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首页 《电影导演基础》Film Directing Fundamentals

《电影导演基础》Film Directing Fundamentals

《电影导演基础》Film Directing Fundamen…

shoui
2009-03-01 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《《电影导演基础》Film Directing Fundamentalspdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

FILMDIRECTINGFUNDAMENTALSFilmDirectingFundamentalsSecondEditionSeeYourFilmBeforeShootingNicholasTProferesAmsterdamBostonHeidelbergLondonNewYorkOxfordParisSanDiegoSanFranciscoSingaporeSydneyTokyoFocalPressisanimprintofElsevierFocalPressisanimprintofElsevierWheelerRoad,Burlington,MA,USALinacreHouse,JordanHill,OxfordOXDP,UKCopyright©,ElsevierIncAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorwrittenpermissionofthepublisherPermissionsmaybesoughtdirectlyfromElsevier’sScienceTechnologyRightsDepartmentinOxford,UK:phone:(),fax:(),email:permissionselseviercomukYoumayalsocompleteyourrequestonlineviatheElsevierhomepage(http:elseviercom),byselecting“CustomerSupport”andthen“ObtainingPermissions”Recognizingtheimportanceofpreservingwhathasbeenwritten,ElsevierprintsitsbooksonacidfreepaperwheneverpossibleLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataProferes,NicholasTFilmdirectingfundamentals:seeyourfilmbeforeshootingNicholasTProferesndedpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBNMotionpicturesProductionanddirectionITitlePNPP¢dcBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBN:ForinformationonallFocalPresspublicationsvisitourwebsiteatwwwbookselseviercomPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaToFrankDanielAgreatteacher,agenerouscolleague,adelightfulfriendCONTENTSFOREWORDxiACKNOWLEDGMENTSxiiiPARTONELEARNINGHOWTODRAWChapterINTRODUCTIONTOFILMLANGUAGEANDGRAMMARTheFilmWorldFilmLanguageShotsFilmGrammarTheDegreeRuleTheDegreeRuleScreenDirectionFilmTimeCompressionElaborationFamiliarImagesChapterINTRODUCTIONTOTHEDRAMATICELEMENTSEMBEDDEDINTHESCREENPLAYSpinesWhoseFilmIsItCharacterCircumstanceDynamicRelationshipsWantsExpectationsActionsActivityActingBeatsChapterORGANIZINGACTIONINADRAMATICSCENEDramaticBlocksNarrativeBeatsTheFulcrumDramaticElementsinNotoriousPatioSceneNotoriousPatioSceneAnnotatedChapterSTAGINGMainFunctionsPatternsofDramaticMovementChangingtheStageWithinaSceneStagingasPartofaFilm’sDesignWorkingwithaLocationFloorPlanFloorPlanandStagingforNotoriousPatioSceneChapterTHECAMERATheCameraasNarratorTheRevealEntrancesTheObjectiveCameraTheSubjectiveCameraWhereDoIPutItVisualDesignStyleCoverageCameraHeightLensesCompositionWheretoBeginWorkingTowardSpecificityinVisualizationLookingforOrderDramaticBlocksandtheCameraShotListsandStoryboardsTheProseStoryboardChapterCAMERAINNOTORIOUSPATIOSCENEFirstDramaticBlockSecondDramaticBlockThirdDramaticBlockFourthDramaticBlockandFulcrumFifthDramaticBlockPARTTWOMAKINGYOURFILMChapterDETECTIVEWORKONSCRIPTSReadingYourScreenplayAPieceofApplePieScreenplayWhoseFilmIsItCharacterCircumstanceSpinesforAPieceofApplePieDynamicRelationshipsviiiFILMDIRECTINGFUNDAMENTALSWantsActionsActingBeatsActivityToneforAPieceofApplePieBreakingAPieceofApplePieintoActionsDesigningaSceneVisualizationIdentifyingtheFulcrumandDramaticBlocksSupplyingNarrativeBeatstoAPieceofApplePieDirector’sNotebookChapterSTAGINGANDCAMERAFORAPIECEOFAPPLEPIEStagingCameraConclusionsChapterMARKINGSHOOTINGSCRIPTSWITHCAMERASETUPSChapterWORKINGWITHACTORSCastingFirstReadThroughDirectingDuringRehearsalsDirectingActorsontheSetChapterMANAGERIALRESPONSIBILITIESOFTHEDIRECTORDelegatingAuthorityWhileAcceptingResponsibilityTheProducerTheAssistantDirectorARealisticShootingScheduleWorkingwiththeCrewWorkingwiththeDirectorofPhotographyChapterPOSTPRODUCTIONEditingMusicandSoundLockingPicture,orHowDoYouKnowWhenIt’sOverAnAudienceandaBigScreenPARTTHREELEARNINGTHECRAFTTHROUGHFILMANALYSISChapterALFREDHITCHCOCK’SNOTORIOUSOverviewofStyleandDesignFirstActSecondActThirdActSummaryContentsixChapterPETERWEIR’STHETRUMANSHOWOverviewofStyleandDesignFirstActSecondActThirdActSummaryChapterFEDERICOFELLINI’SAMasterpieceTheDirectorasAuteurDramaticConstructionOverviewofStyleandDesignDetectiveWorkFirstActSecondActThirdActSummaryChapterSTYLESANDDRAMATICSTRUCTURESTokyoStory,YasujiroOzu(,Japan)SomeLikeItHot,BillyWilder(,USA)TheBattleofAlgiers,GilloPontecorvo(,France)Red,KrzysztofKieslowski(,Poland,France,Switzerland)Sex,Lies,andVideotape,StevenSoderbergh(,USA)ShallWeDance,MasayukiSuo(,Japan)TheCelebration,ThomasVinterberg(,Denmark)TheInsider,MichaelMann(,USA)TheThinRedLine,TerrenceMalick(,USA)ChapterWHATNEXTWritingfortheDirectorBeginThinkingAboutYourStoryConcoctingYourFeatureScreenplay“Writing”SceneswithActorsShootingYourFilmBeforeYouFinishWritingItTheFinalScriptShootingWithoutaScreenplayQuestionsDirectorsShouldAskAboutTheirScreenplaysBuildingDirectorialMusclesDirectingExercisesMakeAPieceofApplePieYourOwnConclusionBIBLIOGRAPHYINDEXxFILMDIRECTINGFUNDAMENTALSFOREWORDHowdoyouteachfilmdirectingNickProferes’book,FilmDirectingFundamentals,answersthequestionperfectlybyprovidingaclearandconcisemethodologytothedirectingstudentItistheonlybookIknowofthataddressesboththeartandcraftofdirectingItnotonlyoffersastepbystepprocesstofollowbutengagesthereaderasifheorsheweresittinginNick’sclassHislanguageisaccessible,andheuseswonderfulexamplesandclear,indepthanalysisthatinspiresyoutothehighestkindofeffortWhenIfirststartedteachingatColumbiaUniversity,IlookedthroughmanytextstofindonetorecommendtofilmstudentswhowantedtobecomedirectorsSomebookswereinformativebutextremelytechnicalandhardtofollowotherswereoversimplifiedorwereanecdotesbyaparticulardirectorNoneofferedthestudentsaconcrete,organicapproachAtColumbia,NickaddressedthisproblembyteachingalecturecourseforallbeginningstudentsinourgraduatefilmprogramHisfocusisontrainingdirectorstoengagetheiraudienceemotionallybyfirstofallbecomingclearontheirstory(detectivework),thenhelpingthedirectortoorchestratetheprogressionanddramaticescalationofthatstoryTheorganizationofactionthroughdramaticblocks,narrativebeats(director’sbeats),andafulcrumaroundwhichascenemovesarecategoriesNickidentifiesforthefirsttimeFilmDirectingFundamentalsalsoprovidesacloseanalysisofthreefeaturefilmstogivethereaderachancetolookatandunderstandhowtousethedramaticelementsastoolsintheirownworkThebookleadsusthroughanalmostshotbyshotdiscussionofdramaticstructureandnarrator’svoiceinHitchcock’sNotorious,Fellini’s,andPeterWeir’sTheTrumanShow,andexaminesstyleanddramaticstructureinnineotherfeaturefilmsAlthoughIhavebeenanartistandadirectorforanumberofyears,itwasn’tuntilIstartedteachingthatItrulybegantounderstandmyownprocessTohaveabookthattrackstheprocesssopreciselyisinvaluabletomeasateacherandasafilmmakerIconsultedthisbookbefore,during,andaftermylastfilmproject,anditiscertainlyabookIwilluseagainandagainBetteGordonViceChairandDirectingSupervisorofColumbiaUniversityFilmDivisionDirectorofthefeaturefilmsVarietyandLuminousMotionACKNOWLEDGMENTSThisbookcouldnothavebeenwrittenwithoutfeedbackfromthehundredsofstudentswhoattendedmydirectingworkshopsatColumbiaUniversityTheirprobingquestionsandimpassionedworkforcedmetoconstantlyclarifymyteachingtobetterservethem,andIthankthemoneandallIamalsoimmenselygratefultomycolleaguesfortheirsupport,especiallyBetteGordonandTomKalin,andforanyoftheirwisdomImayhavepurloinedwithoutattributionIowesinceregratitudetomycolleagueJamesGoldstoneforhisdedicatedreadingofthemanuscriptandforhisvaluablesuggestions,andtoAndyPawelczakandmysonTedProferesfortheirastuteeditorialcontributionsIthankthefollowingstudents:BranislavBalaforhisinsightfulcommentsonPartI,JasonGrahamforhisshortscreenplayTheMarriageBed,SonnyQuinnfortheThePieceofApplePiestoryboards,GregBunchforthediagrams,andPatrickO’ConnorfordigitizingtheartworkIamdeeplygratefultoallofthedirectorsandwriterswhosefilmsIrelyonfortheirmasterfuldemonstrationofthedirectingcraft,andtoKostasMatsoukas,atrueloveroffilmandownerofVideoExpressinAstoria,NewYork,whosuppliedmewitheachofthefilmsIalsowanttoexpressthankstomypublisher,MarieLee,atElsevier,whomadethishappen,andtomywonderfuleditor,TerriJadickForthissecondedition,IsincerelythankElinorActipis,myneweditor,whohasbeenagodsendAngelaDooley,SeniorProjectManager,andDarilBentley,Copyeditor,forguidingthemanuscriptthroughproductionBranislavBalaandPedjaZdravkovic,fortheNotoriousdiagramsandartworkandProfessorWarrenBassforhisclosereadingandinvaluablesuggestionsthroughouttheentireprocessPARTONELEARNINGHOWTODRAWExcitement,passion,surprise,beautythesearethethingsIthinkaboutwhenmakingafilm,andthesearethethingsmystudentsthinkaboutTheycannotberealizedunlessthedirector’svisionisweddedtoafirmgraspofthedirectingcraftWiththatendinmind,thisbooksetsouttointroduceyoutotheconceptualaspectsofthiscraft,andtoofferastepbystepmethodologythatwilltakeyoufromthescreenplaytothescreenThissecondeditionhasbenefitedfromthemanyquestionsIamstillaskedbystudentsconcerningtheimplementationofthismethodology,sothatIhaveendeavoredheretobeasclearasIaskmydirectingstudentstobeIhaverearrangedthematerialfromthefirstedition,andmostimportantly,haveaddednewchaptersandartworkthatIbelieveamplify,clarify,andultimately,justifythissecondeditionIhavedevotedaseparatechapterto“OrganizingActioninaDramaticScene,”stressingthethreedramaticelementsthatareuniquetomymethodology:DramaticBlocks,NarrativeBeats,andtheFulcrumIhavealsoaddedanindepthanalysisofadramaticscenefromAlfredHitchcock’sNotorious,completewithfloorplansforstagingandcamera,alongwithstoryboardsfromthefilmAnotherinnovationIhavefoundtobeextremelyhelpfulforstudentdirectorsistheProseStoryboard,andinthiseditionIhaveincludedexamplesFinally,thissecondeditionincludesanInstructor’sManual,offeringinstructorsamedleyofcurriculaoptionsincludingaweekbyweek“IntroductoryDirectingWorkshop”andan“AdvancedDirectingWorkshop,”completewithfieldtestedexercisesdesignedtofacilitatethestudent’smasteryofthemethodologyofferedinthisbookQualifiedinstructorscanrequestthemanualbyemailingtextbookelseviercomThismethodologyisbasedontheexperiencesofmyownprofessionalcareerasadirector,cameraman,filmeditor,producer,andgraduatefilmmakingteacherforyearsatColumbiaUniversity,intheSchooloftheArts’FilmDivisionIhavetaughtmorethansemesterlongdirectingworkshopswherestudentshavemademanyhundredsoffilms,andIhavesupervisedmorethanahundredthesisfilmsItwasasateacherthatIrealizedtheneedforanorganic,comprehensivetextondirectingToputoffthejobofwritingsuchatext,IdevelopedaseriesoflecturesIdeliveredatColumbiaandatseminarsinEuropeStillmystudentswantedabookIbeganwithapagehandoutthathasevolvedovertheyearsintothepresentbookTheemphasisthroughoutisonthecraftofnarrativestorytellinginthe“classical”senseThegoalistoofferatoolboxthatisfullyequippedwitheveryessentialtoolthatcanthenbeusedtocraftanykindofstoryTouseanothermetaphor,Iwanttodevelopallofthestudent’sdirectorialmusclesImakeanassumptionabouttheaudienceforthisbookthattheywillwanttoengagetheiraudienceinacinematicstoryEverythingcontainedinthisbookisaimedatthatgoal,whichIbelieveisalaudableoneHumanbeingsareinneedofnarrativeandalwayshavebeenIthasplayedasignificantpartinallthediverseculturesoftheworld,andperhapsevenindevelopmentofthespeciesitselfOutofconcernforsurvival,ourbrainsareconstructedtomakesenseofincomingstimuliGivenanythreefactsorimages,I,we,allofus,includingourancestorsfromfortythousandyearsago,areonourwaytomakingsenseofthesefactsinotherwords,tomakingastoryAmovementinthegrass,birdstakingflight,anunnaturalstillness,andaCroMagnonmightbeginconcoctingascenarioofaleopardstalkinghimWhenIfirstbeganteaching,studentswouldaskmewhatbookstheyshouldreadaboutfilmmaking,IwouldtellthemDearTheo,VincentVanGogh’sletterstohisbrotherIstillthinkanyoneaspiringtobeafilmdirectorshouldreadthisbooknotforthecraftoffilmmaking,obviously,butfortheinspirationtopursuethecreationofartthroughthepainstakingdevelopmentofcraftForyearsVanGoghdrewwithcharcoalHewouldspendcountlesshoursdrawingpotatofarmersdigginginthefields,hiseyesburningthroughtheirclothingtoimaginethebonesandmusclesunderneathHebuiltanunwieldyperspectivedevicehewouldcarryformilesinordertodevelopthisinvaluableskilloftherepresentationalartistAftermanyyears,anotherpaintermentionedtoVanGoghthathehadsurelydoneenoughdrawingandshouldbegintoworkwithcolorVanGogh’sresponse,“Theproblemwithmostpeople’scoloristhattheycannotdraw”ThepointIwishtomakeisthatalthougheveryoneofyouisinahurryto“usecolor,”itwouldbehooveyoutofirstlearntodrawwellAndthatiswherewewillstartThe“drawing”ormethodologyinthisbookisbasedonthepropositionthatthescreenplaytheblueprintofafilminformseverythingthedirectordoesWewillfocusonfourareas:detectiveworkonthescript,blockingactors,thecameraasnarrator,andworkwiththeactorsDoallgooddirectorsfollowthismethodologyIbelievetheydo,whethertheyknowitornotForsomeitproceedsfromaninnatedramaticinstinctForothersitisforgedinthefireofexperienceMostlikelyitisacombinationofbothButIalsoknowfrommyyearsatColumbiathatitispossibletoteachtheseprinciplesAndIknowthatitisnearlyimpossibletoengageanaudiencefully,topullthemintoyourstoryandkeepthemthere,elicitingtheiremotionswhichis,afterall,themainpoweroffilmifthestepscalledforherearenotpaidattentiontoonsomelevelTherearemanyattributesthatarenecessaryforagoodfilmdirector:imagination,tenacity,knowledgeofthecraft,knowledgeofpeople,abilitytoworkwithothers,willingnesstoacceptresponsibility,courage,stamina,andmanymoreButthemostimportantattributethatcanbetaught,theonethatifmissingwillnegatealltherest,isclarityclarityaboutthestoryandhoweachelementinitcontributestothewhole,andthenclarityaboutwhatisconveyedtotheaudienceAlfredHitchcocksaidthatifhewererunningafilmschool,hewouldnotletstudentsnearacameraforthefirsttwoyearsIntoday’sworldthatfilmschoolwouldsoonfinditselfbereftofstudents,forthecameraservesasavalidationthatoneisindeedpursuingtheartoffilmmakingButnevertheless,therearethingsoneshouldbeawareofbeforepickingupacamera,sowewillbeginourjourneywithanintroductiontofilmlanguageanditsgrammaticalrulesPARTONECHAPTERINTRODUCTIONTOFILMLANGUAGEANDGRAMMARTHEFILMWORLDThefirstdramaticfilmswererenderedasifthroughaprosceniumThecamerawasplacedinpositionandalltheactioninthescenetookplacewithinthatcameraframeTheaudience’sviewwasmuchthesameasatheateraudiencesittingfrontrowcenterTheAmericandirectorDWGriffithwasoneofthefirsttomovetheaudienceontothestagewithworkslikeForLoveofGold(),TheLonelyVilla(),TheLonedaleOperator(),andthehighlyinfluential,butstronglyracist,BirthofaNation()“Lookhere!”hesaidtotheaudiencewithhiscamera“Now,here!”Griffithwasnotonlymovingtheaudienceintothescenehewasthenturningtheirseatsthiswayandthatmovingthemintothefaceofacharacter,theninthenextinstantpullingthemtothebackofthe“theater”togetalargerviewofthecharacterinrelationtoothercharactersorshowingthecharacterinrelationtohisorhersurroundingsThereasonforputtingtheaudienceintothesceneisthatitmakesthestorymoreinterestingmoredramaticButbymovingtheaudienceintotheaction,andfocusingtheirattentionfirsthere,nowthere,thedirectorcaneasilyconfuseanddisorienttheaudienceThegeographyofalocationorthewholenessofacharacter’sbodybecomesfragmentedWhosehandisthatWhereisCharacterAinspatialrelationshiptoCharacterBUsuallythedirectordoesnotwanttocauseconfusionRather,shewantstheaudiencetofeelcomfortableinthisfilmworldtobespatially(andtemporally)orientedsothatthestorycantakeplaceunimpededUsually,thedirectorwantstheaudiencetoknow,“ThatisBob’shand,andBobissittingtotherightofEllen”(evenifwehaven’tseenEllenforawhile)Therearetimes,however,whenwewillusethispossibilityforconfusionanddisorientationtoouradvantagetocreatesurpriseorsuspenseFILMLANGUAGEOncefilmbecameaseriesofconnectedshots,alanguagewasbornEveryshotbecameacompletesentencewithatleastonesubjectandoneverb(Wearetalkingaboutaneditedshothere,asopposedtoacamerasetup,whichmaybecutintoanumberofeditedshots)Likeprose,afilmsentenceshotcanbesimple,withonlyonesubjectandoneverb,andperhapsanobjectoritcanbeacompoundsentenceshot,composedoftwoormoreclausesThetypeofsentenceshotweusewillfirstdependontheessenceofthemomentwewishtoconveytotheaudienceSecondarily,thatsentenceshotwillbecontainedinadesignofthescene,whichmaybeaningredientofanoverallstyleInAlfredHitchcock’sRope(),wherethe

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