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首页 新概念英语 第四册(pdf)

新概念英语 第四册(pdf)

新概念英语 第四册(pdf)

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2009-02-23 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《新概念英语 第四册(pdf)pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

刘晓华liuxiaohuanetNEWCONCEPTENGLISH(IV)(newversion)录入:刘晓华录入:刘晓华录入:刘晓华录入:刘晓华(liuxiaohuanet)声明:本文件是从老版本的新概念修改而来用于本人学习背声明:本文件是从老版本的新概念修改而来用于本人学习背声明:本文件是从老版本的新概念修改而来用于本人学习背声明:本文件是从老版本的新概念修改而来用于本人学习背诵这一大名鼎鼎的教材没有任何商业用途。由于我只喜欢这一册诵这一大名鼎鼎的教材没有任何商业用途。由于我只喜欢这一册诵这一大名鼎鼎的教材没有任何商业用途。由于我只喜欢这一册诵这一大名鼎鼎的教材没有任何商业用途。由于我只喜欢这一册所以没有其他三册的版本请不要来信索取。由于原先的版本是所以没有其他三册的版本请不要来信索取。由于原先的版本是所以没有其他三册的版本请不要来信索取。由于原先的版本是所以没有其他三册的版本请不要来信索取。由于原先的版本是OCR扫描出来的新增的扫描出来的新增的扫描出来的新增的扫描出来的新增的篇是我手工录入所以有可能有错误如果发篇是我手工录入所以有可能有错误如果发篇是我手工录入所以有可能有错误如果发篇是我手工录入所以有可能有错误如果发现请按本文中现请按本文中现请按本文中现请按本文中的邮件地址指教我将在修订之后回寄一个新版本作的邮件地址指教我将在修订之后回寄一个新版本作的邮件地址指教我将在修订之后回寄一个新版本作的邮件地址指教我将在修订之后回寄一个新版本作为酬谢。同时欢迎来信就本书内容进行切磋与探讨。为酬谢。同时欢迎来信就本书内容进行切磋与探讨。为酬谢。同时欢迎来信就本书内容进行切磋与探讨。为酬谢。同时欢迎来信就本书内容进行切磋与探讨。欢迎广泛传播本文以使广大新概念爱好者受益。欢迎广泛传播本文以使广大新概念爱好者受益。欢迎广泛传播本文以使广大新概念爱好者受益。欢迎广泛传播本文以使广大新概念爱好者受益。刘晓华liuxiaohuanetLessonFindingFossilmanWecanreadofthingsthathappened,yearsagointheNearEast,wherepeoplefirstlearnedtowriteButtherearesomepartsoftheworldwhereevennowpeoplecannotwriteTheonlywaythattheycanpreservetheirhistoryistorecountitassagaslegendshandeddownfromonegenerationofstorytellerstoanotherTheselegendsareusefulbecausetheycantellussomethingaboutmigrationsofpeoplewholivedlongago,butnonecouldwritedownwhattheydidAnthropologistswonderedwheretheremoteancestorsofthePolynesianpeoplesnowlivinginthePacificIslandscamefromThesagasofthesepeopleexplainthatsomeofthemcamefromIndonesiaabout,yearsagoButthefirstpeoplewhowerelikeourselveslivedsolongagothateventheirsagas,iftheyhadany,areforgottenSoarchaeologistshaveneitherhistorynorlegendstohelpthemtofindoutwherethefirst'modernmen'camefromFortunately,however,ancientmenmadetoolsofstone,especiallyflint,becausethisiseasiertoshapethanotherkindsTheymayalsohaveusedwoodandskins,butthesehaverottedawayStonedoesnotdecay,andsothetoolsoflongagohaveremainedwheneventhebonesofthemenwhomadethemhavedisappearedwithouttrace刘晓华liuxiaohuanetLessonSparethatspiderWhy,youmaywonder,shouldspidersbeourfriendsBecausetheydestroysomanyinsects,andinsectsincludesomeofthegreatestenemiesofthehumanraceInsectswouldmakeitimpossibleforustoliveintheworldtheywoulddevourallourcropsandkillourflocksandherds,ifitwerenotfortheprotectionwegetfrominsecteatinganimalsWeowealottothebirdsandbeastswhoeatinsectsbutallofthemputtogetherkillonlyafractionofthenumberdestroyedbyspidersMoreover,unlikesomeoftheotherinsecteaters,spidersneverdotheleastharmtousorourbelongingsSpidersarenotinsects,asmanypeoplethink,norevennearlyrelatedtothemOnecantellthedifferencealmostataglanceforaspideralwayshaseightlegsandaninsectnevermorethansixHowmanyspidersareengagedinthisworkonourbehalfOneauthorityonspidersmadeacensusofthespidersinagrassfieldinthesouthofEngland,andheestimatedthatthereweremorethan,,inoneacre,thatissomethinglike,,spidersofdifferentkindsonafootballpitchSpidersarebusyforatleasthalftheyearinkillinginsectsItisimpossibletomakemorethanthewildestguessathowmanytheykill,buttheyarehungrycreatures,notcontentwithonlythreemealsadayIthasbeenestimatedthattheweightofalltheinsectsdestroyedbyspidersinBritaininoneyearwouldbegreaterthanthetotalweightofallthehumanbeingsinthecountryTHGILLESPIESparethatSpiderfromTheListener刘晓华liuxiaohuanetLessonMatterhornmanModernalpiniststrytoclimbmountainsbyaroutewhichwillgivethemgoodsport,andthemoredifficultitis,themorehighlyitisregardedInthepioneeringdays,however,thiswasnotthecaseatallTheearlyclimberswerelookingfortheeasiestwaytothetopbecausethesummitwastheprizetheysought,especiallyifithadneverbeenattainedbeforeItistruethatduringtheirexplorationstheyoftenfaceddifficultiesanddangersofthemostperilousnature,equippedinamannerwhichwouldmakeamodernclimbershudderatthethought,buttheydidnotgooutoftheirwaytocourtsuchexcitementTheyhadasingleaim,asolitarygoalthetop!ItishardforustorealizenowadayshowdifficultitwasforthepioneersExceptforoneortwoplacessuchasZermattandChamonix,whichhadrapidlybecomepopular,AlpinevillagestendedtobeimpoverishedsettlementscutofffromcivilizationbythehighmountainsSuchinnsastherewereweregenerallydirtyandfleariddenthefoodsimplylocalcheeseaccompaniedbybreadoftentwelvemonthsold,allwasheddownwithcoarsewineOftenavalleyboastednoinnatall,andclimbersfoundshelterwherevertheycouldsometimeswiththelocalpriest(whowasusuallyaspoorashisparishioners),sometimeswithshepherdsorcheesemakersInvariablythebackgroundwasthesame:dirtandpoverty,andveryuncomfortableFormenaccustomedtoeatingsevencoursedinnersandsleepingbetweenfinelinensheetsathome,thechangetotheAlpsmusthavebeenveryhardindeed刘晓华liuxiaohuanetLessonSeeinghandsIntheSovietUnionseveralcaseshavebeenreportedrecentlyofpeoplewhocanreadanddetectcolourswiththeirfingers,andevenseethroughsoliddoorsandwallsOnecaseconcernsan'elevenyearoldschoolgirl,VeraPetrova,whohasnormalvisionbutwhocanalsoperceivethingswithdifferentpartsofherskin,andthroughsolidwallsThisabilitywasfirstnoticedbyherfatherOnedayshecameintohisofficeandhappenedtoputherhandsonthedoorofalockedsafeSuddenlysheaskedherfatherwhyhekeptsomanyoldnewspaperslockedawaythere,andevendescribedthewaytheyweredoneupinbundlesVera'scurioustalentwasbroughttothenoticeofascientificresearchinstituteinthetownofUIyanovsk,nearwhereshelives,andinAprilshewasgivenaseriesoftestsbyaspecialcommissionoftheMinistryofHealthoftheRussianFederalRepublicDuringthesetestsshewasabletoreadanewspaperthroughanopaquescreenand,strangerstill,bymovingherelbowoverachild'sgameofLottoshewasabletodescribethefiguresandcoloursprintedonitand,inanotherinstance,wearingstockingsandslippers,tomakeoutwithherfoottheoutlinesandcoloursofapicturehiddenunderacarpetOtherexperimentsshowedthatherkneesandshouldershadasimilarsensitivityDuringallthesetestsVerawasblindfoldand,indeed,exceptwhenblindfoldshelackedtheabilitytoperceivethingswithherskinltwasalsofoundthatalthoughshecouldperceivethingswithherfingersthisabilityceasedthemomentherhandswerewet刘晓华liuxiaohuanetLessonYouthPeoplearealwaystalkingabout'theproblemofyouth'IfthereisonewhichItakeleavetodoubtthenitisolderpeoplewhocreateit,nottheyoungthemselvesLetusgetdowntofundamentalsandagreethattheyoungareafterallhumanbeingspeoplejustliketheireldersThereisonlyonedifferencebetweenanoldmanandayoungone:theyoungmanhasagloriousfuturebeforehimandtheoldonehasasplendidfuturebehindhim:andmaybethatiswheretherubisWhenIwasateenager,IfeltthatIwasjustyounganduncertainthatIwasanewboyinahugeschool,andIwouldhavebeenverypleasedtoberegardedassomethingsointerestingasaproblemForonething,beingaproblemgivesyouacertainidentity,andthatisoneofthethingstheyoungarebusilyengagedinseekingIfindyoungpeopleexcitingTheyhaveanairoffreedom,andtheyhavenotadrearycommitmenttomeanambitionsorloveofcomfortTheyarenotanxioussocialclimbers,andtheyhavenodevotiontomaterialthingsAllthisseemstometolinkthemwithlife,andtheoriginsofthingsIt'sasiftheywereinsomesensecosmicbeingsinviolentandlovelycontrastwithussuburbancreaturesAllthatisinmymindwhenImeetayoungpersonHemaybeconceited,illmannered,presumptuousoffatuous,butIdonotturnforprotectiontodrearyclichésaboutrespectforeldersasifmereagewereareasonforrespectIacceptthatweareequals,andIwillarguewithhim,asanequal,ifIthinkheiswrong刘晓华liuxiaohuanetLessonThesportingspiritIamalwaysamazedwhenIhearpeoplesayingthatsportcreatesgoodwillbetweenthenations,andthatifonlythecommonpeoplesoftheworldcouldmeetoneanotheratfootballorcricket,theywouldhavenoinclinationtomeetonthebattlefieldEvenifonedidn'tknowfromconcreteexamples(theOlympicGames,forinstance)thatinternationalsportingcontestsleadtoorgiesofhatred,onecoulddeduceitfromgeneralprinciplesNearlyallthesportspractisednowadaysarecompetitiveYouplaytowin,andthegamehaslittlemeaningunlessyoudoyourutmosttowinOnthevillagegreen,whereyoupickupsidesandnofeelingoflocalpatriotismisinvolved,itispossibletoplaysimplyforthefunandexercise:butassoonasthequestionofprestigearises,assoonasyoufeelthatyouandsomelargerunitwillbedisgracedifyoulose,themostsavagecombativeinstinctsarearousedAnyonewhohasplayedeveninaschoolfootballmatchknowsthisAttheinternationallevelsportisfranklymimicwarfareButthesignificantthingisnotthebehaviouroftheplayersbuttheattitudeofthespectators:and,behindthespectators,ofthenationswhoworkthemselvesintofuriesovertheseabsurdcontests,andseriouslybelieveatanyrateforshortperiodsthatrunning,jumpingandkickingaballaretestsofnationalvirtue刘晓华liuxiaohuanetLessonBatsNotallsoundsmadebyanimalsserveaslanguage,andwehaveonlytoturntothatextraordinarydiscoveryofecholocationinbatstoseeacaseinwhichthevoiceplaysastrictlyutilitarianroleTogetafullappreciationofwhatthismeanswemustturnfirsttosomerecenthumaninventionsEveryoneknowsthatifheshoutsinthevicinityofawalloramountainside,anechowillcomebackThefurtheroffthissolidobstructionthelongertimewillelapseforthereturnoftheechoAsoundmadebytappingonthehullofashipwillbereflectedfromtheseabottom,andbymeasuringthetimeintervalbetweenthetapsandthereceiptoftheechoesthedepthoftheseaatthatpointcanbecalculatedSowasborntheechosoundingapparatus,nowingeneraluseinshipsEverysolidobjectwillreflectasound,varyingaccordingtothesizeandnatureoftheobjectAshoaloffishwilldothisSoitisacomparativelysimplestepfromlocatingtheseabottomtolocatingashoaloffishWithexperience,andwithimprovedapparatus,itisnowpossiblenotonlytolocateashoalbuttotellifitisherring,cod,orotherwellknownfish,bythepatternofitsechoAfewyearsagoitwasfoundthatcertainbatsemitsqueaksandbyreceivingtheechoestheycouldlocateandsteerclearofobstaclesorlocateflyinginsectsonwhichtheyfeedThisecholocationinbatsisoftencomparedwithradar,theprincipleofwhichissimilar刘晓华liuxiaohuanet*LessonTradingstandardsChickensslaughteredintheUnitedStates,claimofficialsinBrussels,arenotfittograceEuropeantablesNo,saytheAmericans:ourfowlarefine,wesimplycleantheminadifferentwayThesedays,itisdifferencesinnationalregulations,farmorethantariffs,thatputsandinthewheelsoftradebetweenrichcountriesItisnotjustfarmerswhoarecomplainingAnelectricrazorthatmeetstheEuropeanUnion’ssafetystandardsmustbeapprovedbyAmericantestersbeforeitcanbesoldintheUnitedStates,andanAmericanmadedialysismachineneedstheEU’sokaybeforeithitsthemarketinEuropeAsithappens,arazorthatissafeinEuropeisunlikelytoelectrocuteAmericansSo,askbusinessesonbothsidesoftheAtlantic,whyhavetwolotsoftestswhereonewoulddoPoliticiansagree,inprinciple,soAmericaandtheEUhavebeentryingtoreachadealwhichwouldeliminatetheneedtodoubletestmanyproductsTheyhopetofinishintimeforatradesummitbetweenAmericaandEUonMaythAlthoughnegotiatorsareoptimistic,thedetailsarecomplexenoughthattheymaybehardpressedtogetadealatallWhyOnedifficultyistoconstructtheagreementsTheAmericanswouldhappilyreachoneaccordonstandardsformedicaldevicesandthenhammeroutdifferentpactscovering,say,electronicgoodsanddrugmanufacturingTheEUfollowingfinecontinentaltraditionswantsagreementongeneralprinciples,whichcouldbeappliedtomanytypesofproductsandhaveextendedtoothercountries刘晓华liuxiaohuanetLessonRoyalespionageAlfredtheGreatactedashisownspy,visitingDanishcampsdisguisedasaminstrelInthosedayswanderingminstrelswerewelcomeeverywhereTheywerenotfightingmen,andtheirharpwastheirpassportAlfredhadlearnedmanyoftheirballadsinhisyouth,andcouldvaryhisprogrammewithacrobatictricksandsimpleconjuringWhileAlfred'slittlearmyslowlybegantogatheratAthelney,thekinghimselfsetouttopenetratethecampofGuthrum,thecommanderoftheDanishinvadersThesehadsettleddownforthewinteratChippenham:thitherAlfredwentHenoticedatoncethatdisciplinewasslack:theDaneshadtheselfconfidenceofconquerors,andtheirsecurityprecautionswerecasualTheylivedwell,ontheproceedsofraidsonneighbouringregionsTheretheycollectedwomenaswellasfoodanddrink,andalifeofeasehadmadethemsoftAlfredstayedinthecampaweekbeforehereturnedtoAthelneyTheforcethereassembledwastrivialcomparedwiththeDanishhordeButAlfredhaddeducedthattheDaneswerenolongerfitforprolongedbattle:andthattheircommissariathadnoorganization,butdependedonirregularraidsSo,facedwiththeDanishadvance,AlfreddidnotriskopenbattlebutharriedtheenemyHewasconstantlyonthemove,drawingtheDanesafterhimHispatrolshaltedtheraidingparties:hungerassailedtheDanisharmyNowAlfredbeganalongseriesofskirmishesandwithinamonththeDaneshadsurrenderedTheepisodecouldreasonablyserveasauniqueepicofroyalespionage!刘晓华liuxiaohuanet*LessonSiliconvalleyTechnologytrendsmaypushSiliconValleybacktothefutureCarverMead,apioneerinintegratedcircuitsandaprofessorofcomputerscienceattheCaliforniaInstituteofTechnology,notestherearenowworkstationsthatenableengineerstodesign,testandproducechipsrightontheirdesks,muchthewayaneditorcreatesanewsletteronaMacintoshAsthetimeandcostofmakingachipdriptoafewdaysandafewhundreddollars,engineersmaysoonbefreetolettheirimaginationssoarwithoutbeingpenalizedbyexpensivefailuresMeadpredictsthatinventorswillbeabletoperfectpowerfulcustomizedchipsoveraweekendattheofficespawninganewgenerationofgaragestartupsandgivingtheUSajumponitsforeignrivalsingettingnewproductstomarketfast‘We’vegotmoregarageswithsmartpeople,’Meadobserves‘Wereallythriveonanarchy’AndonAsiansAlready,orientalsandAsianAmericansconstitutethemajorityoftheengineeringstaffsatmanyValleyfirmsAndChinese,Korean,FilipinoandIndianengineersaregraduatingindrovesfromCalifornia’scollegesAstheheadsofnextgenerationstartups,theseAsianinnovatorscandrawoncustomsandlanguagestoforgetighterlinkswithcrucialPacificRimmarketForinstance,AlexAu,aStanfordPhDfromHongKong,hassetupaTaiwanfactorytochallengeJapan’snearlockonthememorychipmarketIndiabornNDamodarReddy’stinyCaliforniacompanyreopenedanATTchipplantinKansasCitylastspringwithfinancingfromthestateofMissouriBeforeitbecomesaretirementvillage,SiliconValleymayproveaclassroomforbuildingaglobalbusiness刘晓华liuxiaohuanetLessonHowtogrowoldSomeoldpeopleareoppressedbythefearofdeathIntheyoungthereisajustificationforthisfeelingYoungmenwhohavereasontofearthattheywillbekilledinbattlemayjustifiablyfeelbitterinthethoughtthattheyhavebeencheatedofthebestthingsthatlifehastoofferButinanoldmanwhohasknownhumanjoysandsorrows,andhasachievedwhateverworkitwasinhimtodo,thefearofdeathissomewhatabjectandignobleThebestwaytoovercomeitsoatleastitseemstomeistomakeyourinterestsgraduallywiderandmoreimpersonal,untilbitbybitthewallsoftheegorecede,andyourlifebecomesincreasinglymergedintheuniversallifeAnindividualhumanexistenceshouldbelikeariversmallatfirst,narrowlycontainedwithinitsbanks,andrushingpassionatelypastbouldersandoverwaterfallsGraduallytherivergrowswider,thebanksrecede,thewatersflowmorequietly,andintheend,withoutanyvisiblebreak,theybecomemergedinthesea,andpainlesslylosetheirindividualbeingThemanwho,inoldage,canseehislifeinthisway,willnotsufferfromthefearofdeath,sincethethingshecaresforwillcontinueAndit,withthedecayofvitality,wearinessincreases,thethoughtofrestwillbenotunwelcomeIshouldwishtodiewhilestillatwork,knowingthatotherswillcarryonwhatIcannolongerdo,andcontentinthethoughtthatwhatwaspossiblehasbeendone刘晓华liuxiaohuanetLessonBanksandtheircustomersWhenanyoneopensacurrentaccountatabank,heislendingthebankmoney,repaymentofwhichhemaydemandatanytime,eitherincashorbydrawingachequeinfavourofanotherpersonPrimarily,thebankercustomerrelationshipisthatofdebtorandcreditorwhoiswhichdependingonwhetherthecustomer'saccountisincreditorisoverdrawnBut,inadditiontothatbasicallysimpleconcept,thebankanditscustomerowealargenumberofobligationstooneanotherManyoftheseobligationscangiverisetoproblemsandcomplicationsbutabankcustomer,unlike,say,abuyerofgoods,cannotcomplainthatthelawisloadedagainsthimThebankmustobeyitscustomer'sinstructions,andnotthoseofanyoneelseWhen,forexample,acustomerfirstopensanaccount,heinstructsthebanktodebithisaccountonlyinrespectofchequesdrawnbyhimselfHegivesthebankspecimensofhissignature,andthereisaveryfirmrulethatthebankhasnorightorauthoritytopayoutacustomer'smoneyonachequeonwhichitscustomer'ssignaturehasbeenforgedItmakesnodifferencethattheforgerymayhavebeenaveryskilfulone:thebankmustrecognizeitscustomer'ssignatureForthisreasonthereisnorisktothecustomerinthemodernpractice,adoptedbysomebanks,ofprintingthecustomer'snameonhischequesIfthisfacilitatesforgeryitisthebankwhichwilllose,notthecustomer刘晓华liuxiaohuanetLessonThesearchforoil

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