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首页 经济学原理 曼昆

经济学原理 曼昆

经济学原理 曼昆

troyjinxiao
2009-03-17 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《经济学原理 曼昆pdf》,可适用于其他资料领域

INTHISCHAPTERYOUWILLDiscusshowincentivesaffectpeople’sbehaviorLearnthemeaningofopportunitycostLearnthateconomicsisabouttheallocationofscarceresourcesExaminesomeofthetradeoffsthatpeoplefaceSeehowtousemarginalreasoningwhenmakingdecisionsThewordeconomycomesfromtheGreekwordfor“onewhomanagesahousehold”Atfirst,thisoriginmightseempeculiarBut,infact,householdsandeconomieshavemuchincommonAhouseholdfacesmanydecisionsItmustdecidewhichmembersofthehouseholddowhichtasksandwhateachmembergetsinreturn:WhocooksdinnerWhodoesthelaundryWhogetstheextradessertatdinnerWhogetstochoosewhatTVshowtowatchInshort,thehouseholdmustallocateitsscarceresourcesamongitsvariousmembers,takingintoaccounteachmember’sabilities,efforts,anddesiresLikeahousehold,asocietyfacesmanydecisionsAsocietymustdecidewhatjobswillbedoneandwhowilldothemItneedssomepeopletogrowfood,otherpeopletomakeclothing,andstillotherstodesigncomputersoftwareOncesocietyhasallocatedpeople(aswellasland,buildings,andmachines)tovariousjobs,TENPRINCIPLESOFECONOMICSConsiderwhytradeamongpeopleornationscanbegoodforeveryoneDiscusswhymarketsareagood,butnotperfect,waytoallocateresourcesLearnwhatdeterminessometrendsintheoveralleconomyPARTONEINTRODUCTIONitmustalsoallocatetheoutputofgoodsandservicesthattheyproduceItmustdecidewhowilleatcaviarandwhowilleatpotatoesItmustdecidewhowilldriveaPorscheandwhowilltakethebusThemanagementofsociety’sresourcesisimportantbecauseresourcesarescarceScarcitymeansthatsocietyhaslimitedresourcesandthereforecannotproduceallthegoodsandservicespeoplewishtohaveJustasahouseholdcannotgiveeverymembereverythingheorshewants,asocietycannotgiveeveryindividualthehigheststandardoflivingtowhichheorshemightaspireEconomicsisthestudyofhowsocietymanagesitsscarceresourcesInmostsocieties,resourcesareallocatednotbyasinglecentralplannerbutthroughthecombinedactionsofmillionsofhouseholdsandfirmsEconomiststhereforestudyhowpeoplemakedecisions:howmuchtheywork,whattheybuy,howmuchtheysave,andhowtheyinvesttheirsavingsEconomistsalsostudyhowpeopleinteractwithoneanotherForinstance,theyexaminehowthemultitudeofbuyersandsellersofagoodtogetherdeterminethepriceatwhichthegoodissoldandthequantitythatissoldFinally,economistsanalyzeforcesandtrendsthataffecttheeconomyasawhole,includingthegrowthinaverageincome,thefractionofthepopulationthatcannotfindwork,andtherateatwhichpricesarerisingAlthoughthestudyofeconomicshasmanyfacets,thefieldisunifiedbyseveralcentralideasIntherestofthischapter,welookatTenPrinciplesofEconomicsTheseprinciplesrecurthroughoutthisbookandareintroducedheretogiveyouanoverviewofwhateconomicsisallaboutYoucanthinkofthischapterasa“previewofcomingattractions”HOWPEOPLEMAKEDECISIONSThereisnomysterytowhatan“economy”isWhetherwearetalkingabouttheeconomyofLosAngeles,oftheUnitedStates,orofthewholeworld,aneconomyisjustagroupofpeopleinteractingwithoneanotherastheygoabouttheirlivesBecausethebehaviorofaneconomyreflectsthebehavioroftheindividualswhomakeuptheeconomy,westartourstudyofeconomicswithfourprinciplesofindividualdecisionmakingPRINCIPLE#:PEOPLEFACETRADEOFFSThefirstlessonaboutmakingdecisionsissummarizedintheadage:“Thereisnosuchthingasafreelunch”Togetonethingthatwelike,weusuallyhavetogiveupanotherthingthatwelikeMakingdecisionsrequirestradingoffonegoalagainstanotherConsiderastudentwhomustdecidehowtoallocatehermostvaluableresourcehertimeShecanspendallofhertimestudyingeconomicsshecanspendallofhertimestudyingpsychologyorshecandividehertimebetweenthetwofieldsForeveryhourshestudiesonesubject,shegivesupanhourshecouldhaveusedstudyingtheotherAndforeveryhourshespendsstudying,shegivesupanhourthatshecouldhavespentnapping,bikeriding,watchingTV,orworkingatherparttimejobforsomeextraspendingmoneyscarcitythelimitednatureofsociety’sresourceseconomicsthestudyofhowsocietymanagesitsscarceresourcesCHAPTERTENPRINCIPLESOFECONOMICSOrconsiderparentsdecidinghowtospendtheirfamilyincomeTheycanbuyfood,clothing,orafamilyvacationOrtheycansavesomeofthefamilyincomeforretirementorthechildren’scollegeeducationWhentheychoosetospendanextradollarononeofthesegoods,theyhaveonelessdollartospendonsomeothergoodWhenpeoplearegroupedintosocieties,theyfacedifferentkindsoftradeoffsTheclassictradeoffisbetween“gunsandbutter”Themorewespendonnationaldefensetoprotectourshoresfromforeignaggressors(guns),thelesswecanspendonconsumergoodstoraiseourstandardoflivingathome(butter)AlsoimportantinmodernsocietyisthetradeoffbetweenacleanenvironmentandahighlevelofincomeLawsthatrequirefirmstoreducepollutionraisethecostofproducinggoodsandservicesBecauseofthehighercosts,thesefirmsendupearningsmallerprofits,payinglowerwages,charginghigherprices,orsomecombinationofthesethreeThus,whilepollutionregulationsgiveusthebenefitofacleanerenvironmentandtheimprovedhealththatcomeswithit,theyhavethecostofreducingtheincomesofthefirms’owners,workers,andcustomersAnothertradeoffsocietyfacesisbetweenefficiencyandequityEfficiencymeansthatsocietyisgettingthemostitcanfromitsscarceresourcesEquitymeansthatthebenefitsofthoseresourcesaredistributedfairlyamongsociety’smembersInotherwords,efficiencyreferstothesizeoftheeconomicpie,andequityreferstohowthepieisdividedOften,whengovernmentpoliciesarebeingdesigned,thesetwogoalsconflictConsider,forinstance,policiesaimedatachievingamoreequaldistributionofeconomicwellbeingSomeofthesepolicies,suchasthewelfaresystemorunemploymentinsurance,trytohelpthosemembersofsocietywhoaremostinneedOthers,suchastheindividualincometax,askthefinanciallysuccessfultocontributemorethanotherstosupportthegovernmentAlthoughthesepolicieshavethebenefitofachievinggreaterequity,theyhaveacostintermsofreducedefficiencyWhenthegovernmentredistributesincomefromtherichtothepoor,itreducestherewardforworkinghardasaresult,peopleworklessandproducefewergoodsandservicesInotherwords,whenthegovernmenttriestocuttheeconomicpieintomoreequalslices,thepiegetssmallerRecognizingthatpeoplefacetradeoffsdoesnotbyitselftelluswhatdecisionstheywillorshouldmakeAstudentshouldnotabandonthestudyofpsychologyjustbecausedoingsowouldincreasethetimeavailableforthestudyofeconomicsSocietyshouldnotstopprotectingtheenvironmentjustbecauseenvironmentalregulationsreduceourmaterialstandardoflivingThepoorshouldnotbeignoredjustbecausehelpingthemdistortsworkincentivesNonetheless,acknowledginglife’stradeoffsisimportantbecausepeoplearelikelytomakegooddecisionsonlyiftheyunderstandtheoptionsthattheyhaveavailablePRINCIPLE#:THECOSTOFSOMETHINGISWHATYOUGIVEUPTOGETITBecausepeoplefacetradeoffs,makingdecisionsrequirescomparingthecostsandbenefitsofalternativecoursesofactionInmanycases,however,thecostofsomeactionisnotasobviousasitmightfirstappearConsider,forexample,thedecisionwhethertogotocollegeThebenefitisintellectualenrichmentandalifetimeofbetterjobopportunitiesButwhatisthecostToanswerthisquestion,youmightbetemptedtoaddupthemoneyyouefficiencythepropertyofsocietygettingthemostitcanfromitsscarceresourcesequitythepropertyofdistributingeconomicprosperityfairlyamongthemembersofsocietyPARTONEINTRODUCTIONspendontuition,books,room,andboardYetthistotaldoesnottrulyrepresentwhatyougiveuptospendayearincollegeThefirstproblemwiththisansweristhatitincludessomethingsthatarenotreallycostsofgoingtocollegeEvenifyouquitschool,youwouldneedaplacetosleepandfoodtoeatRoomandboardarecostsofgoingtocollegeonlytotheextentthattheyaremoreexpensiveatcollegethanelsewhereIndeed,thecostofroomandboardatyourschoolmightbelessthantherentandfoodexpensesthatyouwouldpaylivingonyourownInthiscase,thesavingsonroomandboardareabenefitofgoingtocollegeThesecondproblemwiththiscalculationofcostsisthatitignoresthelargestcostofgoingtocollegeyourtimeWhenyouspendayearlisteningtolectures,readingtextbooks,andwritingpapers,youcannotspendthattimeworkingatajobFormoststudents,thewagesgivenuptoattendschoolarethelargestsinglecostoftheireducationTheopportunitycostofanitemiswhatyougiveuptogetthatitemWhenmakinganydecision,suchaswhethertoattendcollege,decisionmakersshouldbeawareoftheopportunitycoststhataccompanyeachpossibleactionInfact,theyusuallyareCollegeageathleteswhocanearnmillionsiftheydropoutofschoolandplayprofessionalsportsarewellawarethattheiropportunitycostofcollegeisveryhighItisnotsurprisingthattheyoftendecidethatthebenefitisnotworththecostPRINCIPLE#:RATIONALPEOPLETHINKATTHEMARGINDecisionsinlifearerarelyblackandwhitebutusuallyinvolveshadesofgrayWhenit’stimefordinner,thedecisionyoufaceisnotbetweenfastingoreatinglikeapig,butwhethertotakethatextraspoonfulofmashedpotatoesWhenexamsrollaround,yourdecisionisnotbetweenblowingthemofforstudyinghoursaday,butwhethertospendanextrahourreviewingyournotesinsteadofwatchingTVEconomistsusethetermmarginalchangestodescribesmallincrementaladjustmentstoanexistingplanofactionKeepinmindthat“margin”means“edge,”somarginalchangesareadjustmentsaroundtheedgesofwhatyouaredoingInmanysituations,peoplemakethebestdecisionsbythinkingatthemarginSuppose,forinstance,thatyouaskedafriendforadviceabouthowmanyyearstostayinschoolIfheweretocompareforyouthelifestyleofapersonwithaPhDtothatofagradeschooldropout,youmightcomplainthatthiscomparisonisnothelpfulforyourdecisionYouhavesomeeducationalreadyandmostlikelyaredecidingwhethertospendanextrayearortwoinschoolTomakethisdecision,youneedtoknowtheadditionalbenefitsthatanextrayearinschoolwouldoffer(higherwagesthroughoutlifeandthesheerjoyoflearning)andtheadditionalcoststhatyouwouldincur(tuitionandtheforgonewageswhileyou’reinschool)Bycomparingthesemarginalbenefitsandmarginalcosts,youcanevaluatewhethertheextrayearisworthwhileAsanotherexample,consideranairlinedecidinghowmuchtochargepassengerswhoflystandbySupposethatflyingaseatplaneacrossthecountrycoststheairline$,Inthiscase,theaveragecostofeachseatis$,,whichis$Onemightbetemptedtoconcludethattheairlineshouldneversellaticketforlessthan$Infact,however,theairlinecanraiseitsprofitsbyopportunitycostwhatevermustbegivenuptoobtainsomeitemmarginalchangessmallincrementaladjustmentstoaplanofactionCHAPTERTENPRINCIPLESOFECONOMICSthinkingatthemarginImaginethataplaneisabouttotakeoffwithtenemptyseats,andastandbypassengeriswaitingatthegatewillingtopay$foraseatShouldtheairlinesellittohimOfcourseitshouldIftheplanehasemptyseats,thecostofaddingonemorepassengerisminusculeAlthoughtheaveragecostofflyingapassengeris$,themarginalcostismerelythecostofthebagofpeanutsandcanofsodathattheextrapassengerwillconsumeAslongasthestandbypassengerpaysmorethanthemarginalcost,sellinghimaticketisprofitableAstheseexamplesshow,individualsandfirmscanmakebetterdecisionsbythinkingatthemarginArationaldecisionmakertakesanactionifandonlyifthemarginalbenefitoftheactionexceedsthemarginalcostPRINCIPLE#:PEOPLERESPONDTOINCENTIVESBecausepeoplemakedecisionsbycomparingcostsandbenefits,theirbehaviormaychangewhenthecostsorbenefitschangeThatis,peoplerespondtoincentivesWhenthepriceofanapplerises,forinstance,peopledecidetoeatmorepearsandfewerapples,becausethecostofbuyinganappleishigherAtthesametime,appleorchardsdecidetohiremoreworkersandharvestmoreapples,becausethebenefitofsellinganappleisalsohigherAswewillsee,theeffectofpriceonthebehaviorofbuyersandsellersinamarketinthiscase,themarketforapplesiscrucialforunderstandinghowtheeconomyworksPublicpolicymakersshouldneverforgetaboutincentives,formanypolicieschangethecostsorbenefitsthatpeoplefaceand,therefore,alterbehaviorAtaxongasoline,forinstance,encouragespeopletodrivesmaller,morefuelefficientcarsItalsoencouragespeopletotakepublictransportationratherthandriveandtoliveclosertowheretheyworkIfthetaxwerelargeenough,peoplewouldstartdrivingelectriccarsWhenpolicymakersfailtoconsiderhowtheirpoliciesaffectincentives,theycanendupwithresultsthattheydidnotintendForexample,considerpublicpolicyregardingautosafetyTodayallcarshaveseatbelts,butthatwasnottrueyearsagoInthelates,RalphNader’sbookUnsafeatAnySpeedgeneratedmuchpublicconcernoverautosafetyCongressrespondedwithlawsrequiringcarcompaniestomakevarioussafetyfeatures,includingseatbelts,standardequipmentonallnewcarsHowdoesaseatbeltlawaffectautosafetyThedirecteffectisobviousWithseatbeltsinallcars,morepeoplewearseatbelts,andtheprobabilityofsurvivingamajorautoaccidentrisesInthissense,seatbeltssavelivesButthat’snottheendofthestoryTofullyunderstandtheeffectsofthislaw,wemustrecognizethatpeoplechangetheirbehaviorinresponsetotheincentivestheyfaceTherelevantbehaviorhereisthespeedandcarewithwhichdriversoperatetheircarsDrivingslowlyandcarefullyiscostlybecauseitusesthedriver’stimeandenergyWhendecidinghowsafelytodrive,rationalpeoplecomparethemarginalbenefitfromsaferdrivingtothemarginalcostTheydrivemoreslowlyandcarefullywhenthebenefitofincreasedsafetyishighThisexplainswhypeopledrivemoreslowlyandcarefullywhenroadsareicythanwhenroadsareclearNowconsiderhowaseatbeltlawaltersthecost–benefitcalculationofarationaldriverSeatbeltsmakeaccidentslesscostlyforadriverbecausetheyreducetheprobabilityofinjuryordeathThus,aseatbeltlawreducesthebenefitstoslowandcarefuldrivingPeoplerespondtoseatbeltsastheywouldtoanimprovementBASKETBALLSTARKOBEBRYANTUNDERSTANDSOPPORTUNITYCOSTANDINCENTIVESDESPITEGOODHIGHSCHOOLGRADESANDSATSCORES,HEDECIDEDTOSKIPCOLLEGEANDGOSTRAIGHTTOTHENBA,WHEREHEEARNEDABOUT$MILLIONOVERFOURYEARSPARTONEINTRODUCTIONinroadconditionsbyfasterandlesscarefuldrivingTheendresultofaseatbeltlaw,therefore,isalargernumberofaccidentsHowdoesthelawaffectthenumberofdeathsfromdrivingDriverswhoweartheirseatbeltsaremorelikelytosurviveanygivenaccident,buttheyarealsomorelikelytofindthemselvesinanaccidentTheneteffectisambiguousMoreover,thereductioninsafedrivinghasanadverseimpactonpedestrians(andondriverswhodonotweartheirseatbelts)TheyareputinjeopardybythelawbecausetheyaremorelikelytofindthemselvesinanaccidentbutarenotprotectedbyaseatbeltThus,aseatbeltlawtendstoincreasethenumberofpedestriandeathsAtfirst,thisdiscussionofincentivesandseatbeltsmightseemlikeidlespeculationYet,inastudy,economistSamPeltzmanshowedthattheautosafetylawshave,infact,hadmanyoftheseeffectsAccordingtoPeltzman’sevidence,theselawsproducebothfewerdeathsperaccidentandmoreaccidentsThenetresultislittlechangeinthenumberofdriverdeathsandanincreaseinthenumberofpedestriandeathsPeltzman’sanalysisofautosafetyisanexampleofthegeneralprinciplethatpeoplerespondtoincentivesManyincentivesthateconomistsstudyaremorestraightforwardthanthoseoftheautosafetylawsNooneissurprisedthatpeopledrivesmallercarsinEurope,wheregasolinetaxesarehigh,thanintheUnitedStates,wheregasolinetaxesarelowYet,astheseatbeltexampleshows,policiescanhaveeffectsthatarenotobviousinadvanceWhenanalyzinganypolicy,wemustconsidernotonlythedirecteffectsbutalsotheindirecteffectsthatworkthroughincentivesIfthepolicychangesincentives,itwillcausepeopletoaltertheirbehaviorQUICKQUIZ:ListandbrieflyexplainthefourprinciplesofindividualdecisionmakingHOWPEOPLEINTERACTThefirstfourprinciplesdiscussedhowindividualsmakedecisionsAswegoaboutourlives,manyofourdecisionsaffectnotonlyourselvesbutotherpeopleaswellThenextthreeprinciplesconcernhowpeopleinteractwithoneanotherPRINCIPLE#:TRADECANMAKEEVERYONEBETTEROFFYouhaveprobablyheardonthenewsthattheJapaneseareourcompetitorsintheworldeconomyInsomeways,thisistrue,forAmericanandJapanesefirmsdoproducemanyofthesamegoodsFordandToyotacompeteforthesamecustomersinthemarketforautomobilesCompaqandToshibacompeteforthesamecustomersinthemarketforpersonalcomputersYetitiseasytobemisledwhenthinkingaboutcompetitionamongcountriesTradebetweentheUnitedStatesandJapanisnotlikeasportscontest,whereoneCHAPTERTENPRINCIPLESOFECONOMICSsidewinsandtheothersidelosesInfact,theoppositeistrue:TradebetweentwocountriescanmakeeachcountrybetteroffToseewhy,considerhowtradeaffectsyourfamilyWhenamemberofyourfamilylooksforajob,heorshecompetesagainstmembersofotherfamilieswhoarelookingforjobsFamiliesalsocompeteagainstoneanotherwhentheygoshopping,becauseeachfamilywantstobuythebestgoodsatthelowestpricesSo,inasense,eachfamilyintheeconomyiscompetingwithallotherfamiliesDespitethiscompetition,yourfamilywouldnotbebetteroffisolatingitselffromallotherfamiliesIfitdid,yourfamilywouldneedtogrowitsownfood,makeitsownclothes,andbuilditsownhomeClearly,yourfamilygainsmuchfromitsabilitytotradewithothersTradeallowseachpersontospecializeintheactivitiesheorshedoesbest,whetheritisfarming,sewing,orhomebuildingBytradingwithothers,peoplecanbuyagreatervarietyofgoodsandservicesatlowercostCountriesaswellasfamiliesbenefitfromtheabilitytotradewithoneanother

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