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首页 2009年职称英语理工类新增文章免费下载

2009年职称英语理工类新增文章免费下载

2009年职称英语理工类新增文章免费下载

人事考试教育网
2009-02-20 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《2009年职称英语理工类新增文章免费下载doc》,可适用于外语资料领域

人事考试教育网wwwchinatatcom版权所有转载请注明出处!年职称英语理工类教材新增部分内容第二部分阅读判断(两篇)第十二篇StudyHelpsPredictBigMediterraneanQuake  ScientistshavefoundevidencethatanoverlookedfaultintheeasternMediterraneanislikelytoproduceanearthquakeandtsunamieveryyearsaspowerfulastheonethatdestroyedAlexandriainAD  Usingradiocarbondatingtechniques,simulationsandcomputermodels,theresearchersrecreatedtheancientdisasterinordertoidentifytheresponsiblefault‘Wearesayingthereisprobablyarepeattimeofyearsforthiskindofearthquake,'saidMsBethShaw,anearthquakescientistattheUniversityofCambridge,wholedthestudyScientistsstudypastearthquakesinordertodeterminethefuturepossibilityofsimilarlargeshocks  IdentifyingthefaultfortheADearthquakeandtsunamiisimportantforthetensofmillionsofpeopleintheregion,MsShawsaidThefaultclosetothesouthwestcoastofCretelastproducedabigenoughquaketogenerateatsunamiabout,whichmeansthenextpowerfulonecouldcomeinthenextyears,sheaddedinatelephoneinterview  MsShawandhercolleaguescalculatethelikelyintervalsbymeasuringthemotionofeithersideofthefaulttofindhowoftensuchlargeearthquakeswouldhavetooccurtoaccountforthatlevelofmotion,shesaidTheircomputermodelsuggestedanmagnitudequakeonthefaultwouldproduceatsunamithatfloodsthecoastalregionsofAlexandriaandNorthAfrica,thesoutherncoastofGreeceandSicilyallthewayuptheAdriatitoDubrovnikThiswouldbesimilartotheancientquakeinADthatcausedwidespreaddestructioninmuchofGreeceandunleashedatsunamithatfloodedAlexandriaandtheNileDelta,likelykillingtensofthousandsofpeople,shesaid词汇:faultn断层intervaln间隔tsunamin海啸magnituden等级radiocarbonn放射性碳destructionn破坏毁灭simulationn模拟unleashv放出释放注释:theeasternMediterranean:地中海东部Alexandria:阿里山大埃及北部港市AD:公元后(AD是拉丁文AnnoDomini首字母的所写)Crete:希腊克里特岛Greece:希腊Sicily:意大利西西里岛Adriati:亚得利亚海Dubrovnik:杜布罗夫尼克克罗地亚港市NileDelta:尼鲁河三角洲埃及练习:Thefault,whichwasoverlookedbefore,hasbeencloselystudiedbyscientists ARightBWrongCNotmentionedItisfuntoidentifythefaultfortheADearthquakeandtsunami ARightBWrongCNotmentionedRadiocarbondatingtechniquescanbeusedtoidentifytheageoftheearth ARightBWrongCNotmentionedScientistspredictthatthenextpowerfulearthquakeintheeasternMediterraneanmaytakeplacesometimebefore ARightBWrongCNotmentionedMsShawhashercolleagueshelpherinthestudyofearthquakeprediction ARightBWrongCNotmentioned,MsShawmeasuredthemovementofeithersideofthefaulttoidentifythemagnitudeoftheearthquaketakingplaceinAD ARightBWrongCNotmentionedTheearthquakepredictiondevicesdevelopedbyMsShawarebeingwidelyusedintheworld ARightBWrongCNotmentioned答案与题解:.A文章的主题是以往科学家忽视了地中海断层的存在。现在地震学家对地中海断层进行研究并认定断层的运动造成公元年的地震和海啸以及推算出地震和海啸发生的周期。所以本句表达的意思是对的。.B文章第三段说到“认定断层造成了公元年的地震和海啸这一认定对该地区的几千万人来说是重要的”。把这项研究说成是有趣的与原文“重要”的意思有很大的不同所以是错误的。.C全文没有一处提到radiocarbondatingtechniques可用来确定地球的年龄。.AShaw女士和她的研究组认定地中海东部的断层的移动每年左右会引发一次超强地震和海啸。前两次发生的时间分别是年和l年左右。根据这一推断在未来l年中会发生一次超强地震和海啸。第三段对此有说明。.A这句表达的意思与原文相符。原句见第四段第一句:“Ms.Shawandhercolleaguescalculatethelikelyintervalsbymeasuringthemotionofeithersideofthefaulttogaugehowoftensuchlargeearthquakeswouldhavetooccurtoaccountforthatlevelofmotion”。.BShaw女士和她的研究组测量过themotionofeithersideofthefault但目的不是为了identifythemagnitudeoftheearthquaketakingplaceinAD而是为了findhowoftensuchlargeearthquakeswouldhavetooccurtoaccountforthatlevelofmotion。.C纵观全文文章中没有一句提到Shaw女士发明过地震预测装置更没有谈及这种装置在全世界得到广泛应用这一点。第十五篇ImageMartianDustParticles  NASA'sPhoenixMarsLanderhastakenitsfirsteverpictureofasingleparticleofrustyMartiandustwithoneofitsmicroscopesThedustparticlesofdustwereshownatahighermagnificationthananythingoutsideofEarththathasbeenimagedbeforeTheroundedparticlemeasuredonlyaboutonemicrometer,oronemillionthofameter,across  TakingthisimagerequiredthehighestresolutionmicroscopeoperatedoffEarthandaspeciallydesigneddevicetoholdtheMartiandust,"saidTomPike,aPhoenixscienceteammemberfromImperialCollegeLondon"Wealwaysknewitwasgoingtobetechnicallyverychallengingtoimageparticlesthissmall''  Thedevicethatimagedthedustspeckiscalledanatomicforcemicroscope,whichmapstheshapeofparticlesinthreedimensionsbyscanningthemwithasharptipattheendofaspringTheatomicforcemicroscopecandetailtheshapesofparticlesassmallasaboutnanometersAndthiswon'tbethelastdustparticlethatPhoenixwillimage"Afterthisfirstsuccess,we'renowworkingonbuildingupaportraitgalleryofthedustonMars,"Pikesaid  DustexistseverywhereonMars,coatingthesurfaceandgivingititsrustyredcolorDustparticlesalsocolortheMartianskypinkandfeedstormsthatregularlyenvelopetheplanetTheultrafinedustisthemediumthatactivelylinksgasesintheMartianatmospheretoprocessesinMartiansoil,soitiscriticallyimportanttounderstandingMars'environment,theresearcherssaid  The$millionPhoenixmissionisanalyzingthedustandsubsurfaceicelayersofMars'arcticregionstolookforsignsofpotentialpasthabitabilityTheparticleseenintheatomicforcemicroscopeimagewaspartofasamplescoopedbytheroboticarmfromthe"SnowWhite"trenchanddeliveredtoPhoenix'smicroscopestationinearlyJuly词汇:imagev绘……的图像scanv扫描magnificationn放大subsurfaceadj地面下的micrometern微米habitabilityn居住性resolutionn分辨率清晰度scoopv挖mapv绘制……的地图trenchn沟注释:NASA'sPhoenixMarsLander:美国国家航空航天局的凤凰号火星登陆器offearth:地球之外ImperialCollegeLondon:伦敦帝国学院imageparticlesthissmall:描绘如此之小的微粒。imageparticlesthissmall是口语的说法其意思是imagesuchsmallparticles/imageparticleswhicharesosmall。Andthiswon'tbethelastdustparticlethatPhoenixwillimage:这不会是凤凰号扫描图像的最后的尘粒。本句的言外之意是:科学家将会收集更多的火星微粒进行扫描。portraitgallery:(火星尘粒)图像陈列馆ultrafine:超小的itiscriticallyimportanttounderstandingMars'environment:火星尘粒对于了解火星环境是极端重要的。it指代上一句的dust而to是介词所以后接动名词understanding。练习:ThedustparticleonMarsisthesmallestparticlethathasbeenimagedoutsideofEarth ARightBWrongCNotmentionedUsingthesametechnology,wehavealsomeasuredthesizeofparticlesonthemoonandJupiter ARightBWrongCNotmentionedScientistsusethehighestresolutionmicroscopetowatchandrecordtheimageofMartianparticlesonearth ARightBWrongCNotmentionedTomPikesaidthattheyusedtothinkitwasnoeasyjobtoimagesuchsmallparticles ARightBWrongCNotmentionedAnelectronicdevicehasbeendevelopedtomeasuretheweightofcertainMartianrocks ARightBWrongCNotmentionedAftercollectingthelastMartiandustparticle,thescientistshavestartedtobuildupaportraitgalleryofit ARightBWrongCNotmentionedThePhoenix'sroboticarmcollectedtheMartiandustparticlesforanalysisonMars ARightBWrongCNotmentioned答案与解析:.A 第一段说NASA的凤凰号火星登陆器用它的显微镜观测地球外长度只有百万分之一米的微粒。本题的表述与第一段的意思吻合。.C 通篇文章都没有提到科学家用同样的技术测量月球和水星上的微粒。.B 第一段只是说NASA的凤凰号火星登陆器用它的显微镜观察地球外而不是地球上长度只有百万分之一的火星微粒所以本题的表述是错的。ATomPike说“Wealwaysknewitwasgoingtobetechnicallyverychallengingtoimageparticlesthissmall”(我们过去一直知道观察体积如此小的微粒具有很高的挑战性。)(见第二段)这句话是选择A的依据。.C 通篇文章都没有提到有人发明了一种能测量火星上某些微粒的重量的电子装置。.B 第三段中提到“…thiswon'tbethelastdustparticlethatPhoenixwillimage”。接着又说“Afterthisfirstsuccesswe’renowworkingonbuildingupaportraitgalleryofthedustonMars”。而本题却说:“AftercollectingthelastMartiandustparticlewe’renowworkingonbuildingup…”这与文章所表达内容明显不同所以本题的答案是B。.A选择A的依据是文章最后一句:“Theparticleseenintheatomicforcemicroscopeimagewaspartofasamplescoopedbytheroboticarm…”。第三部分概括大意与完成句子(两篇)第十篇WashoeLearnedAmericanSignLanguage AnanimalthatinfluencedscientificthoughthasdiedAchimpanzeenamedWashoeandborninAfricadiedofnaturalcauseslatelastmonthattheageofataresearchcenterintheAmericanstateofWashingtonWashehadbecomeknowninthescientificcommunity1andaroundtheworldforherabilitytouseAmericanSignLanguage2ShewassaidtobethefirstnonhumantolearnahumanlanguageHerskillsalsoledtodebateaboutprimatesandtheirabilitytounderstandlanguage ResearchscientistsAllenandBeatrixGardnerbeganteachingWashoesignlanguageinIn,theGardnersdescribedWashoe'sprogressinascientificreportThepeoplewhoexperimentedwithWashoesaidshegrewtounderstandaboutwordsForexample,WashoemadesignstocommunicatewhenitwastimetoeatShecouldrequestfoodslikeapplesandbananasShealsoaskedquestionslike,"Whoiscomingtoplay"OncethenewsaboutWashoespread,manylanguagescientistsbeganstudiesoftheirownintothisnewandexcitingareaofresearchThewholedirectionofprimateresearchchanged However,criticsarguedWashoeonlylearnedtorepeatsignlanguagemovementsfromwatchingherteachersTheysaidshehadneverdevelopedtruelanguageskillsEvennow,there aresomeresearcherswhosuggestthatprimateslearnsignlanguageonlybymemory,andperformthesignsonlyforprizesYetWashoe'skeepersdisagreeRogerFoutsisaformerstudentoftheGardnersHetookWashoetoaresearchcenterinEllensburg,WashingtonThere,Washoetaughtsignlanguagetothreeyoungerchimpanzees,whicharestillalive ScientistslikeprivateresearcherJaneGoodallbelievesWashoeprovidednewinformationaboutthementalworkingsofchimpanzeesToday,therearenotasmanyscientistsstudyinglanguageskillswithchimpsPartofthereasonisthatthiskindofresearchtakesaverylongtime Debatecontinuesaboutchimps'understandingofhumancommunicationYet,onethingissureWashoechangedpopularideasaboutthepossibilitiesofanimalintelligence词汇:chimpanzeen.黑猩猩criticn.评论家批评家communityn.社区圈子workingsn.活动运行primaten.灵长类动物chimpn.=chimpanzee注释:inthescientificcommunity:在科学界在科学家的圈子里AmericanSignLanguage(ASL):美国手语。利用手、脸部表情、身体姿势表达思想的美国聋哑人语言。在加拿大、墨西哥等地也使用ASL。ASL与BritishSignLanguage(BSL英国手语)不同两者不能相互理解。ledtodebate:引起辩论。leadto意为“导致”to为介词debate为名词。shegrewtounderstandaboutwords:她渐渐掌握约个单词。rowt是“渐渐”的意思。Once:一旦。nce是连接词。例:Childrenliketocycleoncetheyhavelearnedhow小孩一旦学会了如何骑自行车就会喜欢上它。oftheirown:属于自己的。oftheirown的含义与ontheirown不同ontheirown是“独自”的意思。theGardners:Gardner夫妇ScientistslikeprivateresearcherJaneGoodallbelieve:像个体研究者JaneGoodall这样的科学家相信……。like(像跟……一样)是介词本句的谓语是believe。句子中的privateresearcher意为“不受雇于任何单位自己独立工作的科研人员。”练习:Paragraph    Paragraph    Paragraph    Paragraph     A ReasonWhyNotManyScientistsCarryoutThisResearchNowadaysB ReportaboutWashoe'sProgressinLearningSignLanguageC GeneralInformationaboutWashoeD TheGardeners'ContributionsRecognizedE DebateonChimps'IntelligenceF Washoe'sLoveforThreeYoungChimpsWashoecouldmakesignstocommunicate    Somescientistsdoubted    Washoetaughtthreeyoungerchimpssignlanguage    TheexperimentersthoughtWashoewasintelligent    AiftheGardeners'argumentwassoundBbecauseshewasclevererthanotherchimpsCwhenshewantedtoeatDwhileshewasataresearchcenterinEllensburgEbecauseshecouldusesignlanguagetoaskforfruitsFwhileWashoewaslearningsignlanguage答案与题解:C第一段主要介绍猩猩Washoe的出生地、死亡年龄、被带到美国学习美式手语等一般情况。用GeneralInformationaboutWashoe来概括是很准确的。B第二段的关键句是In,theGardnersdescribedWashoe'sprogressinascientificreport随后的句子简略的介绍了Washoe的学习情况和结果如已学会了个单词并能用手语表达“该吃饭了”等概念。所以ReportaboutWashoe'sProgressinLearningSignLanguage(选项B)是答案。E第三段介绍了对Gardener夫妇发表的报告有两种不同的解读。一派认为Washoe的手语能力只是机械重复、死记硬背、物质激励的结果不是智能的表现。另一派认为知识智能的表现其证据是Washoe还能教三个小猩猩学习手语。争论的焦点是猩猩有没有智能。选项E用debate来概括上述争论所以是答案。A第四段解释了为什么现在从事这项研究的科学家人数不多。部分原因是研究周期太长。C选C的第四段第二句:WashoemadesignstocommunicatewhenitwastimetoeatA第三段的上半段说了一些科学家对Gardener夫妇的试验的解读所持怀疑态度。题干中出现的doubted引导我们选A。D选DDE依据是第三段的最后一句,即“HetookWashoetoaresearchcenterinEllensburg,WashingtonThere,Washoetaughtsignlanguagetothreeyoungerchimpanzees,whicharestillalive”E本文第二段谈到试验的成果时有一个句子:“Shecouldrequestfoodslikeapplesandbananas”。根据全段意思和上述句子选择E是正确的。第十五篇MaglevTrains Afewcountriesareusingpowerfulelectromagnetstodevelophighspeedtrains,calledmaglevtrainsMaglevisshortformagneticlevitation,whichmeansthatthesetrainsfloatoveraguidewayusingthebasicprinciplesofmagnetstoreplacetheoldsteelwheelandtracktrainsIfyou'veeverplayedwithmagnets,youknowthatoppositepolesattractandlikepolesrepeleachotherThisisthebasicprinciplebehindelectromagneticpropulsionElectromagnetsaresimilartoothermagnetsinthattheyattractmetalobjects,butthemagneticpullistemporaryYoucaneasilycreateasmallelectromagnetyourselfbyconnectingtheendsofacopperwiretothepositiveandnegativeendsofanAAcellbatteryThiscreatesasmallmagneticfieldIfyoudisconnecteitherendofthewirefromthebattery,themagneticfieldistakenaway Themagneticfieldcreatedinthiswireandbatteryexperimentisthesimpleideabehinda maglevtrainrailsystemTherearethreecomponentstothissystem:Alargeelectricalpower source,metalcoilsliningaguidewayortrack,andlargeguidancemagnetsattachedtothe undersideofthetrain ThebigdifferencebetweenamaglevtrainandaconventionaltrainisthatmaglevtrainsdonothaveanengineatleastnotthekindofengineusedtopulltypicaltraincarsalongsteeltracksTheengineformaglevtrainsisratherinnoticeableInsteadofusingfossilfuels,themagneticfieldcreatedbytheelectrifiedcoilsintheguidewaywallsandthetrackcombinestopropelthetrains Themagnetizedcoilrunningalongthetrack,calledaguideway,repelsthelargemagnetsonthetrain'sundercarriage,allowingthetraintolevitatebetweentocmabovetheguidewayOncethetrainislevitated,powerissuppliedtothecoilswithintheguidewaywallstocreateauniquesystemofmagneticfieldsthatpullandpush~thtrainalongtheguidewayTheelectriccurrentsuppliedtothecoilsintheguidewaywallsisconstantlyalternatingtochangethepolarityofthemagnetizedcoilsThischangeinpolaritycausesthemagneticfieldinfrontofthetraintopullthevehicleforward,whilethemagneticfieldbehindthetrainaddsmoreforwardthrust Maglevtrainsfloatonacushionofair',eliminatingfrictionThislackoffrictionallowsthesetrainstoreachunprecedentedgroundtransportationspeedsofmorethankph,ortwiceasfastasthefastestconventionaltrainAtkph,youcouldtravelfromParistoRomeinjustovertwohours词汇:Levitatev悬浮electrifiedv使带电Levitationn悬浮magnetizev使带磁guidewayn导向槽linev排列成行propelbvt推进undersiden下侧下面propulsionn推进undercarriagen车盘注释:Maglevisshortformagneticlevitation:maglev是magneticlevitation的缩略词。oppositepolesattractandlikepolesrepeleachother:异极相吸同极相斥AAcellbattery:号电池atleastnotthekindofengineusedtopulltypicaltraincarsalongsteeltracks:至少不是沿着轨道拉动典型的火车车厢的那种发动机。themagneticfieldcreatedbytheelectrifiedcoilsintheguidewaywallsandthetrackcombinetopropelthetrain:由嵌入导向壁内的电磁线圈产生的磁场加上轨道一起推动火车前进。Themagneticfield和thetrack是句子主语createdbytheelectrifiedcoilsintheguidewaywalls是过去分词短语用作定语修饰themagneticfield练习:Paragraph    Paragraph    Paragraph    Paragraph    ATheMainComponentsoftheMaglevTrainSystemBHighspeedMaglevduetoZeroFrictionCTheWorkingPrincipleoftheMaglevTrainDDifferencesbetweenPolarityandMagneticFieldEComparisonofMaglevTrainswithTraditionalOnesFMaglevwithaPowerfulMotorSeveralcountriesintheworldareusingstrongelectromagnets    Youcanconnectawiretothepositiveandnegativeendsofabattery    Auniquesystemofmagneticfieldsiscreatedbythecoils    Thefrictionlessmaglevtrainenablesyou    A todevelopamaglevtrainrailsystemB toexplainwhymaglevtrainsarefasterC topullandpushthetrainforwardD tocreateamagneticfieldE toexperimentwiththemaglevtrainF totravelfromParistoRomeinabouttwohours答案与题解:第三段了举了磁浮列车的三个组成部分动力源、金属线圈和此贴。选项A概括了第三段列的内容。E第四段就磁浮列车和传统火车进行了比较:磁浮列车没有发动机而传统火车有发动机。选项C用comparsion来概括是准确的。C第五段比较详细的介绍了为什么磁浮列车会向前运动也就揭示了磁浮列车的工作原理。B在第五段解释了磁浮列车浮起和向前运动的原理之后作者在第六段中进行了磁浮列车速度奇快的原因:去除了传统火车的车轮于铁轨的摩擦。A选A的依据是本文第一段第一句:Afewcountriesusingpowerfulelectromagnetstodevelophighspeedtrains,calledmaglevtrains.D第二段说把电线与干电池相连接就能产生一个小磁场而磁浮列车的运动原理与此相同。第二段第四句是选择D的依据。C第五段的第二句即“ncethetrainislevitatedpowerissuppliedtothecoilswithintheguidewaywallstocreateauniquesystemofmagneticfieldsthatpullandpushthetrainalongtheguideway”是选择c的依据。.F本文最后一句举出坐上时速公里的磁浮列车从巴黎到罗马只需约小时这个例子来说明磁浮列车速度之快。第四部分 阅读理解(六篇)LightNight,DarkStars  ThousandsofpeoplearoundtheglobestepoutsidetogazeattheirnightskyOnaclearnight,withnoclouds,moonlight,orartificiallightstoblocktheview,peoplecanseemorethan,starsinthesky,saysDennisWard,anastronomerwiththeUniversityCorporationforAtmosphericResearch(UCAR)inBoulder,ColoButwhenpeoplearesurroundedbycitylights,hesays,they'reluckytoseestars  Ifyou'veeverdriventowardabigcityatnightandseenitsglowfromagreatdistance,you'vewitnessedlightpollutionItoccurswhenlightfromstreetlights,officebuildings,signs,andothersourcesstreamsintospaceandilluminatesthenightskyThishazeoflightmakesmanystarsinvisibletopeopleonEarthEvenatnight,bigcitieslikeNewYorkglowfromlightpollution,makingstargazingdifficult  Dustandparticlesofpollutionfromfactoriesandindustriesworsentheeffectsoflightpollution"Ifonecityhasalotmorelightpollutionthananother,"Wardsays,"thatcitywillsuffertheeffectsofli

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