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首页 罗兰·巴特:《图像·音乐·文本》(英文)

罗兰·巴特:《图像·音乐·文本》(英文).pdf

罗兰·巴特:《图像·音乐·文本》(英文)

库岑
2009-03-16 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《罗兰·巴特:《图像·音乐·文本》(英文)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

IMAGEMUSICTEXTROLANDBARTHESwasbominanddiedinAtthetimeofhisdeathhewasProfessorattheCollegedeFranceAmonghisbooksareLeDegrezerodeI'ecriture(),Mythologies(),Elementsdesemiologie(),SZ(),L'Empiredessignes(),Sade,Fourier,Loyola(),RolandBarthesparRolandBarthes(),Fragmentsd'undiscoursamoureux(),andLaChambreclaire()STEPHENHEATHisaFellowofJesusCollegeandReaderinCulturalStudiesintheUniversityofCambridgeHisbooksincludeastudyofBarthes,Vertigedudeplacement(),and,mostrecently,GustaveFlaubert:'MadameBovary'()ROLANDBARTHESImageMusicTextEssaysselectedandtranslatedbyStephenHeathFontanaPressAnImprintofHarperCollinsPublishersFontanaPressAnimprintofHarperCollinsPublishersFulhamPalaceRoadHammersmith,London,wJBwwwfireandwatercomPublishedbyFontanaPressCopyright©RolandBarthesEnglishtranslationcopyright©StephenHeathIllustrationsI,XI,XII,XIII,XIVandXVarefromthecollectionofVincentPinelISBNSetinTimesPrintedinGreatBritainbyClaysLtd,StIvesplcAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,withoutthepriorpermissionofthepublishersThisbookissoldsubjecttotheconditionthatitshallnot,bywayoftradeorotherwise,belent,resold,hiredoutorotherwisecirculatedwithoutthepublisher'spriorconsentinanyformofbindingorcoverotherthanthatinwhichitispublishedandwithoutasimilarconditionincludingthisconditionbeingimposedonthesubsequentpurchaserContentsTranslator'sNoteSourcesThePhotographicMessageRhetoricoftheImageTheThirdMeaningResearchnotesonsomeEisensteinstillsDiderot,Brecht,EisensteinIntroductiontotheStructuralAnalysisofNarrativesTheStrugglewiththeAngelTextualanalysisofGenesis:TheDeathoftheAuthorMusicaPracticaFromWorktoTextChangetheObjectItselfMythologytodayLessoninWritingTheGrainoftheVoiceWriters,Intellectuals,TeachersIndexTranslator'sNoteLeavingasidetheproblemsinvolvedinanytranslation,specialdifficultiesarisewhen(ashere)thereis(asyet)norealoverlapintheoreticalcontextbetweenthetwolanguagesinquestionWithregardtothesemiologicalreferenceintheseessays,IhavetriedwhereverpossibletoconformtotheterminologicalsolutionsadoptedbytheEnglishtranslatorsofBarthes'sElementsofSemiologyAcertainamountofbibliographicalandoccasionallyexplanatorymaterialhasbeenaddedinfootnoteswhichareidentifiedbybeingplacedinsquarebracketsThefollowingtermsposeparticulardifficulties:Langue|paroleThereferencehereistothedistinctionmadebytheSwisslinguistSaussureWhereparoleistherealmoftheindividualmomentsoflanguageuse,ofparticular'utterances'or'messages',whetherspokenorwritten,langueisthesystemorcode('lecodedelalangue')whichallowstherealizationoftheindividualmessagesAsthelanguagesystem,objectoflinguistics,langueisthusalsotobedifferentiatedfromlangage,theheterogeneoustotalitywithwhichthelinguistisinitiallyfacedandwhichmaybestudiedfromavarietyofpointsofview,partakingasitdoesofthephysical,thephysiological,themental,theindividualandthesocialItispreciselybydelimitingitsspecificobjectandfixingasitstaskthedescriptionofthatobject(thatis,ofthelangue,thesystemofthelanguage)thatSaussurefoundslinguisticsasascience(Chomsky'sdistinctionbetweencompetenceperformance'thespeakerhearer'sknowledgeofhislanguage'and'theactualuseof|IMAGEMUSICTEXTlanguageinconcretesituations'resemblesthatbetweenlangue|parolebut,sotospeak,bringswithinthescopeoflangueelementstherecursiveprocessesunderlyingsentenceformationregardedbySaussureasbelongingtoparole)TheproblemintranslationisthatinEnglish'language'hastoserveforbothlangueandlangageLanguecanoftenbespecifiedbytranslationas'a'or'thelanguage'oragainas'languagesystem'(inoppositiontothe'languageuse'ofparole),butIhaveincludedtheFrenchterminbracketsincaseswheretheideaoftheanalyticconstructionofalanguagesystemisbeinggivencrucialstress(seenotablythe'Introductiontothestructuralanalysisofnarratives')Enonce|enonciationBoththesetermsareoftentranslatedinEnglishas'utterance',butwhereasthefirstsignifieswhatisuttered(thestatement,theproposition),thesecondsignifiestheactofuttering(theactofspeech,writingorwhateverbywhichthestatementisstated,thepropositionproposed)Thisdistinctionrejoinsanddisplacesthatbetweenlangueparole:everyenonceisapieceofparoleconsiderationofenonciationinvolvesnotonlythesocialandpsychological(ienonlinguistic)contextofenonces,butalsofeaturesoflangueitself,ofthewaysinwhichitstructuresthepossibilitiesofenonciation(symbolindexessuchaspersonalpronouns,tenses,anaphoresarethemostobviousoftheselinguisticfeaturesofenonciation)Thedistinctionthedisplacementhasparticularimportanceinanysemiological,psychoanalytical,textualattentiontothepassage,thedivisions,ofthesubjectinlanguage,inthesymbolic,totheslideseizedinthedisjunctionofthesujetdeI'enonceandthesujetdel'enonciationIntheutterance'Iamlying',forexample,itisevidentthatthesubjectofthepropositionisnotonewiththesubjectoftheenunciationofthepropositionthe'I'cannotlieonbothplanesatonceDream,lapsusandjokearesomanyTranslator'sNote|disordersoftheregulationoftheseplanes,oftheexchangebetweensubjectandsignifierastoo,exactly,isthetextThedistinctionenonce|enonciationisrenderedhere,accordingtocontext,eitherby'statement'or'proposition''utterance'or,moresimplyandcarefully,by'enounced''enunciation'PlaisirjouissanceEnglishlacksawordabletocarrytherangeofmeaninginthetermjouissancewhichincludesenjoymentinthesenseofalegalorsocialpossession(enjoycertainrights,enjoyaprivilege),pleasure,and,crucially,thepleasureofsexualclimaxTheproblemwouldbelessacutewereitnotthatjouissanceisspecificallycontrastedtoplaisirbyBarthesinhisLePlaisirdutexte:ontheonehandapleasure(plaisir)linkedtoculturalenjoymentandidentity,totheculturalenjoymentofidentity,toahomogenizingmovementoftheegoontheotheraradicallyviolentpleasure(jouissance)whichshattersdissipates,losesthatculturalidentity,thategoTheAmericantranslationofLePlaisirdutexte(ThePleasureoftheText,NewYork)usestheword'bliss'forjouissancethesuccessofthisisdubious,however,sincenotonlydoes'bliss'lackaneffectiveverbalform(torendertheFrenchjouir),italsobringswithitconnotationsofreligiousandsocialcontentment('heavenlybliss','blissfullyhappy')whichdamaginglyweakentheforceoftheoriginalFrenchtermIhavenorealanswertotheproblemandhaveresortedtoaseriesofwordswhichindifferentcontextscancontainatleastsomeofthatforce:'thrill'(easilyverbalizedwith'tothrill',morephysicalandpotentiallysexual,than'bliss'),'climacticpleasure','come'and'coming'(theexactsexualtranslationofjouir,jouissance),'dissipation'(somewhattoomoralinitsjudgementbutabletorendertheloss,thefragmentation,emphasizedbyBarthesinjouissance)|IMAGEMUSICTEXTSignifianceAtheoreticalconceptinitiallyproposedanddevelopedbyJuliaKristeva(seeSemeiotike:Recherchespourunesemanalyse,ParisabriefaccountcanbefoundinEnglishinher'Thesemioticactivity',ScreenVolNo,SpringSummer)Signifiancehassometimesbeentranslatedas'significance',butthis,withitsassenttothestressedpositionofthesign,isexactlywhatitisnotandithasherebeenleftassignifianceBartheshimselfintroducessignifianceasfollowsinapassagewhichgatherstogetheranumberofthetermsthathavebeendiscussedinthispresentnote:'whenthetextisread(orwritten)asamovingplayofsignifiers,withoutanypossiblereferencetooneorsomefixedsignifieds,itbecomesnecessarytodistinguishsignification,whichbelongstotheplaneoftheproduct,oftheenounced,ofcommunication,andtheworkofthesignifier,whichbelongstotheplaneoftheproduction,oftheenunciation,ofsymbolizationthisworkbeingcalledsignifianceSignifianceisaprocessinthecourseofwhichthe"subject"ofthetext,escapingthelogicoftheegocogitoandengaginginotherlogics(ofthesignifier,ofcontradiction),struggleswithmeaningandisdeconstructed("lost")signifianceandthisiswhatimmediatelydistinguishesitfromsignificationisthuspreciselyawork:nottheworkbywhichthe(intactandexterior)subjectmighttrytomasterthelanguage(as,forexample,byaworkofstyle),butthatradicalwork(leavingnothingintact)throughwhichthesubjectexploresentering,notobservinghowthelanguageworksandundoeshimorherSignifianceis"theunendofpossibleoperationsinagivenfieldofalanguage"Contrarytosignification,signifiancecannotbereduced,therefore,tocommunication,representation,expression:itplacesthesubject(ofwriter,reader)inthetextnotasaprojectionbutasa"loss",a"disappearance"Henceitsidentificationwiththepleasureofjouissance:thetextbecomeseroticthroughsignifiance(noneed,thatis,Translator'sNote|forthetexttorepresenterotic"scenes")'Finally,itmustbesaidthattherelativelyminorpartplayedbygrammaticalgenderinEnglish,wherethereferenceofthepronounshe,sheanditisverylargelydeterminedbysocalled'natural'gender,createsdifficultieswhentranslatingfromaneffectivelygrammaticalgenderlanguagesuchasFrench:eitheroneproducesatextinwhichthemasculinereferencepredominatesoronespecifiesthefeminineequallyateverypoint(heshe,himorherself,etc)TheeffectofthelatterstrategythesignifieddeterminationtomoveagainstlinguisticsexismcouldonlybeanadditionbythetranslatortoBarthes'swritinginFrenchforthisreasonalone,ithasnotbeenadoptedhereSHSourcesOriginaltitlesandsourcesoftheessayspublishedinthiscollectionareasfollows:ThePhotographicMessage:'Lemessagephotographique',Communications,RhetoricoftheImage:'RhetoriquedeFimage',Communications,TheThirdMeaning:'Letroisiemesens:NotesderecherchesurquelquesphotogrammesdeSMEisenstein',Cahiersducinima,,Diderot,Brecht,Eisenstein:'Diderot,Brecht,Eisenstein',inCinima,Thiorie,Lectures(specialnumberoftheRevued'esthitique),IntroductiontotheStructuralAnalysisofNarratives:'Introductiona'analysestructuraledesrecits',Communications,TheStrugglewiththeAngel:'Lalutteavecl'ange:AnalysetextuelledeGenese,',inAnalysestructuraleetexigisebiblique,NeuchStelTheDeathoftheAuthor:'Lamortdel'auteur',MantelaV,MusicaPractica:'Musicapractica',L'Arc,FromWorktoText:'Del'ceuvreautexte',Revued'esthitique,ChangetheObjectItself:'Changerl'objetluimSme*(Barthes'stitle:'Lamythologieaujourd'hui'),Esprit,AprilLessoninWriting:'Lecond'ecriture',TelQuel,SummerTheGrainoftheVoice:'Legraindelavoix',Musiqueenjeu,Writers,Intellectuals,Teachers:'Ecrivains,intellectuels,professeurs',TelQuel,AutumnThePhotographicMessageThepressphotographisamessageConsideredoverallthismessageisformedbyasourceofemission,achanneloftransmissionandapointofreceptionThesourceofemissionisthestaffofthenewspaper,thegroupoftechnicianscertainofwhomtakethephoto,someofwhomchoose,composeandtreatit,whileothers,finally,giveitatitle,acaptionandacommentaryThepointofreceptionisthepublicwhichreadsthepaperAsforthechanneloftransmission,thisisthenewspaperitself,or,moreprecisely,acomplexofconcurrentmessageswiththephotographascentreandsurroundsconstitutedbythetext,thetitle,thecaption,thelayoutand,inamoreabstractbutnoless'informative'way,bytheverynameofthepaper(thisnamerepresentsaknowledgethatcanheavilyorientatethereadingofthemessagestrictlyspeaking:aphotographcanchangeitsmeaningasitpassesfromtheveryconservativeL'AuroretothecommunistL'Humanite)TheseobservationsarenotwithouttheirimportanceforitcanreadilybeseenthatinthecaseofthepressphotographthethreetraditionalpartsofthemessagedonotcallforthesamemethodofinvestigationTheemissionandthereceptionofthemessagebothliewithinthefieldofasociology:itisamatterofstudyinghumangroups,ofdefiningmotivesandattitudes,andoftryingtolinkthebehaviourofthesegroupstothesocialtotalityofwhichtheyareapartForthemessageitself,however,themethodisinevitablydifferent:whatevertheoriginandthedestinationofthemessage,thephotographisnotsimplyaproductorachannelbutalsoanobjectendowedwithastructuralautonomyWithoutin|IMAGEMUSICTEXTanywayintendingtodivorcethisobjectfromitsuse,itisnecessarytoprovideforaspecificmethodpriortosociologicalanalysisandwhichcanonlybetheimmanentanalysisoftheuniquestructurethataphotographconstitutesNaturally,evenfromtheperspectiveofapurelyimmanentanalysis,thestructureofthephotographisnotanisolatedstructureitisincommunicationwithatleastoneotherstructure,namelythetexttitle,captionorarticleaccompanyingeverypressphotographThetotalityoftheinformationisthuscarriedbytwodifferentstructures(oneofwhichislinguistic)Thesetwostructuresarecooperativebut,sincetheirunitsareheterogeneous,necessarilyremainseparatefromoneanother:here(inthetext)thesubstanceofthemessageismadeupofwordsthere(inthephotograph)oflines,surfaces,shadesMoreover,thetwostructuresofthemessageeachoccupytheirowndefinedspaces,thesebeingcontiguousbutnot'homogenized',astheyareforexampleintherebuswhichfuseswordsandimagesinasinglelineofreadingHence,althoughapressphotographisneverwithoutawrittencommentary,theanalysismustfirstofallbearoneachseparatestructureitisonlywhenthestudyofeachstructurehasbeenexhaustedthatitwillbepossibletounderstandthemannerinwhichtheycomplementoneanotherOfthetwostructures,oneisalreadyfamiliar,thatoflanguage(butnot,itistrue,thatofthe'literature'formedbythelanguageuseofthenewspaperanenormousamountofworkisstilltobedoneinthisconnection),whilealmostnothingisknownabouttheother,thatofthephotographWhatfollowswillbelimitedtothedefinitionoftheinitialdifficultiesinprovidingastructuralanalysisofthephotographicmessageThephotographicparadoxWhatisthecontentofthephotographicmessageWhatThePhotographicMessage|doesthephotographtransmitBydefinition,thesceneitself,theliteralrealityFromtheobjecttoitsimagethereisofcourseareductioninproportion,perspective,colourbutatnotimeisthisreductionatransformation(inthemathematicalsenseoftheterm)Inordertomovefromtherealitytoitsphotographitisinnowaynecessarytodivideupthisrealityintounitsandtoconstitutetheseunitsassigns,substantiallydifferentfromtheobjecttheycommunicatethereisnonecessitytosetuparelay,thatistosayacode,betweentheobjectanditsimageCertainlytheimageisnottherealitybutatleastitisitsperfectanalogonanditisexactlythisanalogicalperfectionwhich,tocommonsense,definesthephotographThuscanbeseenthespecialstatusofthephotographicimage:itisamessagewithoutacodefromwhichpropositionanimportantcorollarymustimmediatelybedrawn:thephotographicmessageisacontinuousmessageArethereothermessageswithoutacodeAtfirstsight,yes:preciselythewholerangeofanalogicalreproductionsofrealitydrawings,paintings,cinema,theatreInfact,however,eachofthosemessagesdevelopsinanimmediateandobviouswayasupplementarymessage,inadditiontotheanalogicalcontentitself(scene,object,landscape),whichiswhatiscommonlycalledthestyleofthereproductionsecondmeaning,whosesignifierisacertain'treatment'oftheimage(resultoftheactionofthecreator)andwhosesignified,whetheraestheticorideological,referstoacertain'culture'ofthesocietyreceivingthemessageInshort,allthese'imitative'artscomprisetwomessages:adenotedmessage,whichistheanalogonitself,andaconnotedmessage,whichisthemannerinwhichthesocietytoacertainextentcommunicateswhatitthinksofitThisdualityofmessagesisevidentinallreproductionsotherthanphotographicones:thereisnodrawing,nomatterhowexact,whoseveryexactitudeisnotturnedintoastyle|IMAGEMUSICTEXT(thestyleof'verism')nofilmedscenewhoseobjectivityisnotfinallyreadastheverysignofobjectivityHereagain,thestudyoftheseconnotedmessageshasstilltobecarriedout(inparticularithastobedecidedwhetherwhatiscalledaworkofartcanbereducedtoasystemofsignifications)onecanonlyanticipatethatforalltheseimitativeartswhencommonthecodeoftheconnotedsystemisverylikelyconstitutedeitherbyauniversalsymbolicorderorbyaperiodrhetoric,inshortbyastockofstereotypes(schemes,colours,graphisms,gestures,expressions,arrangementsofelements)Whenwecometothephotograph,however,wefindinprinciplenothingofthekind,atanyrateasregardsthepressphotograph(whichisneveran'artistic'photograph)Thephotographprofessingtobeamechanicalanalogueofreality,itsfirstordermessageinsomesortcompletelyfillsitssubstanceandleavesnoplaceforthedevelopmentofasecondordermessageOfallthestructuresofinformation,thephotographappearsastheonlyonethatisexclusivelyconstitutedandoccupiedbya'denoted'message,amessagewhichtotallyexhaustsitsmodeofexistenceInfrontofaphotograph,thefeelingof'denotation',or,ifoneprefers,ofanalogicalplenitude,issogreatthatthedescriptionofaphotographisliterallyimpossibletodescribeconsistspreciselyinjoiningtothedenotedmessagearelayorsecondordermessagederivedfromacodewhichisthatoflanguageandconstitutinginrelationtothephotographicanalogue,howevermuchcareonetakestobeexact,aconnotation:todescribei

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罗兰·巴特:《图像·音乐·文本》(英文)

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