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首页 英美概况

英美概况

英美概况

wanderer24
2009-03-05 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《英美概况doc》,可适用于外语资料领域

第一章LandandPeople英国的国土与人民IDifferentNamesforBritainanditsParts英国的不同名称及其各组成部分Geographicalnames:theBritishIsles,GreatBritainandEngland地理名称:不列颠群岛大不列颠和英格兰。Officialname:theUnitedKingdomofGreatBritainandNorthernIreland官方正式名称:大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国。TheBritishIslesaremadeupoftwolargeislandsGreatBritain(thelargerone)andIreland,andhundredsofsmallones不列颠群岛由两个大岛大不列颠岛(较大的一个)和爱尔兰岛及成千上万个小岛组成。ThreepoliticaldivisionsontheislandofGreatBritain:England,ScotlandandWales大不列颠岛上有三个政治区:英格兰、苏格兰和威尔士。()EnglandisinthesouthernpartofGreatBritainItisthelargest,mostpopuloussection英格兰位于大不列颠岛南部是最大人口最稠密的地区。()ScotlandisinthenorthofGreatBritainIthasthreenaturalzones(theHighlandsinthenorththeCentrallowlandsthesouthUplands)Capital:Edinburgh苏格兰位于大不列颠的北部。它有三大自然区:北部高地中部低地及南部山陵。首府:爱丁堡。()WalesisinthewestofGreatBritainCapital:Cardiff威尔士位于大不列颠的西部。首府:加的夫()NorthernIrelandisthefourthregionoftheUKCapital:Belfast北爱尔兰是英国第四个区域。首府:贝尔法斯特。TheCommonwealth(ofnations)isafreeassociationofindependentcountriesthatwereoncecoloniesofBritainItwasfoundedin,andhasmembercountriesuntil英联邦是曾为英国殖民地的、但现已独立国家所构成的自由联合体。它成立于年至年止已有个成员国。IIGeographicalFeatures英国的地理特征GeographicalpositionofBritain:英国的地理位置:BritainisanislandcountrysurroundedbytheseaItliesintheNorthAtlanticOceanoffthenorthcoastofEuropeItisseparatedfromtherestofEuropebytheEnglishChannelinthesouthandtheNorthSeaintheeast英国是一个岛国。它位于大西洋北部与欧洲大陆的北海岸隔海相望。南面的英吉利海峡和东面的北海将它与欧洲其它部分隔开。ThenorthandwestofBritainaremainlyhighlandsandtheeastandsoutheastaremostlylowlands英国的西部和北部主要是高地东部和东南部主要是低地。IIIRiversandLakes河流与湖泊BenNevisisthehighestmountaininBritain(,m)本尼维斯山为英国最高峰海拔,米。SevernRiveristhelongestriverinBritain(km)塞文河是英国最长的河流。全长公里。ThamesRiveristhesecondlongestandmostimportantriverinBritain(km)泰晤士河是英国第二大河也是英国最重要的河。全长公里。LoughNeaghisthelargestlakeinBritainwhichislocatedinNorthernIreland(squarekilometres)讷湖(内伊湖)是英国最大的湖位于北爱尔兰。面积为平方公里。RiverClydeisthemostimportantriverinScotland克莱德河是苏格兰最重要的河流。SnowdoniaisthehighestmountaininWales(,m)斯诺多尼亚是威尔士的最高点海拔,米。IVClimate气候Britain'sfavorableclimate英国有利的气候条件:BritainhasamaritimeclimatewintersarenottoocoldandsummersarenottoohotIthasasteadyreliablerainfallthroughoutthewholeyearThetemperaturevarieswithinasmallrange英国属于海洋性气候:冬季不过于寒冷夏季不过于炎热。全年有稳定可靠的降雨量气温变化幅度小。ThefactorsinfluencetheclimateinBritain:影响英国气候的因素:)Thesurroundingwaterstendtobalancetheseasonaldifferencesbyheatingupthelandinwinterandcoolingitoffinsummer环绕四周的海水。冬天海水可使岛内气温升高夏天则使气温降低从而起到平衡季节温差的作用)TheprevailingsouthwestwindsortheWesterliesblowoverthecountryalltheyearroundbringingwarmandwetairinwinterandkeepingthetemperaturesmoderate一年四季盛行的西南风和西风在冬季从大西洋带来温暖、潮湿的空气使气温适宜)TheNorthAtlanticDriftpassesthewesterncoastoftheBritishIslesandwarmsthem北大西洋暖流经不列颠群岛西海岸使气候变暖。Rainfall降雨量:BritainhasasteadyreliablerainfallthroughoutthewholeyearTheaverageannualrainfallinBritainisover,mmThereisawatersurplusinthenorthandwest,andawaterdeficitinthesouthandeast英国全年降雨量稳定平均降雨量超过毫米。英国北部、西部雨量过多但是南部、东部有所缺乏。VThePeople人口populationdistribution人口分布:BritainhasapopulationofaboutmillionsanditisveryunevenlydistributedofthepopulationisurbanandonlyisruralThepopulationofBritainismadeupmainlyoftheEnglish(),theScottish(),theWelsh(),theIrish(),theNorthernIrish()andotherpeoples()英国人口约万分布极不均匀是城市人口只有是农村人口。英国人口组成为:英格兰人()苏格兰人()威尔士人()爱尔兰人、北爱尔兰人和其他民族居民。ThedifferencebetweentheancestorsoftheEnglishandScots,WelshandIrish:英伦三岛民族的祖先:TheancestorsoftheEnglishareAngloSaxons,theScots,WelshandIrishareCelts英格兰人祖先属于盎格鲁萨克逊人而苏格兰、威尔士和爱尔兰人属于凯尔特人。Thedifferenceincharacter个性差别:TheWelshareemotionalandcheerfulpeopleTheyaremusicloversandareproudoftheirpast威尔士人感情丰富情绪高涨热爱音乐为过去感到自豪。TheScotsaresaidtobeaserious,cautiousandthriftypeople,andtheyarealsohospitable,generousandfriendly苏格兰人通常被认为严肃、谨慎而且节俭但是他们同样也热情、大方且友好。TheIrisharecharmandvivacity爱尔兰人充满魅力生性活泼。ThedifferenceinspeechbetweensouthernEnglandandnorthernEngland:英格兰南方人和北方人语言上的差别:SouthernersspeakthetypeofEnglishclosetoBBCEnglishInnorthernEngland,regionalspeechisusually"broader"thanthatofsouthernEngland南方人讲的英语接近BBC北英格兰人的发音通常要比南英格兰人宽。TheWelshkeeptheirlanguageandcultureinthisway:威尔士人以这样的方式使他们的语言及文化保持活力。ThroughouttheyeartheyhavefestivalsofsonganddanceandpoetrycalledEisteddfodauThegreateventoftheyearistheNationalEisteddfodOntheseoccasionscompetitionsareheldinWelshpoetry,music,singingandart一年中他们有称之为"艺术年会"的唱歌、跳舞、诗歌节。一年中最重要的节日是全国诗歌音乐比赛会。在那里会举行威尔士诗歌、音乐、唱歌和艺术比赛。ThemainprobleminNorthernIreland:北爱尔兰存在的主要问题:ThefightbetweentheProtestantswhoarethedominantgroup,andtheRomanCatholics,whoareseekingmoresocial,politicalandeconomicopportunities作为统治者的新教徒和要求更多社会、政治及经济权利的罗马天主教徒之间的斗争。Immigrants:移民:AboutthreemillionhavecometoBritaintoliveandfindworksinceWorldWarII自从二战以来约有三百万人来英国生活、工作。第二章TheOriginsofaNation(BC)英国的起源(公元前年年)IEarlySettlers(BCBC)早期的居民(公元前年公元前年).ThefirstknownsettlersofBritainweretheIberians人们所知的英国最早居民是伊比利来人。.AtaboutBCtheBeakerFolkarrivedfromtheareasnowknowasHollandandRhineland约公元前年从现在的荷兰和莱茵兰地区来了宽口陶器人。.TheCeltsbegantoarriveBritainaboutBC约公元前年克尔特人来到不列颠岛。.TheCeltscametoBritaininthreemainwaves克尔特人来到不列颠有三次高潮。ThefirstwaveweretheGaelscameaboutBC第一次高潮是约公元前年盖尔人的来临。ThesecondwaveweretheBrythonscameaboutBC第二次高潮是约公元前年布立吞(不列颠)人的抵达。ThethirdwaveweretheBelgaecameaboutBC第三次是约公元前年比利其人的到达。IIRomanBritain(BCAD)罗马人统治时期的英国(公元前年年)BritishrecordedhistorybeginswiththeRomaninvasionInBCandBC,JuliusCaesar,aRomangeneral,invadedBritaintwiceInAD,theEmperorClaudiusinvadedBritainsuccessfullyFornearlyyears,BritainwasundertheRomanoccupation,thoughitwasneveratotaloccupation有记录的英国历史开始于罗马人的入侵。公元前年和年罗马将军朱略斯#凯撒两次入侵英国均未成功。直到公元年克劳锹才成功占领不列颠。将近四百年里英国人处于罗马人的占领下但这并非是完全的占领。Roman'sinfluenceonBritainTheRomanbuiltmanytowns,road,baths,templesandbuildingsTheymakegooduseofBritain'snaturalresourcesTheyalsobroughtthenewreligion,Christianity,toBritain罗马人修建了许多城镇网道路澡堂庙宇和其他建筑物。他们还很好地利用了英国的自然资源。罗马人还把基督教这门新宗教带到不列颠。ReasonsforlimitedRomaninfluenceonBritain罗马对不列颠的影响有限的原因。First,theRomansalwaystreatedtheBritonsasasubjectpeopleofslaveclassSecond,neverduringthecenturiesdidtheRomansandBritonsintermarryThird,theRomanshadnoimpactonthelanguageorcultureofordinaryBritons首先罗马人把不列颠人当作奴隶阶段的属民来对待。其次在四世纪对罗马人和不列颠人通婚。最后罗马人也未影响普通不列颠人的语言和文化。Summary:ThisisthesecondpartofChapter(TheOriginsofaNation)ItintroducedsomeimportanteventsandimportantpeopleinEnglandfromtoThesemostimportanteventsareTheAnglosSaxons'invasionTheVikingandDanishInvasionsandTheNormanConquest(简要:这是第二章"国家的起源"的第二部分。在这一部分里主要是介绍了英国从公元年到年所发生的重要事件及人物。这些重要事件分别是盎格鲁撒克逊人的入侵北欧海盗和丹麦人的入侵及诺曼征服)。IIITheAngloSaxons()盎格鲁撒克逊人(公元年).BasisofModernEnglishrace:theAngloSaxons盎格鲁萨克逊时代(奠定了英国的基础)Inthemidthcenturyanewwaveofinvaders,Jutes,Saxons,andAnglescametoBritainTheywerethreeTeutonictribesTheJutes,whofishedandfarmedinJutland,cametoBritainfirstAJutishchiefbecametheKingofKentinThentheSaxons,usersoftheshortswordfromnorthernGermany,establishedtheirkingdominEssex,SussexandWessexfromtheendofthethcenturytothebeginningofthethcenturyInthesecondhalfofthethcenturyInthesecondhalfofthethcentury,theAngles,whoalsocamefromnorthernGermanyandweretogivetheirnametotheEnglishpeople,settledinEastAnglia,MerciaandNorthumbriaThesesevenprincipalkingdomsofKent,Essex,Sussex,Wessex,EastAnglia,MerciaandNorthumbriahavebeengiventhenameofHeptarchy五世纪中叶朱特人、撒克逊人和盎格鲁人不断入侵不列颠。这是三支日耳曼(条顿)部落。居住在朱特兰岛(现丹麦南部)上从事打渔农耕的朱特人先抵不列颠。后来从德国北部来的使用短剑的撒克逊人在埃撒克斯、苏塞克斯和威塞克斯建立了王国统治期从五世纪末至六世纪初。六世纪后半叶同样来自德国北部的盎格鲁人在东盎格利亚、麦西亚以及诺森伯利来定居同时也他们也把名字给了英国人。这七个主要王国(肯特、埃塞克斯、苏塞克斯、威塞克斯、东盎格利亚、麦西亚和诺森伯利亚)合称为七王国。.TheearlyAngloSaxonsconvertedtoChristianity最早的盎格鲁撒克逊人改信基督教。TheAngloSaxonsbroughttheirownTeutonicreligiontoBritainChristianitysoondisappeared,exceptamongtheCeltsofCornwall,Wales,ScotlandandIrelandIn,PopeGregoryIsentStAugustine,thePriorofStAndrew'sMonasteryinRome,toEnglandtoconverttheheathenEnglishtoChristianityInStAugustinebecamethefirstArchbishopofCanterburyHewasremarkablysuccessfulinconvertingthekingandthenobility,buttheconversionofthecommonpeoplewaslargelyduetothemissionaryactivitiesofthemonksinthenorth盎格鲁撒克逊人把日耳曼宗教带到了英国。除了康瓦尔、威尔士、苏格兰和爱尔兰中的克尔特人还信奉基督教外基督教很快就消失了。公元教皇格里高一世把罗马圣安德鲁修道院的副院长圣奥古斯丁派遣到英格兰其使命是使异教徒的英国人皈依基督教。公元年圣奥古丁成为坎特伯雷大主教。在使国王和贵族皈依基督教方面奥古斯丁特别成功。但是普通人的皈依很大程度上归功于北部修士们的传教活动。.TheEarlyAngloSaxonsmakethecontributionstotheEnglishstate早期盎格鲁撒克逊人为英国做出的贡献。TheAngloSaxonslaidthefoundationsoftheEnglishstateFirstly,theydividedthecountryintoshires,withshirecourtsandshirereeves,orsheriffs,responsibleforadministeringlawSecondly,theydevisedthenarrowstrip,threefieldfarmingsystemwhichcontinuedtothethcenturyThirdly,theyalsoestablishedthemanorialsystemFinally,theycreatedtheWitan(councilormeetingofthewisemen)toadvisetheking,thebasisofthePrivyCouncilwhichstillexiststoday盎格鲁撒克逊人为英国国家的形成打下了基础。首先他们把国家划分为郡郡法庭和郡法官、或行政司法长官负责执法。其次他们设计的窄条三圃田农耕制延用至世纪。此外他们还建立了领地制。最后他们还创立了议会(贤人会议)向国王提供建议这就成为了今天仍存在的枢密院的基础。IV.VikingandDanishinvasions北欧海盗和丹麦人的入侵.TheinvadersweretheNorwegiansandtheDanesTheyattackedvariouspartsofEnglandfromtheendofthethcenturyTheybecameaseriousprobleminthethcentury,especiallybetweenandTheyevenmanagedtocaptureYork,animportantcenterofChristianityinBythemiddleofthcentury,theVikingandtheDaneswereposingathreattotheSaxonkingdomofWessex入侵者是挪威人和丹麦人从世纪末开始他们不断袭击英格兰的各个地方。世纪尤其是公元年间已成为严重问题。他们甚至占领了约克郡公元年时的基督教中心。到世纪中叶北欧海盗和丹麦人威胁到撒克逊人的威撒克斯王国的安全。.KingAlfred()andhiscontributions艾尔弗雷德国王()和他所做出的贡献AlfredwasakingofWessexHedefeatedtheDanesandreachedafriendlyagreementwiththeminTheDanesgainedcontrolofthenorthandeast,whileheruledtherestHealsoconvertedsomeleadingDanesintoChristiansHefoundedastrongfleetandisknownas"thefatheroftheBritishnavy"HereorganizedtheSaxonarmy,makingitmoreefficientHetranslatedaLatinbookintoEnglishHealsoestablishedschoolsandformulatedalegalsystemAllthisearnshimthetitle"AlfredtheGreat"阿尔弗雷德是威塞克斯的国王。他打败了丹麦人并于公元年与他们达成了友好协议。协议规定丹麦人控制英格兰北部和西部(丹麦法区)而他统治其他地区。他还劝服一些丹麦首领成为基督教徒。他因为建立了强大舰队而以"英国海军之父"闻名于世。他改组了"弗立德"(撒克逊军队)使之更为高效。他将一本拉丁语的书翻译成英语。同时他还建立了学校并且阐明了法律制度。所有这一切使他当之无愧于"阿尔弗雷德大王。"的称号。V.TheNormanConquest()诺曼征服(公元年).ReasonsforWilliam'sinvasionofEnglandafterEdward'sdeath威廉在爱德华死后入侵英国的原因。ItwassaidthatkingEdwardhadpromisedtheEnglishthronetoWilliam,buttheWitanchoseHaroldaskingSoWilliamledhisarmytoinvadeEnglandInOctober,duringtheimportantbattleofHastings,WilliamdefeatedHaroldandkilledhimOneChristmasDay,WilliamwascrownedkingofEngland,thusbeginningtheNormanConquestofEngland据说爱德华国王曾答应把英格兰王位传给诺曼底公爵威廉但是贤人会议挑选了哈罗德为国王。公元年月在哈斯丁斯附近的激烈交锋中威廉打败了哈罗德军队同时哈罗德也在此战争中战死。.TheNormanConquestanditsconsequences诺曼征服及其产生的影响。TheNormanConquestofisperhapsthebestknowneventinEnglishhistoryWilliamtheConquerorconfiscatedalmostallthelandandgaveittohisNormanfollowersHereplacedtheweakSaxonrulewithastrongNormangovernmentHereplacedtheweakSaxonrulewithastrongNormangovernmentSothefeudalsystemwascompletelyestablishedinEnglandRelationswiththeContinentwereopened,andthecivilizationandcommercewereextendedNormanFrenchculture,language,mannersandarchitecturewereintroducedTheChurchwasbroughtintocloserconnectionwithRome,andthechurchcourtswereseparatedfromthecivilcourts年的诺曼征服也许是英国历史上的最著名事件。征服者威廉几乎没收了所有土地将其分发给他的诺曼追随者。他用强有力的诺曼政府代替了软弱的萨克逊政府。于是封建制度在英国完全建立。开放了与欧洲大陆的关系文明和商业得到发展引进了诺曼法国文化、语言、举止和建筑。教会与罗马的联系更为密切教会法庭与世俗法庭分离。.TheEnglishisamixtureofnationalitiesofdifferentoriginsTheancestorsofmanyEnglishpeopleweretheancientAnglesandSaxonsSomeEnglishpeopleareoftheNormanFrenchorigin英国是一个集不同民族于一体的国家。许多英国人的祖先是古盎格鲁和撒克逊人。而还有一些英国人的是诺曼血统。ThisisoneofthemostdifficultpartsInthispart,IwillintroducesomeKingsinEnglishhistoryandtheirreformationsThoughwehavetorememberalotofthingsinthispart,wealsolearnmoreaboutEnglishhistoryChapter第三章TheShapingoftheNation()英国的形成(公元)INormanRule()诺曼统治(公元)William'sRule()威廉一世的统治(公元)England'sfeudalismundertheruleofWilliamtheConqueror在威廉统治下的英国封建制度①UnderWilliam,thefeudalsysteminEnglandwascompletelyestablished②Accordingtothissystem,theKingownedallthelandpersonally③WilliamgavehisbaronslargeestatesinEnglandinreturnforapromiseofmilitaryserviceandaproportionoftheland'sproduce④Theseestateswerescatteredfarandwideoverthecountry,sothatthosewhoheldthemcouldnoteasilycombinetorebeltheking⑤Thebarons,whohadbecomeWilliam'stenantsinchief,parceledoutlandtothelessernobles,knightsandfreemen,alsoinreturnforgoodsandservices⑥Atthebottomofthefeudalscalewerethevilleinsorserfs⑦OnepeculiarfeatureofthefeudalsystemofEnglandwasthatalllandownersmusttaketheoathofallegiancenotonlytotheirimmediatelord,butalsototheking①在威廉统治下英国的封建制度得到完全确立。②根据此制度国王拥有全国所有土地。③威廉把英国的大片土地分给贵族条件是换取对方服役和收租。④这些地产分散于各处这样土地拥有者就不易联合起来反叛国王。⑤已成为国王土地承租人的贵族又把土地分配给小贵族、骑士和自由民同样换取货物和服役。⑥在封建等级底层的是农奴。⑦英国封建制独有的特色就是无论是土地承租人还是二佃户都必须要宣誓效忠于直接领主而且要效忠于国王。KingHenryIIandhisreforms亨利二世国王和他的改革ThewaysKingHenryIIconsolidatethemonarchy亨利二世巩固君主制的途径。HenryIItooksomemeasurestoconsolidatethemonarchyHeforcedtheFlemishmercenariestoleaveEnglandrecalledgrantsofRoyallandsmadebyhispreviouskingStephendemolishedmanycastlesbuiltinStephen'stimestrengthenedandwidenedthepowersofhissheriffsandreliedforarmedsupportuponamilitiacomposedofEnglishfreemen亨利二世采取了一些措施巩固君主制。他迫使弗兰德斯雇佣军离开英国收回史蒂芬森赠出皇室土地拆除几十座史蒂芬森时造德城堡加强并扩大了他的行政长官们的权力依靠由英国自由民组成的民兵获取军事支持。ThewaysHenryIIreformthecourtsandthelaw亨利二世对法院及法律进行改革的方式。KingHenryIIgreatlystrengthenedtheCourtandextendeditsjudicialworkHedividedthewholecountryintosixcircuitsandappointedjusticestoeachCaseswerethereforeheardbeforetheintermittentjusticeswhoappliedthelawimpartiallyDuringhisreign,acommonlawwasgraduallyestablishedinplaceofthepreviouslawsofthelocalbaronsHealsointroducedanewjurysystemtoreplacetheoldordealbasedtrialsystemBesides,heshiftedthetrialofclergymenchargedwithcriminaloffensesfromtheBishop'scourttotheKing'scourt亨利二世大大加强了王家法院扩展了其司法工作的职权范围。他将全国分为六个审制区。案件更多地由巡回法官审理并不偏不倚地使用法律。在他统治时期逐渐建立起超越地方领主法律的普遍法。另外他用陪审员制度代替了旧的残酷的审判制度。他坚持被控犯有刑事罪的神职人员应由国王法庭审判而不由主教法庭审判。II.ContentsandthesignificanceoftheGreatCharter《大宪章》的内容及意义GreatCharterwassignedbyKingJohninunderthepressofthebaronsItconsistsofsixtythreeclausesItsimportantprovisionsareasfollows:()notaxshouldbemadewithouttheapprovaloftheGrandCouncil()nofreemenshouldbearrested,imprisonedordeprivedoftheirproperty()theChurchshouldpossessallitsrights,togetherwithfreedomofelections()Londonandothertownsshouldretaintheirtraditionalrightsandprivileges,and()thereshouldbethesameweightsandmeasuresthroughoutthecountryAlthoughTheGreatCharterhaslongbeenpopularlyregardedasthefoundationofEnglishliberties,itwasastatementofthefeudalandlegalrelationshipsbetweentheCrownandthebarons,aguaranteeofthefreedomoftheChurchandalimitationofthepowersofthekingThespiritoftheGreatCharterwasthelimitationofthepowersoftheking,keepingthemwithintheboundsofthefeudallawoftheland《大宪章》是约翰国王年在封建贵族压力下签定的。《大宪章》总共条其中最重要的内容是:()未经大议会同意不得征税()只有根据国家有关法律才能逮捕、监禁自由人以及剥夺他们的财产()教会应享受其所有权利且有选举自由()伦敦和其它城镇应保留其古时的权力和特权()全国要使用统一的重量和长度度量衡。尽管人们普遍认为《大宪章》为英国的自由奠定了基础但该宪章只是规定国王和贵族之间封建关系和法律关系的文件保证了教会的自由限制了国王权利。《大宪章》的精神是限制国王权力使其在英国封建法律允许的范围内活动。IIITheoriginsoftheEnglishParliament英国议会的起源TheGreatCouncilisknowntobetheprototypeofthecurrentBritishParliamentIn,SimondeMontfortsummonedtheGreatCouncil,togetherwithtwoknightsfromeachcountyandtwocitizensfromeachtownItlaterdevelopedintotheHouseofLordsandtheHouseofCommonsItsmainrolewastoofferadviceTherewerenoelectionsorpartiesAndthemostimportantpartofParliamentwastheHouseofLords大议会是当今英国议会的原型。年西门德孟福尔召开大议会各县有两名骑士各镇有两名市民参加。大议会发展到后来演变成议会分为上议院和下议院。其作用是咨询而非决定也没有选举和政党。议会的最重要的部分是上议院。IV.TheHundredYears'Waranditsconsequences百年战争及其结果TheHundredYears'WarreferstothewarbetweenEnglandandFrancethatlastedintermittentlyfromtoThecausesofthewarwerepartlyterritorialandpartlyeconomicTheterritorialcauseswererelatedwiththepossessionbytheEnglishkingsofthelargeduchyinFrance,whiletheFrenchkingscovetedthislargesliceTheeconomiccauseswereconnectedwithclothmanufacturingtownsinFlanders,whichweretheimporterofEnglishwool,buttheywereloyaltotheFrenchkingpoliticallyBesides,England'sdesiretostopFrancefromgivingaidtoScotsandagrowingsenseofnationalismweretheothercausesTheEnglish'sbeingdrivenoutofFranceisregardedasablessingforbothcountriesIftheEnglishhadremainedinFrance,thesuperiorsizeandwealthofFrancewouldhavehinderedthedevelopmentofaseparateEnglishnationalidentity,whileFrancewashinderedsolongasaforeignpoweroccupiedsomuchFrenchterritory百年战争指年到年英法之间一场断断续续的战争战争的起因既有领土因素又有经济因素。领土起因尤其是与英国国王拥有法国的阿基坦大片公爵领地有密切关系随着法国国王势力日增他们渴望占领这片在他们领土内的土地。经济原因则与弗兰德斯有关。弗兰德斯地区生产棉布的城镇是英国羊毛的主要进口商但这些城镇在政治上却效忠法国国王。其他原因还有英国试图阻止法国帮助苏格兰人以及不断觉醒的民族意识。战争的结果:把英国人赶出法国对两个国家都是幸事:若国车人继续留在法国那么法国人在领土和财富上所占的优势必然会阻碍分离的英国民族的发展而法国民族被外国势力占领了众多的领土发展更是长期受阻。VTheBlackDeath黑死病TheBlackDeathisthemodernnamegiventothedeadlyepidemicdiseasespreadbyratfleasacrossEuropeinthethcenturyItsweptthroughEnglandinthesummerofItreducedEngland'spopulationfromfourmilliontotwomillionbytheendofthethcenturyTheeconomicconsequencesoftheBlackDeathwerefarreaching

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  • 吴霞 h恩,很好,谢谢

    2010-12-15 23:53:32

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