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首页 the world is flat(地球是平的)

the world is flat(地球是平的)

the world is flat(地球是平的)

melody
2009-01-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《the world is flat(地球是平的)pdf》,可适用于考试题库领域

TheWorldisFlatThomasLFriedman英文荟萃网http:wwwywhcnetToMattandKayandtoRon英文荟萃网http:wwwywhcnetContentsHowtheWorldBecameFlatOne:WhileIWasSleepingTwo:TheTenForcesThatFlattenedtheWorldFlattener#lFlattener#Flattener#WorkFlowSoftwareFlattener#OpenSourcingFlattener#OutsourcingFlattener#OffshoringFlattener#SupplyChainingFlattener#InsourcingFlattener#InformingFlattener#TheSteroidsThree:TheTripleConvergenceFour:TheGreatSortingOutAmericaandtheFlatWorldFive:AmericaandFreeTradeSix:TheUntouchablesSeven:TheQuietCrisisEight:ThisIsNotaTestDevelopingCountriesandtheFlatWorldNine:TheVirginofGuadalupeCompaniesandtheFlatWorldGeopoliticsandtheFlatWorldEleven:TheUnflatWorldTwelve:TheDellTheoryofConflictPreventionConclusion:ImaginationThirteen:VersusAcknowledgmentsIIndexI英文荟萃网http:wwwywhcnet:::::HowtheWorldBecameFlat:::::ONEWhileIWasSleepingYourHighnesses,asCatholicChristians,andprinceswholoveandpromotetheholyChristianfaith,andareenemiesofthedoctrineofMahomet,andofallidolatryandheresy,determinedtosendme,ChristopherColumbus,totheabovementionedcountriesofIndia,toseethesaidprinces,people,andterritories,andtolearntheirdispositionandthepropermethodofconvertingthemtoourholyfaithandfurthermoredirectedthatIshouldnotproceedbylandtotheEast,asiscustomary,butbyaWesterlyroute,inwhichdirectionwehavehithertonocertainevidencethatanyonehasgoneEntryfromthejournalofChristopherColumbusonhisvoyageofNooneevergavemedirectionslikethisonagolfcoursebefore:"AimateitherMicrosoftorIBM"IwasstandingonthefirstteeattheKGAGolfClubindowntownBangalore,insouthernIndia,whenmyplayingpartnerpointedattwoshinyglassandsteelbuildingsoffinthedistance,justbehindthefirstgreenTheGoldmanSachsbuildingwasn'tdoneyetotherwisehecouldhavepointedthatoutaswellandmadeitathreesomeHPandTexasInstrumentshadtheirofficesonthebacknine,alongthetenthholeThatwasn'tallTheteemarkerswerefromEpson,theprintercompany,andoneofourcaddieswaswearingahatfromMOutside,someofthetrafficsignswerealsosponsoredbyTexasInstruments,andthePizzaHutbillboardonthewayovershowedasteamingpizza,undertheheadline"GigabitesofTaste!"No,thisdefinitelywasn'tKansasItdidn'tevenseemlikeIndiaWasthistheNewWorld,theOldWorld,ortheNextWorldIhadcometoBangalore,India'sSiliconValley,onmyownColumbuslikejourneyofexplorationColumbussailedwiththeNina,thePinta,andtheSantaMariainanefforttodiscoverashorter,moredirectroutetoIndiabyheadingwest,acrosstheAtlantic,onwhathepresumedtobeanopensearoutetotheEastIndiesratherthangoingsouthandeastaroundAfrica,asPortugueseexplorersofhisdayweretryingtodoIndiaandthemagicalSpiceIslandsoftheEastwerefamedatthetimefortheirgold,pearls,gems,andsilkasourceofuntoldrichesFindingthisshortcutbyseatoIndia,atatimewhentheMuslimpowersofthedayhadblockedtheoverlandroutesfromEurope,wasawayforbothColumbusandtheSpanishmonarchytobecomewealthyandpowerfulWhenColumbussetsail,heapparentlyassumedtheEarthwasround,whichwaswhyhewasconvincedthathecouldgettoIndiabygoingwestHemiscalculatedthedistance,thoughHethoughttheEarthwasasmallerspherethanitisHealsodidnotanticipaterunningintoalandmassbeforehereachedtheEastIndiesNevertheless,hecalledtheaboriginalpeoplesheencounteredinthenewworld"Indians"Returninghome,though,Columbuswasabletotellhispatrons,KingFerdinandandQueenIsabella,英文荟萃网http:wwwywhcnetthatalthoughheneverdidfindIndia,hecouldconfirmthattheworldwasindeedroundIsetoutforIndiabygoingdueeast,viaFrankfurtIhadLufthansabusinessclassIknewexactlywhichdirectionIwasgoingthankstotheGPSmapdisplayedonthescreenthatpoppedoutofthearmrestofmyairlineseatIlandedsafelyandonscheduleItooencounteredpeoplecalledIndiansItoowassearchingforthesourceofIndia'srichesColumbuswassearchingforhardwarepreciousmetals,silk,andspicesthesourceofwealthinhisdayIwassearchingforsoftware,brainpower,complexalgorithms,knowledgeworkers,callcenters,transmissionprotocols,breakthroughsinopticalengineeringthesourcesofwealthinourdayColumbuswashappytomaketheIndianshemethisslaves,apooloffreemanuallaborIjustwantedtounderstandwhytheIndiansImetweretakingourwork,whytheyhadbecomesuchanimportantpoolfortheoutsourcingofserviceandinformationtechnologyworkfromAmericaandotherindustrializedcountriesColumbushadmorethanonehundredmenonhisthreeshipsIhadasmallcrewfromtheDiscoveryTimeschannelthatfitcomfortablyintotwobangedupvans,withIndiandriverswhodrovebarefootWhenIsetsail,sotospeak,Itooassumedthattheworldwasround,butwhatIencounteredintherealIndiaprofoundlyshookmyfaithinthatnotionColumbusaccidentallyranintoAmericabutthoughthehaddiscoveredpartofIndiaIactuallyfoundIndiaandthoughtmanyofthepeopleImettherewereAmericansSomehadactuallytakenAmericannames,andothersweredoinggreatimitationsofAmericanaccentsatcallcentersandAmericanbusinesstechniquesatsoftwarelabsColumbusreportedtohiskingandqueenthattheworldwasround,andhewentdowninhistoryasthemanwhofirstmadethisdiscoveryIreturnedhomeandsharedmydiscover)'onlywithmywife,andonlyinawhisper"Honey,"Iconfided,"Ithinktheworldisflat"HowdidIcometothisconclusionIguessyoucouldsayitallstartedinNandanNilekani'sconferenceroomatInfosysTechnologiesLimitedInfosysisoneofthejewelsoftheIndianinformationtechnologyworld,andNilekani,thecompany'sCEO,isoneofthemostthoughtfulandrespectedcaptainsofIndianindustryIdrovewiththeDiscoveryTimescrewouttotheInfosyscampus,aboutfortyminutesfromtheheartofBangalore,totourthefacilityandinterviewNilekaniTheInfosyscampusisreachedbyapockmarkedroad,withsacredcows,horsedrawncarts,andmotorizedrickshawsalljostlingalongsideourvansOnceyouenterthegatesofInfosys,though,youareinadifferentworldAmassiveresortsizeswimmingpoolnestlesamidbouldersandmanicuredlawns,adjacenttoahugeputtinggreenTherearemultiplerestaurantsandafabuloushealthclubGlassandsteelbuildingsseemtosproutuplikeweedseachweekInsomeofthosebuildings,InfosysemployeesarewritingspecificsoftwareprogramsforAmericanorEuropeancompaniesinothers,theyarerunningthebackroomsofmajor英文荟萃网http:wwwywhcnetAmericanandEuropeanbasedmultinationalseverythingfromcomputermaintenancetospecificresearchprojectstoansweringcustomercallsroutedtherefromallovertheworldSecurityistight,camerasmonitorthedoors,andifyouareworkingforAmericanExpress,youcannotgetintothebuildingthatismanagingservicesandresearchforGeneralElectricYoungIndianengineers,menandwomen,walkbrisklyfrombuildingtobuilding,danglingIDbadgesOnelookedlikehecoulddomytaxesAnotherlookedlikeshecouldtakemycomputerapartAndathirdlookedlikeshedesignedit!Aftersittingforaninterview,NilekanigaveourTVcrewatourofInfosys'sglobalconferencingcentergroundzerooftheIndianoutsourcingindustryItwasacavernouswoodpaneledroomthatlookedlikeatieredclassroomfromanIvyLeaguelawschoolOnoneendwasamassivewallsizescreenandoverheadtherewerecamerasintheceilingforteleconferencing"Sothisisourconferenceroom,probablythelargestscreeninAsiathisisfortydigitalscreensputtogether,"Nilekaniexplainedproudly,pointingtothebiggestflatscreenTVIhadeverseenInfosys,hesaid,canholdavirtualmeetingofthekeyplayersfromitsentireglobalsupplychainforanyprojectatanytimeonthatsupersizescreenSotheirAmericandesignerscouldbeonthescreenspeakingwiththeirIndiansoftwarewritersandtheirAsianmanufacturersallatonce"Wecouldbesittinghere,somebodyfromNewYork,London,Boston,SanFrancisco,allliveAndmaybetheimplementationisinSingapore,sotheSingaporepersoncouldalsobelivehereThat'sglobalization,"saidNilekaniAbovethescreentherewereeightclocksthatprettywellsummeduptheInfosysworkday:TheclockswerelabeledUSWest,USEast,GMT,India,Singapore,HongKong,Japan,Australia"Outsourcingisjustonedimensionofamuchmorefundamentalthinghappeningtodayintheworld,"Nilekaniexplained"Whathappenedoverthelastfewyearsisthattherewasamassiveinvestmentintechnology,especiallyinthebubbleera,whenhundredsofmillionsofdollarswereinvestedinputtingbroadbandconnectivityaroundtheworld,underseacables,allthosethings"Atthesametime,headded,computersbecamecheaperanddispersedallovertheworld,andtherewasanexplosionofsoftwareemail,searchengineslikeGoogle,andproprietarysoftwarethatcanchopupanypieceofworkandsendoneparttoBoston,oneparttoBangalore,andoneparttoBeijing,makingiteasyforanyonetodoremotedevelopmentWhenallofthesethingssuddenlycametogetheraround,addedNilekani,they"createdaplatformwhereintellectualwork,intellectualcapital,couldbedeliveredfromanywhereItcouldbedisaggregated,delivered,distributed,produced,andputbacktogetheragainandthisgaveawholenewdegreeoffreedomtothewaywedowork,especiallyworkofanintellectualnatureAndwhatyouareseeinginBangaloretodayisreallytheculminationofallthesethingscomingtogether"WeweresittingonthecouchoutsideofNilekani'soffice,waitingfortheTVcrewtosetupitscamerasAtonepoint,summinguptheimplicationsofallthis,NilekaniutteredaphrasethatranginmyearHesaidtome,"Tom,theplayingfieldisbeing英文荟萃网http:wwwywhcnetleveled"HemeantthatcountrieslikeIndiaarenowabletocompeteforglobalknowledgeworkasneverbeforeandthatAmericahadbettergetreadyforthisAmericawasgoingtobechallenged,but,heinsisted,thechallengewouldbegoodforAmericabecausewearealwaysatourbestwhenwearebeingchallengedAsIlefttheInfosyscampusthateveningandbouncedalongtheroadbacktoBangalore,Ikeptchewingonthatphrase:"Theplayingfieldisbeingleveled"WhatNandanissaying,Ithought,isthattheplayingfieldisbeingflattenedFlattenedFlattenedMyGod,he'stellingmetheworldisflat!HereIwasinBangaloremorethanfivehundredyearsafterColumbussailedoverthehorizon,usingtherudimentarynavigationaltechnologiesofhisday,andreturnedsafelytoprovedefinitivelythattheworldwasroundandoneofIndia'ssmartestengineers,trainedathiscountry'stoptechnicalinstituteandbackedbythemostmoderntechnologiesofhisday,wasessentiallytellingmethattheworldwasflatasflatasthatscreenonwhichhecanhostameetingofhiswholeglobalsupplychainEvenmoreinteresting,hewascitingthisdevelopmentasagoodthing,asanewmilestoneinhumanprogressandagreatopportunityforIndiaandtheworldthefactthatwehadmadeourworldflat!Inthebackofthatvan,Iscribbleddownfourwordsinmynotebook:"Theworldisflat"AssoonasIwrotethem,IrealizedthatthiswastheunderlyingmessageofeverythingthatIhadseenandheardinBangaloreintwoweeksoffilmingTheglobalcompetitiveplayingfieldwasbeingleveledTheworldwasbeingflattenedAsIcametothisrealization,IwasfilledwithbothexcitementanddreadThejournalistinmewasexcitedathavingfoundaframeworktobetterunderstandthemorningheadlinesandtoexplainwhatwashappeningintheworldtodayClearly,itisnowpossibleformorepeoplethanevertocollaborateandcompeteinrealtimewithmoreotherpeopleonmoredifferentkindsofworkfrommoredifferentcornersoftheplanetandonamoreequalfootingthanatanyprevioustimeinthehistoryoftheworldusingcomputers,email,networks,teleconferencing,anddynamicnewsoftwareThatiswhatNandanwastellingmeThatwaswhatIdiscoveredonmyjourneytoIndiaandbeyondAndthatiswhatthisbookisaboutWhenyoustarttothinkoftheworldasflat,alotofthingsmakesenseinwaystheydidnotbeforeButIwasalsoexcitedpersonally,becausewhattheflatteningoftheworldmeansisthatwearenowconnectingalltheknowledgecentersontheplanettogetherintoasingleglobalnetwork,whichifpoliticsandterrorismdonotgetinthewaycouldusherinanamazingeraofprosperityandinnovationButcontemplatingtheflatworldalsoleftmefilledwithdread,professionalandpersonalMypersonaldreadderivedfromtheobviousfactthatit'snotonlythesoftwarewritersandcomputergeekswhogetempoweredtocollaborateonworkinaflatworldIt'salsoalQaedaandotherterroristnetworksTheplayingfieldisnotbeingleveledonlyinwaysthatdrawinandsuperempowerawholenewgroupofinnovatorsIt'sbeingleveledinawaythatdrawsinandsuperempowersawholenewgroupofangry,frustrated,andhumiliatedmenandwomen英文荟萃网http:wwwywhcnetProfessionally,therecognitionthattheworldwasflatwasunnervingbecauseIrealizedthatthisflatteninghadbeentakingplacewhileIwassleeping,andIhadmisseditIwasn'treallysleeping,butIwasotherwiseengagedBefore,wasfocusedontrackingglobalizationandexploringthetensionbetweenthe"Lexus"forcesofeconomicintegrationandthe"OliveTree"forcesofidentityandnationalismhencemybook,TheLexusandtheOliveTreeButafter,theolivetreewarsbecameallconsumingformeIspentalmostallmytimetravelingintheArabandMuslimworldsDuringthoseyearsIlostthetrailofglobalizationIfoundthattrailagainonmyjourneytoBangaloreinFebruaryOnceIdid,IrealizedthatsomethingreallyimportanthadhappenedwhileIwasfixatedontheolivegrovesofKabulandBaghdadGlobalizationhadgonetoawholenewlevelIfyouputTheLexusandtheOliveTreeandthisbooktogether,thebroadhistoricalargumentyouendupwithisthatthattherehavebeenthreegreaterasofglobalizationThefirstlastedfromwhenColumbussetsail,openingtradebetweentheOldWorldandtheNewWorlduntilaroundwouldcallthiseraGlobalizationItshranktheworldfromasizelargetoasizemediumGlobalizationwasaboutcountriesandmusclesThatis,inGlobalizationthekeyagentofchange,thedynamicforcedrivingtheprocessofglobalintegrationwashowmuchbrawnhowmuchmuscle,howmuchhorsepower,windpower,or,later,steampoweryourcountryhadandhowcreativelyyoucoulddeployitInthisera,countriesandgovernments(ofteninspiredbyreligionorimperialismoracombinationofboth)ledthewayinbreakingdownwallsandknittingtheworldtogether,drivingglobalintegrationInGlobalization,theprimaryquestionswere:WheredoesmycountryfitintoglobalcompetitionandopportunitiesHowcanIgoglobalandcollaboratewithothersthroughmycountryThesecondgreatera,Globalization,lastedroughlyfromto,interruptedbytheGreatDepressionandWorldWarsIandIIThiserashranktheworldfromasizemediumtoasizesmallInGlobalization,thekeyagentofchange,thedynamicforcedrivingglobalintegration,wasmultinationalcompaniesThesemultinationalswentglobalformarketsandlabor,spearheadedfirstbytheexpansionoftheDutchandEnglishjointstockcompaniesandtheIndustrialRevolutionInthefirsthalfofthisera,globalintegrationwaspoweredbyfallingtransportationcosts,thankstothesteamengineandtherailroad,andinthesecondhalfbyfallingtelecommunicationcoststhankstothediffusionofthetelegraph,telephones,thePC,satellites,fiberopticcable,andtheearlyversionoftheWorldWideWebItwasduringthiserathatwereallysawthebirthandmaturationofaglobaleconomy,inthesensethattherewasenoughmovementofgoodsandinformationfromcontinenttocontinentfortheretobeaglobalmarket,withglobalarbitrageinproductsandlaborThedynamicforcesbehindthiseraofglobalizationwerebreakthroughsinhardwarefromsteamshipsandrailroadsinthebeginningtotelephonesandmainframecomputerstowardtheendAndthebigquestionsinthiserawere:WheredoesmycompanyfitintotheglobaleconomyHowdoesittake英文荟萃网http:wwwywhcnetadvantageoftheopportunitiesHowcanIgoglobalandcollaboratewithothersthroughmycompanyTheLexusandtheOliveTreewasprimarilyabouttheclimaxofthisera,anerawhenthewallsstartedfallingallaroundtheworld,andintegration,andthebacklashtoit,wenttoawholenewlevelButevenasthewallsfell,therewerestillalotofbarrierstoseamlessglobalintegrationRemember,whenBillClintonwaselectedpresidentin,virtuallynooneoutsideofgovernmentandtheacademyhademail,andwhenIwaswritingTheLexusandtheOliveTreein,theInternetandecommercewerejusttakingoffWell,theytookoffalongwithalotofotherthingsthatcametogetherwhileIwassleepingAndthatiswhyIargueinthisbookthataroundtheyearweenteredawholenewera:GlobalizationGlobalizationisshrinkingtheworldfromasizesmalltoasizetinyandflatteningtheplayingfieldatthesametimeAndwhilethedynamicforceinGlobalizationwascountriesglobalizingandthedynamicforceinGlobalizationwascompaniesglobalizing,thedynamicforceinGlobalizationthethingthatgivesititsuniquecharacteristhenewfoundpowerforindividualstocollaborateandcompetegloballyAndtheleverthatisenablingindividualsandgroupstogoglobalsoeasilyandsoseamlesslyisnothorsepower,andnothardware,butsoftwareallsortsofnewapplicationsinconjunctionwiththecreationofaglobalfiberopticnetworkthathasmadeusallnextdoorneighborsIndividualsmust,andcan,nowask,WheredoIfitintotheglobalcompetitionandopportunitiesoftheday,andhowcanI,onmyown,collaboratewithothersgloballyButGlobalizationnotonlydiffersfromthepreviouserasinhowitisshrinkingandflatteni

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the world is flat(地球是平的)

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