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首页 [英]以赛亚·柏林:卡尔·马克思:他的生平与环境(牛津 1959)

[英]以赛亚·柏林:卡尔·马克思:他的生平与环境(牛津 1959)

[英]以赛亚·柏林:卡尔·马克思:他的生平与环境(牛津 195…

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2009-02-26 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[英]以赛亚·柏林:卡尔·马克思:他的生平与环境(牛津 1959)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

BerlnKarlMarxiIgt,*vIfillrgtj^^if*K^iDATEDUEDemcoIncBerlin,IsaiahKarlMarx,hislifeandenvironmentKARLMARXHisLIFEANDENVIRONMENTISAIAHBERLINAGALAXYBOOKNEWYORKOXFORDUNIVERSITYPRESSFirstPublished,SecondEdition,FirstPublishedasaGalaxyBook,SecondPrinting,PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaToMYPARENTSteLUH^iHPREFATORYNOTEMYthanksareduetomyfriendsandcolleagueswhohavebeengoodenoughtoreadthisbookinmanuscript,andhavecontributedvaluablesuggestions,bywhichIhavegreatlyprofitedinparticulartoMrAJAyer,MrIanBowen,MrGEFChilver,MrSNHampshireandMrSRachmilewitchIamfurthergreatlyindebtedtoMrFrancisGrahamHarrisonforcompilingtheindextoMrsHALFisherandMrDavidStephensforreadingtheproofstoMessrsMethuenforpermissiontomakeuseofthepassagequotedonpageand,mostofall,totheWardenandFellowsofAllSoulsCollegeforpermittingmetodevoteapartofthetimeduringwhichIheldaFellowshipofthecollegetoasubjectoutsidethescopeofmyproperstudiesIEOXFORDMayCONTENTSIINTRODUCTIONIIICHILDHOODANDADOLESCENCE$HITHEPHILOSOPHYOFTHESPIRITIVTHEYOUNGHEGELIANSVPARISlVIHISTORICALMATERIALISMviiraiEXILEINLONDON:THEFIRSTPHASEDCTHEINTERNATIONALoX*THEREDTERRORISTDOCTORXILASTYEARSBIBLIOGRAPHYINDEXCHAPTERIINTRODUCTIONThingsandactionsarewhattheyare,andtheirconsequenceswillbewhattheywillbe:whythenshouldweseektobedeceivedBISHOPBUTLERJNothinkerinthenineteenthcenturyhashadsodirect,deliberateandpowerfulaninfluenceuponmankindasKarlMarxBothduringhislifetimeandafteritheexercisedanintellectualandmoralascendancyoverhisfollowers,thestrengthofwhichwasuniqueeveninthatgoldenageofdemocraticnationalism,anagewhichsawtheriseofgreatpopularheroesandmartyrs,romantic,almostlegendaryfigures,whoselivesandwordsdominatedtheimaginationofthemassesandcreatedanewrevolutionarytraditioninEuropeYetMarxcouldnot,atanytime,becalledapopularfigureintheordinarysense:certainlyhewasinnosenseapopularwriterororatorHewroteextensively,buthisworkswerenot,duringhislifetime,readwidelyandwhen,inthelateseventies,theybegantoreachtheimmensepublicwhichseveralamongthemafterwardsobtained,thedesiretoreadthemwasduenotsomuchtoarecognitionoftheirintrinsicqualitiesastothegrowthofthefameandnotorietyofthemovementwithwhichhewasidentified^larxtotallylackedthequalitiesofagreatpopularleaderoragitator,wasnotapublicistofgeniusliketheRussiandemocratAlexanderHerzen,nordidhepossessBakuninsmarvellouseloquencethegreaterpartofhisworkinglifewasspentincomparativeobscurityinKARLMARXLondon,athiswritingdeskandinthereadingroomoftheBritishMuseumHewaslittleknowntothegeneralpublic,andwhiletowardstheendofhislifehebecametherecognized,andadmired,leaderofapowerfulinternationalmovement,nothinginhislifeorcharacterstirredtheimaginationorevokedtheboundlessdevotion,theintense,almostreligious,worship,withwhichsuchmenasKossuth,Mazzini,andevenLassalleinhislastyears,wereregardedbytheirfollowers,xHispublicappearanceswereneitherfrequentnornotablysuccessfulOnthefewoccasionsonwhichheaddressedbanquetsorpublicmeetings,hisspeecheswereoverloadedwithmatter,anddeliveredwithacombinationofmonotonyandbrusqueness,whichcommandedtherespectbutnottheenthusiasmofhisaudienceHewasbytemperamentatheoristandanintellectual,andinstinctivelyavoideddirectcontactwiththemasses,tothestudyofwhoseinterestshisentirelifewasdevotedTomanyofhisfollowersheappearedintheroleofadogmaticandsententiousGermanschoolmaster,preparedtorepeathisthesesindefinitely,withrisingsharpness,untiltheiressencebecameirremovablylodgedinhisdisciplesmindsThegreaterpartofhiseconomicteachingwasgivenitsfirstexpressioninlecturestoworkingmen:hisexpositionunderthesecircumstanceswasbyallaccountsamodeloflucidityandconcisenessButhewroteslowlyandpainfully,assometimeshappenswithrapidandfertilethinkers,scarcelyabletocopewiththespeedoftheirownideas,impatientatoncetocommunicateanewdoctrine,andtoforestalleverypossibleobjectionthepublishedversionsweregenerallyturgid,clumsy,andobscureindetail,althoughthecentraldoctrineisneverINTRODUCTIONinseriousdoubtHewasacutelyconsciousofthis,andoncecomparedhimselfwiththeheroofBalzacsUnknownMasterpiece,whotriestopaintthepicturewhichhasformeditselfinhismind,touchesandretouchesthecanvasendlessly,toproduceatlastashapelessmassofcolours,whichtohiseyeseemstoexpressthevisioninhisimaginationHebelongedtoagenerationwhichcultivatedtheemotionsmoreintenselyanddeliberatelythanitspredecessors,andwasbroughtupamongmentowhomideaswereoftenmorerealthanfacts,andpersonalrelationsmeantfarmorethantheeventsoftheexternalworldbywhomindeedpubliclifewascommonlyunderstoodandinterpretedintermsoftherichandelaborateworldoftheirownprivateexperienceMarxwasbynaturenotintrospective,andtooklittleinterestinpersonsorstatesofmindorsoulthefailureonthepartofsomanyofhiscontemporariestoassesstheimportanceoftherevolutionarytransformationofthesocietyoftheirday,duetotheswiftadvanceoftechnologywithitsaccompanimentofsuddenincreaseofwealth,and,atthesametime,ofsocialandculturaldislocationandconfusion,merelyexcitedhisangerandcontemptHewasendowedwithapowerful,active,unsentimentalmind,anacutesenseofinjustice,andexceptionallylittlesensibility,andwasrepelledasmuchbytherhetoricandemotionalismoftheintellectualsasbythestupidityandcomplacencyofthebourgeoisiethefirstseemedtohimaimlesschatter,remotefromrealityand,whethersincereorfalse,equallyirritatingthesecondatoncehypocriticalandselfdeceived,blindedtothesalientfeaturesofitstimebyabsorptioninthepursuitofwealthandsocialstatusKARLMARXThissenseoflivinginahostileandvulgarworld,intensifiedperhapsbyhisdislikeofthefactthathewasbornaJew,increasedhisnaturalharshnessandaggressiveness,andproducedtheformidablefigureofpopularimaginationHisgreatestadmirerswouldfinditdifficulttomaintainthathewasasensitiveortenderheartedman,orinanywayconcernedaboutthefeelingsofthosewithwhomhecameintocontactthemajorityofthemenhemetwere,inhisopinion,eitherfoolsorsycophants,andtowardssuchhebehavedwithopensuspicionorcontemptButifhisattitudeinpublicwasoverbearingandoffensive,intheintimatecirclecomposedofhisfamilyandhisfriends,inwhichhefeltcompletelysecure,hewasconsiderateandgentlehismarriedlifewasexceptionallyhappy,hewaswarmlyattachedtohischildren,andhetreatedhislifelongfriendandcollaborator,Engels,withuniformloyaltyanddevotionHewasacharmlessman,andhisbehaviourwasoftenboorish,butevenhisenemieswerefascinatedbythestrengthandvehemenceofhispersonality,theboldnessofhisviews,andthebreadthandbrillianceofhisanalysesofthecontemporarysituationHeremainedallhislifeanoddlyisolatedfigureamongtherevolutionariesofhistime,equallyhostiletotheirpersons,theirmethodsandtheirendsHisisolationwasnot,however,duemerelytotemperamentortotheaccidentoftimeandplaceHoweverwidelythemajorityofEuropeandemocratsdifferedincharacter,aimsandhistoricalenvironment,theyresembledeachotherinonefundamentalattribute,whichmadecooperationbetweenthempossible,atleastinprincipleWhetherornottheybelievedinviolentrevolution,theINTRODUCTIONgreatmajorityofthemwere,inthelastanalysis,liberalreformers,andappealedexplicitlytomoralstandardscommontoallmankindTheycriticizedandcondemnedtheexistingconditionofhumanityintermsofsomepreconceivedideal,somesystem,whosedesirabilityatleastneedednodemonstration,beingselfevidenttoallmenwithnormalmoralvisiontheirschemesdifferedinthedegreetowhichtheycouldberealizedinpractice,andcouldaccordinglybeclassifiedaslessormoreUtopian,butbroadagreementexistedbetweenallschoolsofdemocraticthoughtabouttheultimateendstobepursuedTheydisagreedabouttheeffectivenessoftheproposedmeans,abouttheextenttowhichcompromisewiththeexistingpowerswasmorallyorpracticallyadvisable,aboutthecharacterandvalueofspecificsocialinstitutions,andconsequentlyaboutthepolicytobeadoptedwithregardtothemButtheywereessentiallyreformersinthesensethattheybelievedthattherewaslittlewhichcouldnotbealteredbythedeterminedwillofindividualstheybelieved,too,thatpowerfullyheldmoralendsweresufficientspringsofaction,themselvesjustifiedbyanappealnottofactsbuttosomeuniversallyacceptedscaleofvaluesItfollowedthatitwasproperfirsttoascertainwhatonewishedtheworldtobe:next,onehadtoconsiderinthelightofthishowmuchoftheexistingsocialfabricshouldberetained,howmuchcondemned:finally,onewasobligedtolookforthemosteffectivemeansofaccomplishingthenecessarytransformationWiththisattitude,commontothevastmajorityofrevolutionariesandreformersatalltimes,MarxcametobewhollyoutofsympathyHewasconvincedthathumanhistoryisgovernedbylawswhich,liketheOKARLMARXlawswhichgovernnature,cannotbealteredbytheinterventionofindividualsactuatedbythisorthatidealHebelieved,indeed,thattheinnerexperiencetowhichmenappealtojustifytheirends,sofarfromrevealingaspecialkindoftruthcalledmoralorreligious,ismerelyafacultywhichengendersmythsandillusions,bothindividualandcollectiveBeingconditionedbythematerialcircumstancesinwhichtheycometobirth,themythsembodyintheguiseofobjectivetruthwhatevermenintheirmiserywishtobelieveundertheirtreacherousinfluencemenmisinterpretthenatureoftheworldinwhichtheylive,misunderstandtheirownpositioninit,andthereforemiscalculatetherangeoftheirownandotherspower,andtheconsequencesbothoftheirownandtheiropponentsactsInoppositiontothemajority,ofUndemocratictheoristsofhistime,Marxbelievedthatvaluescouldnotbecontemplatedinisolationfromfacts,butnecessarilydependeduponthemannerinwhichthefactswereviewedTrueinsightintothenatureandlawsofthehistoricalprocesswillofitself,withouttheaidofindependentlyknownmoralstandards,makecleartoarationalbeingwhatstepitisproperforhim,toadopt,thatis,whatcoursewouldmostaccordwiththerequirementsoftheordertowhichhebelongsConsequentlyMarxhadnonewethicalorsocialidealtopressuponmankindhedidnotpleadforachangeofheartachangeofheartwasnecessarilybutthesubstitutionofonesetofillusionsforanotherHedifferedfromtheothergreatideologistsofhisgenerationbymakinghisappeal,atleastinhisownview,solelytoreason,tothepracticalintelligence,denouncingonlyintellectualviceorblindness,insistingthatallthatmenneed,inorderINTRODUCTIONtoknowhowtosavethemselvesfromthechaosinwhichtheyareinvolved,istoseektounderstandtheiractualconditionbelievingthatacorrectestimateoftheprecisebalanceofforcesinthesocietytowhichmenbelongwillitselfindicatetheformoflifewhichitisrationaltopursueMarxdenouncestheexistingorderbyappealingnottoidealsbuttohistory:hedenouncesitnotasbad,orunfortunate,orduetohumanwickednessorfolly,butasbeingcausedbythelawsofsocialdevelopment,whichmakeitinevitablethatatacertainstageofhistoryoneclassshoulddispossessandexploitanotherTheoppressorsarethreatenednotwithdeliberateretributiononthepartoftheirvictims,butwiththeinevitabledestructionwhichhistoryhasinstoreforthem,asaclassdoomedshortlytodisappearfromthestageofhistorylet,designedthoughitistoappealtotheintellect,hislanguageisthatofaheraldandaprophet,speakinginthenamenotofhumanbeingsbutoftheuniversallawitself,seekingnottorescuenortoimprove,buttowarnandtocondemn,torevealthetruth,andabovealltorefutefalsehoodDestruametdificabo(IshalldestroyandIshallbuild),whichProudhonplacedattheheadofoneofhisworks,farmoreaptlydescribesMarxsconceptionofhisownappointedtaskInhehadcompletedthefirststageofhisprogramme,andacquaintedhimselfwiththenature,historyandlawsoftheevolutionofthesocietyinwhichhefoundhimselfHeconcludedthatthehistoryofsocietyisthehistoryofstrugglesofopposedclasses,oneofwhichmustemergetriumphant,althoughinamuchalteredform:progressisconstitutedbythesuccessionofvictoriesofoneclassovertheother,andthatmanaloneisrationalKARLMARXwhoidentifieshimselfwiththeprogressiveclassinhissociety,either,ifneedbe,bydeliberatelyabandoninghispastandallyinghimselfwithit,orifhistoryhasalreadyplacedhimthere,byconsciouslyrecognizinghissituationandactinginthelightofitAccordinglyMarx,havingidentifiedtherisingclassinthestruggleofhisowntimewiththeproletariat,devotedtherestofhislifetoplanningavictoryforthoseatwhoseheadhehadplacedhimselfThisvictorytheprocessofhistorywouldinanycasesecure,buthumancourage,determinationandingenuitycouldbringitnearerandmakethetransitionlesspainful,accompaniedbylessfrictionandlesswasteofhumansubstanceHispositionhenceforthisthatofacommander,actuallyengagedinacampaign,whothereforedoesnotcontinuallycalluponhimselfandotherstoshowreasonforengaginginawaratall,orforbeingononesideofitratherthantheother:thestateofwarandonesownpositioninitaregiventheyarefactsnottobequestionedbutacceptedandexaminedonessolebusinessistodefeattheenemyallotherproblemsareacademic,basedonunrealizedhypotheticalconditions,andsobesidethepointHencethealmostcompleteabsenceinMarxslaterworksofdiscussionsofultimateprinciples,ofallattemptstojustifyhisoppositiontothebourgeoisieThemeritsordefectsoftheenemy,orwhatmighthavebeen,ifnoenemyandnowarexisted,isofnointerestduringthebattleTointroducetheseirrelevantissuesduringtheperiodofactualfightingistodiverttheattentionofonessupportersfromthecrucialissueswithwhich,whetherornottheyrecognizethem,theyarefaced,andsotoweakentheirpowerofresistanceINTRODUCTIONgAllthatisimportantduringtheactualwarisaccurateknowledgeofonesownresourcesandofthoseoftheadversary,andknowledgeoftheprevioushistoryofsocietyandthelawswhichgovernitisindispensabletothisendDasKapitalisanattempttoprovidesuchananalysisThealmostcompleteabsencefromitofexplicitmoralargument,ofappealstoconscienceortoprinciple,andtheequallystrikingabsenceofdetailedpredictionofwhatwillorshouldhappenafterthevictory,followfromtheconcentrationofattentiononthepracticalproblemsofactionTheconceptionsofnaturalrights,andofconscience,asbelongingtoeverymanirrespectiveofhispositionintheclassstruggle,arerejectedasliberalillusions:socialismdoesnotappeal,itdemandsitspeaksnotofrights,butofthenewformoflifebeforewhoseinexorableapproachtheoldsocialstructurehasvisiblybeguntodisintegrateMoral,political,economicconceptionsandidealsalternetlessthanthesocialconditionsfromwhichtheyspring:toregardanyoneofthemasuniversalandimmutableis^|te^,I,n~*T^~,gt^V,^,TJ,*^^,tantamounttobelievingthattheordertowhichtheybelonginthis^casethe,bourgeoisojrderiseternalThisfallacyunderliestheethicalandpsychologicaldoctrinesofidealistichumanitariansfromtheeighteenthcenturyonwardsHencethecontemptandloathingpouredbyMarxuponthecommonassumption,madebyliberalsandutilitarians,thatsincetheinterestsofallmenareultimatelyandhavealwaysbeenthesame,ameasureofgoodwillandbenevolenceonthepartofeveryonemayyetmakeitpossibletomanufacturesomesortofgeneralcompromiseIfthewarisreal,theseinterestsaretotallyincompatibleAdenialofthisfactcanbedueonlytostupidorcynicaldisregardKARLMARXofthetruth,apeculiarlyviciousformofhypocrisyorselfdeception,repeatedlyexposedbyhistoryThisfundamentaldifferenceofoutlook,andnomeredissimilarityoftemperamentornaturalgifts,isthepropertywhichdistinguishesMarxsharplyfromthebourgeoisradicalsandUtopiansocialistswhom,tothenownbewilderedindignation,hefoughtandabusedsavagelyandunremittinglyformorethanfortyyearsHedetestedromanticism,emotionalism,andhumanitarianismofeverykind,and,inhisanxietytoavoidanyappealtotheidealisticfeelingsofhisaudience,systematicallyremovedeverytraceoftheolddemocraticvocabularyfromthepropagandistliteratureofhismovementHeneitherofferednorinvitedconcessionsatanytime,anddidnotenterintoanydubiouspoliticalalliances,sincehedeclinedallformsofcompromiseThemanuscriptsofthenumerousmanifestoes,professionsoffaithandprogrammesofactiontowhichheappendedhisname,stillbearthestrokesofthepenandthefiercemarginalcomments,withwhichhesoughttoobliterateallreferencestoeternaljustice,theequalityofman,therightsofindividualsornations,thelibertyofconscience,thefightforcivilization,andothersuchphraseswhichwerethestockintrade(andhadoncegenuinelyembodiedtheideals)ofthedemocraticmovementsofhistimehelookedupontheseassomuchworthlesscant,indicatingconfusionofthoughtandineffectivenessinactionThewarmustbefoughtoneveryfront,and,sincecontemporarysocietyispoliticallyorganized,apoliticalpartymustbeformedoutofthoseelementswhichinaccordancewiththelawsofhistoricaldevelopmentaredestinedtoemergeastheconqueringclassTheyINTRODUCTIONIImustceaselesslybetaughtthatwhatseemssosecureinexistingsocietyis,inreality,doomedtoswiftextinction,afactwhichmenmayfinditdifficulttobelievebecauseoftheimmenseprotectivefacadeofmoral,religious,politicalandeconomicassumptionsandbeliefs,whichthemoribundclassconsciouslyorunconsciouslycreates,blindingitselfandotherstoitsownapproachingfateItrequiresbothintellectualcourageandacutenessofvisiontopenetratethissmokescreenandperceivetherealstructureofeventsThespectacleofchaos,andtheimminenceofthecrisisinwhichitisboundtoend,willofitselfconvinceacleareyedandinterestedobserver

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[英]以赛亚·柏林:卡尔·马克思:他的生平与环境(牛津 1959)

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