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首页 渣打银行风险管理手册

渣打银行风险管理手册.doc

渣打银行风险管理手册

gccd
2009-02-16 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《渣打银行风险管理手册doc》,可适用于经济金融领域

IntroductionRiskCulture–whatdoesitmeanatStandardCharteredBusinessandRiskRiskPrinciples(alsoreferDatabaseB)RiskTypesCreditRiskCountryRisk(alsoreferdatabaseBandB)MarketandLiquidityRisk(alsoreferGroupMarketRiskPolicyDatabase)OperationalRisk(alsoreferdatabaseB)ComplianceRisk(alsoreferdatabaseBandB)ReputationalRisk(alsoreferdatabaseBandJ)EnvironmentalandSocialRisk(alsoreferdatabaseB)RiskManagementFrameworkMatrixofResponsibilitiesRiskManagementOrganizationGroupLevelFunctionalLevelCountryLevelRiskPoliciesandProceduresGroupPoliciesFunctionalPoliciesCountryUnderwritingStandardsRiskPricingEconomicProfitMeasurementToolsPricingGuidelinesManagementofCustomersCounterpartiesTargetCustomersNameLendingMoneyLaundering–Knowyourcustomer(alsoreferdatabaseBandB)TypesICORPORATESGroups(alsoreferdatabaseJ,JandJ)LendingtoHoldingCompanies(alsoreferdatabaseJ)SubsidiaryCompanies(alsoreferdatabaseJ)IIBANKSBanksandFinancialInstitutions(alsoreferdatabaseJ,J,J,JJ)IIIGOVERNMENTSGovernmentsandGovernmentOwnedCompanies(alsoreferdatabaseJ)IVINVESTMENTINSTITUTIONSFunds,FundManagersandHedgeFunds(alsoreferdatabaseJandJ)VPERSONALBORROWERSLendingtoIndividualswithinFunctionallevelpolicy(alsoreferdatabaseJ)ProductsCategoriesofRiskforLimitPurposes–Category,(alsoreferdatabaseR)Suitability,Saleability,Pricing(alsoreferdatabaseJ,J)SpecificRequirements(alsoreferdatabaseJ,J,J)SpecialistProductandHigherRiskAreas(alsoreferdatabaseJ)RestrictedActivities(alsoreferdatabaseJandB)EnvironmentalandSocialRisk(alsoreferdatabaseBandB)Others(alsoreferdatabaseJ)ApprovalProcessBusinessCreditApplication(alsoreferdatabaseJ,J,)CreditGrades(alsoreferdatabaseDandJ)GradingGroupsanduseofParentalSupport(alsoreferdatabaseJ)RegulatoryCompliance(alsoreferdatabaseB)CreditReferenceLevels(alsoreferdatabaseJ)Security(alsoreferdatabaseJandJ)CountryRisk(alsoreferdatabaseB)ApprovalAuthorities(alsoreferdatabaseJJ)PreDisbursalProcess–ControlofLendingSecuringDocumentation(alsoreferdatabaseJandJ)MonitoringControlTriggerPoints(alsoreferdatabaseJ)EarlyAlertAccounts–(alsoreferdatabaseJ)AccountsSubjectToAdditionalReview(alsoreferdatabaseJ)ManagementofSpecialAssetsGSAMAccountsgradedCG(alsoreferdatabaseN)LessonsLearnedReview(alsoreferdatabaseN)IntroductionWelcometoStandardCharteredBankThisriskhandbookwillgiveyouanintroductiontothevariousriskrelatedactivitieswithinthebankThishandbookisnotmeanttobea“Bible”onRiskManagementbutinsteadwillprovideyouwiththebackgroundtoseveralkeyareaswithinthelendingfunctionandwillserveasyour“firstpointofreference”Elaborationanddetailofanypolicyorprocesswillbefoundintherespectivedatabase(s)andyouwillbeprovidedareferencetothesameinthehandbookFurther,ifyouareinasalesrelatedrole,youmustalsorefertotheRelationshipManagersGuide,whichwillequipyouon,“HowtobeabetterRelationshipManagerandbecomeapartnertoyourclients”RiskCulture–whatdoesitmeanatStandardCharteredWhatiscultureWebsterdefinesitas:"Thesetofsharedattitudes,values,goals,andpracticesthatcharacterisesaorganisation"thekeywordis'shared'Weallhavedifferentrolestoplaywithintheorganisationbutonethingisclear,StandardCharteredcanandwillonlybesuccessfulifwealltakeownershipofriskandacceptaccountabilityforouractionsEveryoneofuscanleadbyexampleandensurethatthedecisionswemake,theactionswetake,aretothelongtermbenefitofthebankfirstlyandthatanypersonalbenefitissubordinateThebankbenefitsfromastrongriskcultureandweendeavourtorewardgoodriskbehaviourinthesamewaythatwerewardotherachievementsThoseofuswhodemonstrateasoundapproachtoriskcanexpecttoseethisfurtherourcareersandbeappropriatelyrewardedSavinglossesisasimportantasgrowingrevenueWeexpectpeopletobehaveresponsiblyandtobringproblemstotheforeattheearliestpossiblestageInthesamewaythatweexpectopennessandfulldisclosurefromourclients,soweexpectitofourselvesProblemsaretheretobesolved,nothiddenInagood,soundinstitutionriskisanintegralpartofstrategicplanningfromthetopdownGoodriskculturederivesfromgoodriskbehaviour,acollegiateapproach,openandrobustdebateonissuesofconcernandmostofallafirmandunwaveringcommitmenttoa"NoSurprises"philosophyWewillalsoensureweallhaveaclearframeworkwithinwhichtooperateandthatweallunderstandwhatwecanandcannotdoThefollowingtablelaysdownkeycharacteristicsofeffectiveriskculture:SCBRiskCultureWesucceedifeveryoneseesownershipofriskaspartoftheirresponsibility,noteveryoneelse'sitdoesn'thavetobeinthejobdescriptionWeareallexpectedtotakeriskdecisionsinthebestinterestsoftheBankasawhole,notjustourpartofitRiskbehaviourthatisinthebestinterestsoftheBankwillberecognisedincareerdevelopmentandpromotionRiskownershipbeginsasclosetotheclientaspossibleandisanactive,ongoingresponsibilityGroupRiskwillprovideandcommunicateaclearandunambiguousframeworkofpolicies,principlesandprocessesforriskownershipandreviewAllrisksdecisionswillhaveaclearlyidentifiable'audittrail'andtheBankwillholdstaffaccountableInholdingpeopletoaccount,theBankwilldifferentiatebetweenunforeseeableconsequencesanddeliberatepolicyfloutingSavingsignificantlosseswillberewardedinthesamewayasgrowingtherevenuelineTheBankwillworktocreateaclimateinwhichstaffcantalkhonestlyandopenlyaboutriskorproblemsatasufficientlyearlystage,withtheemphasisonsolutionsWewillopenlydiscussandlearnlessonsfrommistakesmisjudgementsTheBankwillensurethatallemployeesreceiveRisktrainingappropriatetotheirposition,startingwithinductionBusinessandRiskMostdictionariesdefineriskas‘danger’or‘thepossibilityofsomethingharmfulorundesirablehappening’Consequentlytheintuitiveunderstandingofthewordisa“negative”oneHowever,asaBank,riskisourbusinessandweprofitfrommanagingitThereforeitisimperativethatweunderstandtheriskswefaceandhaverobustsystemsthatidentify,measureandmanagetheserisksandhavepeoplewhoareriskawaresothatwecanexploittheopportunitiesthatarepresentedtousSpecificallyweneedtoensurewhenweacceptrisk,wedosobecauseitfitswithourstrategy,iswithinunderwritingstandards,ispricedandapprovedappropriatelyandismonitoredconstantlyRiskPrinciples(alsoreferDatabaseB)TheBasicPrinciplesofRiskManagementwithinthebankare:WerecognisethatrevenueisearnedbyacceptingriskandwewillensurethatbusinessactivitiesarecontrolledonthebasisofriskadjustedreturnWewillbeexplicitinsettingourappetiteforriskandwewillmanagerisktostaywithinagreedparametersItfollowsfromthisthatriskmustbequantifiedwhereverpossibleRiskwillbeassessedbeforeacceptanceandforaslongthereafterasweremainexposedtoitWewillcomplywithallapplicablelawsandregulationsineverycountrywherewedobusiness,andwiththegovernancestandardsprescribedforlistedcompaniesWewillapplyhighandconsistentethicalstandardstoourrelationshipswithallcustomers,employees,andotherstakeholdersGroupactivitieswillbeundertakeninaccordancewithfundamentalcontrolstandardsThesecontrolswillemploythedisciplinesofplanning,monitoring,segregation,authorisationandapproval,recording,safeguarding,reconciliation,andvaluationRiskTypesOftencreditriskisconsideredastheonlyriskthatlendersneedtoevaluatewhenarrivingatalendingdecisionInanincreasinglydynamicandcomplexmarketplace,itisimperativethatweconsiderallthetypesofriskthatcouldexistandthendimensionandevaluatethecriticalonessoastofocusourlimitedtimeandresourcesonthembeforearrivingatadecisionAsabankwegeneratemostofourrevenuesbyacceptingriskofdifferingtypesinourlendingdecisionsForasummaryofdefinitionsofthemaintypesofrisk,alsoreferdatabaseBThemaintypesofriskthatneedtobeconsideredare:CreditRiskInassessingcreditriskweseektoestablishtheprobabilitythatacounterpartywillnotrepayit’sobligationstothebankThebetterthequalityofthecustomer,theloweristheexpectedprobabilityofdefaultTheassessmentofthisriskiscarriedoutbythenatureofthecounterpartyandcanbebroadlycategorisedintothefollowing:Corporates–TheseincludeLocalFranchisesandMNCsegmentsoftheCorporateBankandareapprovedbyCreditOfficerswithdelegatedlendingauthoritywithintheCountryandifbeyondtheirauthoritythenatRegionalCreditOfficerlevelorGrouplevelNonCorporates–TheseincludeGovernments,Banks,FinancialInstitutionsandInvestmentInstitutionsGiventhatthenatureofthesecounterpartiesareverydifferentfromthatofCorporates,thesameareassessedandapprovedbyMarketsandInstitutionsRiskManagement(MIRM)whichisanindependentapprovingunitwithintheRiskManagementfunctionMIRMonacentralisedbasissupportsthebank’sbusinessinsettingandapprovingcreditlimitsoncounterpartiestosupportthefollowingactivities:–AssetLiabilityManagement–Thisisdoneonaportfoliobasisandagainstpreagreednormswithregardtocounterpartyrating,natureofinstrumentandamountofexposureanddoesnotneedspecificapprovalonacounterpartybasisThesearecontrolledonanoversightbasiswithregardtooutstandingsandcreditqualityNormalBusiness–Thisisdoneonaproductbasis(egTradeFinance,FEX,Derivatives,FixedIncomeSecurities,Syndication’s,etc)andwithreferencetoaspecificcounterpartyonwhomcreditlimitsareestablishedSovereignRiskandCountryRisk–aretheythesameNO,SovereignRiskisthecounterpartycreditriskofaborrowerwhoisagovernmentorawhollyownedentityofagovernmentHencesovereignriskisassessedaspartoftheriskapprovalprocessforNonCorporatesandshouldnotbeconfusedwithCountryRiskCountryRisk(alsoreferdatabaseBandB)CountryRiskariseswhenthebankhasacrossborderexposureonacounterpartyonwhichwehaveCreditRiskCountryRiskistheriskthatourcounterpartyisunabletomeetitscontractualobligationsasaresultofadverseeconomicconditionsoractionstakenbygovernmentsintherelevantcountryGiventhatthisisindependentofthecounterpartycreditrisk,weassessthisriskinadditiontocreditriskSincetheassumptionofcountryriskrequirescapitalallocation,wealsopriceforitinaccordancetotheriskofthecountryonwhichanexposureisbeingtakenCountryriskarisesinallcasesotherthaninthosethatareonshoretransactionsindomesticcurrencyNominatedCountryRiskAllocationHoldersmanageandmonitorthisriskunderthesupervisionofGroupCountryRiskinLondon(alsoreferdatabaseBandB,fordetailsofallocationholdersandcountrystatus)Amodularelearningsolutionisalsoavailableon‘Peoplewise’forCountryRiskMarketandLiquidityRisk(alsoreferGroupMarketRiskPolicyDatabase)UnlikeCreditandCountryRiskwheretheriskneedstobeassessedatacounterpartylevel,MarketandLiquidityriskareassessedinthemainonaportfoliobasisHowever,inthecaseoflargeorcomplexexposuresthiscouldalsobeevaluatedatatransactionlevelTypicallytheserisksareevaluatedwiththeuseofsophisticatedstatisticalmodelswhichareemployedtoquantifytheserisksattransactionorportfoliolevelGroupMarketRiskisresponsiblefortheoverallframeworkandmanagementcontrolofmarketandliquidityriskwithintheorganisationTheyevaluateandimplementthemodelsandvalidatetheassumptionsinthemodelsonacontinuousbasisAtabusinessandcountrylevel,theymonitorandcontroltheserisksbydelegatingauthoritytoLocalManagementwhoareprimarilyresponsibletocomplywiththegroupguidelinesThesecanbebrieflyexplainedasunder:MarketRiskistherisktotheGroup'searningsandcapitalduetochangesinthemarketlevelofinterestrates,securities,foreignexchangeandequities,aswellasthevolatilitiesofthosepricesGroupMarketRiskprescribestheunifiedframeworkfortheassessmentandcontrolofmarketpriceriskAriskmonitoringlimitandreportingstructureissetoutforportfoliosofproducts,instruments,andincomestreams,wheretheeconomicvalueisdirectlyorindirectlysensitivetochangesinvariablemarketprices,suchasspotforeignexchangeorinterestratesLiquidityriskmanagementinvolvestheabilitytomanageandmaintainadequateliquidityatalltimesGoodliquidityriskmanagementwillresultinthebankbeinginaposition(inthenormalcourseofbusiness)tomeetallit’sobligations,torepaydepositors,tofulfilcommitmentstolendandtomeetanyothercommitmentsitmayhavemadeOfcriticalimportanceistheneedtoavoidhavingtoliquidateassetsortoraisefundsatunfavourabletermsresultinginfinanciallossorlongtermdamagetothereputationoftheBankPrudentliquiditymanagementisofparamountimportanceastheultimatecostofalackofliquidityisbeingoutofbusiness,whichwecannotaffordOperationalRisk(alsoreferdatabaseB)Inadditiontootherestablishedriskclassesdiscussedsofar,thebankalsoviewsOperationalriskasaseparateriskclassLikeCredit,MarketandLiquidityrisks,OperationalRisktoohasevolvedintheGroupandnowhasit’sownestablishedpolicies(alsoreferdatabasesubchapterB)andprocedures(alsoreferdatabasesubchapterB)tofacilitatemanagementandmeasurementOperationalRiskisdefinedas“TheriskthattheGroupwillincurdirectorindirectlossduetoaneventoractioncausingthefailureoftechnology,processes,infrastructure,personnelandotherriskshavingoperationalimpactLegalriskisincludedThisdefinitionexcludesstrategicbusinessandreputationalrisk”Someofthekeydevelopmentsinthisareaareenumeratedhereunder:·OperationalRiskcoverageisnowenterprisewideieacrossfrontofficemiddleofficeandbackofficefunctionsintheGroupandworksonadecentralisedmodel,withbusinessandcountriestakinggreaterresponsibilityandownershipfordaytodayriskmanagement·GroupOperationalRiskistodayanindependentriskunitwithinGroupRiskandisresponsiblefordefiningandimplementingtheGroup’sOperationalRiskPolicyandframeworkInadditiontotheOperationalRiskunit,theGroupOperationalRiskfunctionalsoincludesGroupInsuranceandGroupSecurity(includingresponsibilityfortheGroup’sContinuityPlanningPolicy)·TheOperationalRiskmanagementframeworkisalsobeingusedtotrackandmanagenontraditionalriskslikeReputational,Compliance,Social,EthicalandEnvironmentalriskintheGroup·Riskmanagementatcountry,businessandGrouplevelsisanintegratedprocessandisthroughselfassessmentandexceptionreporting·TheevolvingrelationshipbetweenarobustcontrolenvironmentandshareholdervaluehasresultedinagreatergovernancefocuswithinorganizationsRolesandresponsibilitiesarealsobeingconstantlyreviewedenhancedtosupportthesameandGroupAuditplaysanactiveroleinreviewingtheeffectivenessofriskmanagementprocessandframework·OntheinternationalfrontStandardCharteredisamemberontheFinancialServicesAuthority(FSA)AdvisorypanelonOperationalRiskandtheInstituteofInternationalFinance(IIF)WorkingGrouponOperationalRiskAllemployeeshavearoletoplayinmanagingoperationalriskandcompliancewiththeGroupOperationalRiskPolicyProceduresismandatoryYoumustensurethatyourkeyoperationalrisksareunderstood,beingmanagedandreported(wheresignificant)toseniormanagementWithintheWholesaleBank,significantrisksshouldbereportedtotheWholesaleBankRiskCommitteeCoverageshouldbeacrossfrontoffice,middleofficeandbackofficeareasandscopeshouldnotberestrictedtojustServiceDeliveryTechnologyissuesComplianceRisk(alsoreferdatabaseBandB)SinceBankingandFinancialserviceactivitiesareconductedwithinaframeworkofobligationsimposedbyregulatorsandnationalinternationallaw,complyingwithsuchrequirementsisnotoptionalforthebankTheconsequencesofnoncomplianceincludefines,publicreprimands,andenforcedsupervisionofoperationsorwithdrawalofauthorisationtooperate,anyofwhichcanleadtoreputationallossparticularlythroughadversepublicityinnationalorinternationalmediaNoncompliancewithregulatoryrequirementscanalsoleadtocivilorcriminalactionbeingtakenagainsttheBankandresponsibleemployees,whichisdetrimentaltoourabilitytosuccessfullyconductbusinessThereforethebankisworkingtowardsdevelopingarobustframeworkofproceduresandcontrolssoastominimisecomplianceriskandtoensurethateveryoneunderstandstheirrolesandresponsibilitiesinthisprocessAllemployeesareexpectedtoobservetheGroupCodeofConduct,whichmustbefollowedatalltimesTheincreasingimportancetotheissueofmoneylaunderingcannotbeoverlookedanditismandatoryforallstafftobeconversantwiththeMoneyLaunderingPolicy(referB)ReputationalRisk(alsoreferdatabaseBandJ)Ourreputationisoneofourmostimportantassetsandthereforeitisimportanttounderstandtheimplicationsofputtingour‘Reputation’atriskToprotectour(good)reputationweneedtoensurethatweareseentoconductbusinessactivitiesinamannerthatisinlinewiththerequirementsorexpectationsofallourkeystakeholdersEverytimewefailtomanageoneormoreoftherisksdiscussedsofarinanappropriatemanner,theresultantadversepublicitywillalwaysimpactourreputationaswellourrevenuegeneratingcapabilityinanygivenbusinesslocationTheintuitivewaytoassessthisriskistoaskyourselfthequestion,“IfthismadeittotheHeadlinesinthenewspaper,willitembarrassorharmusinanyway”IftheanswerisYes,thenescalatetheissuetoyourManageratanearlystagetoenableariskrewardassessmenttobemadeandanappropriatedecisionagreedtoAllstaffareresponsibleforthedaytodayidentificationandmanagementofreputationalriskItisthedutyofeverySCBemployeetoconsiderthereputationalimpactofhisorheractionsThismustbeconsideredattheoutsetofanycourseofactionTheWholesaleBankReputationalRiskCommitteeisresponsibleto

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