingThefeelingsofdesireand,atbest,concernforthewelfareofone’spartnerwereemployedforthesociallyproductiveendoffurtheringtheeducationoftheyoungAnimportantcontextforsuchrelationshipswastheGreeksymposium,suchastheonethatformsthesettingforthisdialogueAlthoughsymposiawereplacestoindulgeinthephysicalpleasuresoffood,drinkandsex,theywerealsoaplacetocultivatethepleasuresofthemindAfterdinner,withloverandbelovedrecliningonthesamecouch,loverswouldsingdrinkingsongs,orrecitepoetryorprose,totheirbelovedsThecontentwouldoftenreflectonthepracticesofthosegatheredatthesymposium,andhowtheyshouldeat,drinkanddesireintherightwayThetopicofthisdialoguewas,infact,alreadyanestablishedthemeinacontextthatwasconcernedwithbotharousing,andregulating,desiresThefactthateroticrelationshipshadthiseducationaldimension,andthatthesymposiumwasanimportantforumforsuchrelationships,goessomewaytowardsexplainingwhyPlatowrotethisdialogueAswemightexpectfromaphilosopherwhoseworksconsistentlyfocusonthenatureofthegoodlifeandhowitisachieved,PlatowillhavemuchtosayherealsoaboutthesortsofvaluesthatloversshouldtransmittotheirbelovedsastheypassthewinecupSinceitisonthebasisofacertainconceptionofaflourishinglifethatcertainsortsofthingsareadvocatedtotheyoungasvaluable,thedialogueexploresthenatureofeudaimonia,whichmaybetranslatedashappinessorflourishingThisisultimatelywhyadialoguedevotedtothenatureoferoticrelationshipsisatitscoreanethicalwork,whichculminatesinthespecificationof‘thelifewhichahumanbeingshouldlive’(d)AnditisthisconcernthatrelatestheSymposiumtoafundamentalquestionthatinformsavarietyofPlatonicdialogues:howshouldonelive(cfGorgiascRepublicd)OnpederastyasanimportantsocialinstitutioninclassicalAthens,seeDover()Bremmer()Ontheeducationalfunctionofthesymposium,seeBremmer()–Calame()–SeealsoHunter(),whoarguesthat‘fromanearlydatetheliteratureofthesymposiumfrequentlyinvolvesametadiscourseupontheconductofthesymposiumitselftheoverridinginterestintheirownprocedureswhichcharacterisesmanymembersofmodernclubsandsocietiesfoundanancientcounterpartinsympoticreflectionsuponsymposia,andPlato’sSymposiumistobeseenwithinanevolvingfourthcenturytraditionofprosesympotika,whichlookbacktothesympoticpoetryofthearchaicperiod’ixIntroductionPlato’sconcernwithdesireanditsroleinthegoodlifeinanumberofworkssuggeststhathebelievedthatone’sabilitytoactwellandtoleadaworthwhileandgoodlifedepends,inpart,ondesiringtherightkindsofthingsandactingonthatbasisWhat,orwhom,onedesiresdeterminesthechoicesonemakesandtherebyaffectsone’schancesofleadingaworthwhileandhappylifeConsider,forexample,thebehaviouratthestartofthedialogueofApollodorus,whoproudlyannouncesthathislifehasbeenreorientatedtowardstheloveofwisdomPursuingthisparticulargoal,hebelieves,willleadtothekindofhappinesssimplyunavailabletothosewhoselivesareorientatedtowardsthepursuitofwealth(a)InthespeechesPlatowillbeconsideringavarietyofthingsthoughttobeworthyofdesireandpursuit,andattheheartofthedialoguestandsSocrates’argumentforthecentralityofphilosophytothehappyhumanlife(philosophia,meansliterally‘theloveofwisdom’)ThefactthatdesiresareseentoplaysuchanimportantroleinthegoodlifelocatesthistextamongstmanyotherancientworksconcernedwiththedevelopmentofcharacterandhowthatcontributestoagoodhumanlifeAnoverviewofthespeechesTheSymposiumconsistsmainlyofaseriesofpraisespeeches(encomia)InsomerespectsthisisadeparturefromtheusualformofPlato’sdialogues,whicharetypicallycharacterisedbyaquestionandanswerformatInmanyoftheseworksSocratesispittedagainstsomecontemporaryfigurewhoseclaimstowisdomheexaminesandrefutesbyaparticulartechniqueofquestioning,oftenreferredtoasanelenchus,anexamination,orrefutationIntheSymposiumweseeamoreconstructiveSocratesdeliveringanextendedspeechalongwithhispeersSinceeachspeakerattemptstooutdohispredecessor,thedialoguecanstillbeseenascombativeinnatureand,withSocrates’speechoccupyingcentrestage,thecentralityofphilosophytoaproperunderstandingofthetopicismadeclearButalthoughSocratesmaintainshiscriticaldistancefromhispeersinthisdialogue(b–b),thepreviousspeechesneednotbereadasextraneoustotheThis‘agentcentred’ratherthan‘actcentred’approach,asithascometobeknown,hasbeenrevivedinrecenttimesasvirtueethicshasbecomemorepopularThisapproachemphasisesthemotivesandcharacterofmoralagents,asopposedtodutiesorrules(deontology),orconsequencesofaction(consequentialism)HisspeechisactuallyareporteddialoguewithapriestesscalledDiotimaxIntroductionphilosophicalcoreoftheworkTheyplayasignificantrolebyprovidingthereaderwithasenseoftheagreementsanddisagreementsonthesubject,andbyclarifyingthesortsofpuzzlesthataclearandexplanatoryaccount–ofthesortthatSocratesprofessestodeliver(b)–mustresolveForexample,Phaedrus(a–b),thefirstspeaker,putstheissueoftheroleofloveinmoraleducationfirmlyontheagendaHearguesthataloverelationshiphasthegreatestpowerwhenitcomestoacquiringexcellence(arete)andhappiness,asheconceivesofsuchthings(b)Inthepresenceofone’sloveroneisinspiredtopursuehonourandtherebytoperformnobledeeds,suchasactsofheroismAlthoughtheideathatlovingrelationshipsbringoutthebestinonemayhelptoexplainthepositiveeffectsoflove,itisunclearwhyaloveofhonour,ratherthanpleasure,say,isfosteredbysuchrelationshipsDoallloversarousethisaim,orjustloversofacertainsortPausanias(c–c)buildsonPhaedrus’ideathataproperloverelationshipleadstotheacquisitionofsomesortofexcellence(arete,b)Sincehebelievesthatcultivatingwisdomiscrucialhere(d),hearguesthatattractiontoaperson’ssoul(psuche)inparticularwillencouragethedevelopmentofthatsoulanditscharacteristicexcellencesThisaccount,atleast,raisestheimportantpointthatifwearetounderstandthesortofrelationshipthatcancontributetothegoodlife,thenweneedanaccountofthesortofexcellencethatiscentraltothatlifeIfwisdomisintimatelyrelatedtohumanexcellence,asPausaniasstates,thenwecangraspwhyabeneficialrelationshipisfocusedonthedevelopmentofthesoulSomekindofaccountremainstobegivenofjustwhatsortofwisdomwillleadtosuchbenefitsandwhy,andwhomightbeitsbestexponentSincePlatodoesnotappearinpropriapersonainthework,orendorseexplicitlytheviewsofthecharacterSocrates,onemightquestionwhetherSocrates’speechdoesmarkthephilosophicalcoreofthework,asIhavesuggestedPerhapsSocratesshouldbeconsideredasonevoiceamongstmanyinthework,withnoneofthecharacterscarryingmoreauthorialauthoritythananyotherIfso,thenperhapseachshouldbegivenequalweightinourreadingSincethedialoguebeginsandendswithSocraticdevotees,andSocrates’speechisbyfarthelongestandmostcomplex,itisdifficultnottoreadthedialoguewiththeSocratescharacteroccupyingcentrestageMoreover,manyofhisviewsherecoincidewithviewsarguedforelsewhereinthePlatonicdialoguesThissuggeststhat,attheveryleast,Socrates’speechexpressessomeofPlato’senduringphilosophicalpreoccupationsWhethertheseareconsideredtobePlatonicdoctrineexpressedthroughaSocraticmouthpieceisafurtherquestion,howeverForageneraldiscussionofthedifficultiesofextractingdoctrinefromPlato’sworks,seeMFrede()andforadefenceofadoctrinalapproach,seeJBeversluis()xiIntroductionEryximachus(a–e)addressesthisissuenextHeagreeswithPhaedrusandPausaniasthattheaimofabeneficialloverelationshipisthecultivationofsomekindofhumanexcellence(d),andaddsthatthecorrectlovermusthaveanexpertiseOnecanseehowthissuggestionarisesnaturallyfromthefocusonthedevelopmentofthesoulhighlightedbyPausaniasSinceEryximachusconstruesgoodorderasessentialforexcellence,headvocatestheexpertiseofthedoctorwhosemainconcern,heexplains,iswithharmonising(ieordering)thevariouselementsofthebodyWhythisshouldberelevanttothegoodorderofthesoulisnotsoclear,howeverAristophanes(c–d)raisesanewissueHeclaimsthatinordertoappreciatewhylovehassuchabeneficialimpactonhumanlifeweneedanaccountofhumannatureanditsneedsAccordingtothisaccount,humanbeingsareneedycreatureswhostrivetowardsastateofselfrealisationandhappinessLoveaimsatthecompletionofself,andloversseeksomeoneakintothemselveswhocanmakethemcompleteandwhole(d)Althoughitseemsplausibletoclaimthatanaccountofthebeneficialeffectsoflovemustbeginfromanaccountofhumannatureanditsneeds,Aristophanes’accountoftheseneeds,andhowtheycanbestbesatisfied,alsoraisesquestionsAsSocratesputsitlater,wearewillingtocutoffourownhandsandfeetiftheyarediseased(e),andthereforetheaimofhumandesirecannotbelimitedtothingsthatareakintousAccordingtoAgathon(e–a),thepreviousspeakershavefailedtoexplainthesortofnatureresponsibleforthebenefitspraised(a)Since‘noonecouldteachorimparttoanotheranarthedoesnotknoworpossesshimself’(e),loversmustthemselvesbeineverywaysupremelybeautifulandvirtuousiftheyaretoconfersuchbenefitsonothers(b)Loverspursue,andproduce,beautifulandfinethingsandinduceotherstocreatesuchthingsegwisdom,construedhereaspoeticskill(d–e)Althoughitseemsplausibletoclaimthatthereissomethingcreativeaboutdesire,thepuzzlethatarisesspecificallyfromthisaccountiswhythisisthecaseIfloversarealreadyinpossessionofalmostallthegoodthingsonecouldimagine(asAgathonsupposes),thenwhydotheyengageinsuchcreativeendeavouratall,orinspireanyoneelsetodothesameAlthoughthespeechesstandintheirownrightasinventive,andoftenrhetoricallybrilliant,displaypiecesappropriatetoAgathon’svictorybanquet,theyalsohelpustorealisejustwhatisinvolvedinprovidingaclearandconsistentexplanationofthenatureofloveWemightagreewiththexiiIntroductionspeakers,forexample,thathappiness(eudaimonia)playsacentralroleinapositiveaccountofloveWemightalsoagreethatlovecancontributetowardsthecultivationofvarioussortsofexcellence,andthatthishassomethingtodowithpursuingbeautyButthereisavastspectrumofdifferentideasavailableaboutthenatureofhappiness,andwhatconstituteshumanexcellenceand,consequently,whoarethebestloversInoneaccountbraveryonthebattlefieldistheprivilegedvalueandthisissomehowrelatedtoaloveofhonour(Phaedrus)Inanother,wisdomiscentraltoexcellence(Pausanias)Eryximachusprizesthevirtueofthedoctor,orseer,whocanpromoteaharmoniousorder(d)Aristophaneshighlightsthevirtuesofthepolitician(a),andAgathongivesprioritytopoeticskill(d)Ifwearetounderstandwhyerosisafittingsubjectforpraiseatall,thenwhatstandsinneedofexplanationissomeaccountofwhichofthesepursuits(ifany)arecentraltoerosandwhy,andwhatrelationshipholdsbetweentheirpursuitandhappinessSocrates’speechSinceSocratesclaimstoprovideanaccountthatprivilegesthetruthoverrhetoricaleffect(b),weexpectanattempttoresolvesuchpuzzlesHisspeechis,atleast,systematicFirst,heprovidesanaccountofthenatureofdesire(b),hethenproceedstoitsaims(d),andfinallyheoutlinesitscharacteristicactivity(b),themostcentralof

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

评分:

/26

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利