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首页 [意]奇波拉:工业革命前欧洲的社会与经济,1000–1700(劳特里奇 2003)

[意]奇波拉:工业革命前欧洲的社会与经济,1000–1700(劳特里奇 2003)

[意]奇波拉:工业革命前欧洲的社会与经济,1000–1700(…

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2009-01-28 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[意]奇波拉:工业革命前欧洲的社会与经济,1000–1700(劳特里奇 2003)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

BEFORETHEINDUSTRIALREVOLUTIONBEFORETHEINDUSTRIALREVOLUTIONEuropeanSocietyandEconomy,–THIRDEDITIONCarloMCipollaLondonFirstpublishedinGreatBritaininbyMethuenCoLtdSecondeditionThirdeditionfirstpublishedinbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEEReprinted,RoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroupThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcouk”©,,CarloMCipollaTranslationandrevisedmaterial©ChristopherWoodallAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanicalorothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataCipolla,CarloMBeforetheIndustrialRevolution:EuropeanSocietyandEconomy,–RevedITitleIIWoodall,ChristopherISBNMasterebookISBNISBN(AdobeeReaderFormat)ISBN(PrintEdition)CONTENTSListofillustrations,maps,andfiguresviListoftablesviiiPrefacexiPartIAstaticapproximationDEMANDTypeofanalysisPopulationNeeds,wants,andeffectivedemandIncomeanditsdistributionTypesofdemandPrivatedemandPublicdemandDemandoftheChurchForeigndemandTHEFACTORSOFPRODUCTIONClassesof“inputs”LaborCapitalNaturalresourcesOrganizationPRODUCTIVITYANDPRODUCTIONChoiceandproductivityThedeterminantsofproductionMedievalandRenaissanceproductivitylevelsPositiveproductionNegativeproductionPartIITowardadynamicdescriptionTHEURBANREVOLUTION:THECOMMUNESPOPULATION:TRENDSANDPLAGUESTECHNOLOGYTechnologicaldevelopments:–ThespreadoftechnologyENTERPRISE,CREDIT,ANDMONEYEnterpriseandcreditMonetarytrendsPRODUCTION,INCOMES,ANDCONSUMPTION:–Thegreatexpansion:–Economictrends:–THEEMERGENCEOFTHEMODERNAGEUnderdevelopedEuropeordevelopedEuropeEuropeanexpansionThescientificrevolutionAnenergycrisisTHECHANGINGBALANCEOFECONOMICPOWERINEUROPEEconomictrends:–ThedeclineofSpainThedeclineofItalyTheriseofthenorthernNetherlandsTheriseofEnglandEpilogueAppendixtablesNotesBibliographyIndexvILLUSTRATIONS,MAPS,ANDFIGURESILLUSTRATIONSACountryWeddingbyPieterBruegheltheElderFrenchmetallurgicalworksTheGreatCraneatBrugesThestorageoffoodstuffsinStrasbourgTheWingedMillbyJohannesStradanusThedevelopmentofships’rigging,–EighteenthcenturyEnglishmerchantvesselAwaterpoweredthrowingmillbyVittorioZoncaAmintatworkduringtheMiddleAgesBarterandtheexchangeofmoneySilverandgoldcoinsArealdeaocho(pieceofeight)ThefluytMAPSEuropeADItalyduringtheRenaissanceThespreadoftheBlackDeathinEurope,–ThespreadofthefullingmillinvariousregionsofEuropeHowprintingcoveredthemapEnglishmints,AthelstantoEnglishmints,–TheChristianreconquestoftheIberianpeninsulaThefoundationoftownsineastcentralEuropeTheDanishpeninsulaFlorence,showingthewallsTheChampagnefairsThehistoricalformationoftheSwissConfederationThePortugueseadvancealongtheAfricancoastTheroutesfollowedbytheSpanishfleetsPopularrevoltsinFranceintheseventeenthcenturySpaininFIGURESIncomedistributioninGreatBritaininandAgeandsexstructureofthepopulationofSwedeninandMortalityandfertilityinaFrenchvillage(Couffé)attheendofthesixteenthcenturyTrendsinmortality,fertility,andmarriageduringatypicaldemographiccrisisThemortalityrateinSweden,–MonetarywagesofabuildingcraftsmanandalaborerinsouthernEngland,–RealwagerateofabuildingcraftsmanexpressedasacompositephysicalunitofconsumablegoodsinsouthernEngland,–Rateofinterest(A)anddiscountrate(B)onbondsoftheBankofStGeorge,Genoa(Italy),–EconomictrendsinselectedEuropeancountries,–TrendsintheexportofrawwoolandclothfromEngland,–viiTABLESApproximatepopulationofthemajorEuropeancountries,–DistributionofwealthinFlorence(Italy),DistributionofwealthinLyon(France),DistributionofgrainreservesinPavia(Italy),DistributionofincomeinEnglandinaccordingtothecalculationsofGregoryKingThepooraspercentageofthetotalpopulationinselectedEuropeancities,fifteenthtoseventeenthcenturiesEstimatedbreakdownofprivateexpenditureofthemassofthepopulationinselectedareas,fifteenthtoeighteenthcenturiesaStructureofexpenditureonconsumergoodsandservicesofthreefamiliesofmiddleclassandprincelyrankinthesixteenthandseventeenthcenturiesbSomeexamplesofexpenditurebyaristocraticandinstitutionalconsumersinEnglandDatesofconstructionandlengthofcitywallsinrelationtopopulationinselectedcitiesAnnualaverageexpenditureprovidedinthebudgetsoftheCommuneofPerugiainthefirstdecadeofthefourteenthcenturyExpenditureprovidedinthebudgetoftheKingdomofNaples,–SizeoftheecclesiasticalpropertyinselectedareasoftheFlorentineTerritoryinthefifteenthandsixteenthcenturiesPercentagedistributionoflandownershipinSwedenbetweenandApproximatevalueofEnglishimportsandexports,–Percentageagedistributionoftwopreindustrialpopulations,Sweden()andItaly()AdolescentsaspercentageoftotalpopulationinselectedItalianareas,–Percentageagedistributionoftwoindustrialpopulations,Sweden()andEngland()FoundlingsinVenice,–FoundlingsinMilan,–Estimatesofpopulationemployedinagricultureaspercentageoftotallaborforce,aboutOccupationaldistributionofthepopulationofselectedEuropeancities,fifteenthtoseventeenthcenturiesOccupationaldistributionofmales,aged–,inGloucestershire,PercentagedistributionoffamiliesinFlorence(Italy)accordingtonumberofservants,DomesticservantsasapercentageoftotalpopulationinselectedEuropeancities,–EcclesiasticalpopulationinselectedEuropeancities,–Numberofnotaries,lawyers,andphysiciansinrelationtototalpopulationinselectedItaliancities,–NumberofphysiciansinrelationtototalpopulationinselectedEuropeancities,–NumberofofficiallyrecognizedprostitutesinrelationtototalpopulationofRome,–AgelimitsforacceptanceintoapprenticeshipinselectedtradesinseventeenthcenturyVeniceVolumeofselectedbarnsbuiltinthethirteenthcenturyNumberofhorsesandmulesinselectedEuropeancountries,aboutFixedplantsinfourmajorEnglishnavalshipyards,GregoryKing’sestimateofEnglishcapitalinForestedareainEuropeinaboutthemiddleofthenineteenthcenturyAveragegrossyieldsperseedforwheat,rye,barley,andoatsinselectedEuropeancountries,–AverageyieldsperunitofwheatseedinEngland,–MeanyieldratiosontheestateofthebishopricofWinchester,–AverageyieldsperunitofwheatseedinselectedareasofItaly,–QuantityofgrainsownandharvestedandyieldratiosintheterritoryofSiena,–DeadweightofmalecattleinthedistrictofMontaldeo(Italy),seventeenthcenturyLivestocklossesinSaarburgterritory(Germany)duringtheThirtyYears’WarPercentageunmarriedinselectedsocialgroupsinpreindustrialEuropeAverageageatfirstmarriageforwomeninselectedsocialgroupsandplacesinpreindustrialEuropeMortalityinselectedItaliancitiesduringtheplagueepidemicsof–and–EmergenceofnewindustrialapplicationsoftheverticalwaterwheeltocEquivalentofthelocalmonetaryunit(lira)ingramsofpuresilverinfourmajorItaliancitystatesEquivalentofthelocalmonetaryunit(pound)ingramsofpuresilverSilveroutputsfromvariouscentralEuropeanminesKilogramsofgoldandsilverallegedlyimportedintoSpainfromtheAmericas,–PercentageriseinpricesofselectedgroupsofcommoditiesatPavia(Italy),–RateofinterestanddiscountrateonbondsoftheBankofStGeorge,Genoa(Italy),–AnalysisofsilverandgoldreceivedinBataviafromtheNetherlands,–ExportsoftheEnglishEastIndiaCompanytotheFarEast,–ExportsofsilvertoAsiabytheDutchEastIndiaCompany,–Estimatedslaveimportsbyimportingregion,–Presentminimaxestimatesofworldpopulation,–EstimatesofworldpopulationbywritersoftheseventeenthandeighteenthcenturiesStateincomeanddebtinCastile,–WoollensproductioninFlorence,–ProductionofwoollenclothinselectedItaliancities,–ExportsofsilktextilesfromGenoa,–EstimatedvalueofyearlyimportsintotheLowCountries(northernandsouthern)aboutthemiddleofthesixteenthcenturyAverageyearlyEnglishexportsofrawwoolandwoollencloth,–CommoditycompositionofEnglishforeigntrade,–Occupiedblastfurnacesites,averagefurnaceoutput,andtotaloutput,EnglandandWales,–CharcoalpricesinEngland,–GeographicaldistributionofEnglishforeigntrade,–SizeoftheEnglishmerchantnavy,–ixAApproximatepopulationofselectedEuropeancities,–ARoughbirthanddeathratesinselectedEuropeancities,–AInfantmortalityrateinFiesole(Tuscany),–ACharacteristicsofatypicalpreindustrialpopulation:Sweden,–xPREFACETheworldinwhichweliveandtheproblemswefacecannotbeunderstoodwithoutreferringtothatmomentousupheavalknownastheIndustrialRevolutionYettheIndustrialRevolutionwasonlythefinalphase,thecoherentoutcomeofahistoricaldevelopmentwhichtookplaceinEuropeoverthefirstsevencenturiesofournowexpiringmillenniumThepurposeofthisbookistoofferanuptodateandfullydocumentedsummaryofthehumandevelopmentsfromwhichourworld,withallitsblessingsandallitswoes,eventuallyemergedThebookisthereforeintendedforbothstudentsandgeneralreadersalthoughfocusedonsocialandeconomicproblems,itsapproachisessentiallyinterdisciplinaryThisdoubleambivalencemayhelptoexplainsomeofitspeculiaritiesStyleandexpositionhavebeenkeptatareasonablysimplelevelbutnoeffortshavebeensparedtoprovidethereaderwithprecisereferences,abundantstatisticalmaterialandawealthofbibliographicalinformationDisconcertingtechnicalitieshavebeeneliminatedwithoutsacrificingscholarlyaccuracyAtthesametimethelogicaltoolsofeconomicandsocialanalysishavebeenclearlyspelledoutratherthantakenforgrantedorhiddenawayinthetissueofthenarrativeThis,itishoped,willhelptheeconomicsstudenttotracetheconnectionsbetweeneconomictheoryandeconomichistory,whileacquaintingthelaymanwithsomeofthebasictoolsofcontemporarysocialsciencesThebookhasbeenorganizedintwopartsInPartIouranalysisisessentiallystaticItaimstoclarifythewayinwhichthesocietyandeconomyofpreindustrialEuropefunctioned,whileemphasizingcertainconstantcharacteristicsofthatsocietyandthateconomyPartIIillustratesthechangeswhichtookplacewithinthatframeworkandwhichgraduallytransformedEuropefromaprimitive,uninterestingandunderdevelopedcorneroftheworld,underconstantthreatfromitsmorepowerfulneighbors,intoadynamic,highlydevelopedandcreativesocietywhichcametoestablishundisputedpolitical,cultural,andeconomicpredominanceallovertheglobeQuitenaturally,thenatureofourinquiryismoldedbyvalues,mentalities,andbeliefswhicharepeculiartoourownageandsocietyWhenanothersocietyisunderscrutiny,questionswhichbearlittleornorelationtothephilosophy,values,andbeliefsofthatsocietyinevitablyposedifficultiesItmaybethatweareinterestedinthesizeofthepopulation,thepatternsofconsumptionorthelevelofproductionof,letussay,theprovinceofReimsinFranceatthebeginningofthismillenniumWhatthedocumentsrelatingtothatareagiveus,however,isdetailedinformationonmiraclesperformedbyStGibrianBecausethedocumentationleftbythepastreflectstheinterestsandthevaluesofthepast,manyoftheproblemsraisedinthefollowingpagescanreceiveonlytentativeorapproximateanswersTheanswersbecomemorepreciseforcenturiesclosertoourown,aspeoplebegantoaskthesamequestionsthatweaskThisneweditionhasgivenmetheopportunitytoincludefindingsnotavailablewhenthisbookwasfirstpublishedandtorevisematerialbasedonthesuggestionsofreadersandreviewersTheprincipalchangesareinthediscussionsofdemographyandagriculturaleconomicsandincludetheintroductionofnewmaterialonthehistoryofthenorthernNetherlandsandonItalianmanufacturingandtradingProfessorMarcellaKooyandMissAlideKooytranslatedtheoriginalItaliantextintoEnglishMrRobertEKehoecarefullyeditedthebookandcheckedonitsprogressAlladditionalmaterialincludedinthisthirdEnglisheditionhasbeentranslatedbyChristopherWoodallBerkeley,CaliforniaxiiPartIASTATICAPPROXIMATIONDEMANDTYPEOFANALYSISThefunctioningofanyeconomicsystemcanbelookedatfromtwopointsofview,thatofdemandandthatofsupplyThetwoperspectivesareintimatelylinkedandreflectthesamerealityWhenonedescribesthem,however,theneedtoanalyzefirstoneandthentheothertendsarbitrarilytoaccentuatethedistinctionbetweenthemPOPULATIONFromthepointofviewofdemand,thefirstpointtoconsiderispopulationIftherewerenopeopletherewouldbenohumanwantsAndiftherewerenohumanwantstherewouldbenodemandThestudyofpopulationpresupposesthecollectionofdemographicdataVenicetookcensusesofitspopulationaslongagoasIntheGrandDuchyofTuscanycensusescoveringthewholestateweretakenin,,,,,andseveraltimesthereafterHowever,atnationallevels,reasonablyaccuratefiguresaboutthesizeaswellasthestructureofapopulationarenotavailablebeforethenineteenthcentury,withtheexceptionofScandinavia,forwhichaccuratedataareavailablefortheeighteenthcenturyInSpainanationalcensuswascompletedinandwasparticularlyexcellent:technicallyamodelofitskindItfoundthepopulationoftheentirecountrytonumber,,inhabitantsOthernationwidecensusessoonfollowed:intheUnitedStates(),inEngland()andinFrance()buttheywereallqualitativelyinferiortotheSpanishcensusofFortheperiodbefore,demographichistorianshavetriedtoovercomethedearthofdatabyestimatingpopulationonthebasisofindirectandheterogeneousinformationfromfieldsasdisparateasarchaeology,botany,andtoponymy,aswellasfromwrittenrecordsofthemostdiversekind,suchasinventoriesofmanors,listsofmenliableformilitaryservice,andaccountsofhearthtaxesorpolltaxesTableshowsestimatesoftotalpopulationforthemajorareasofEuropeSuchfigurescanbetakenonlyasroughapproximationsThefiguresforthecolumnsrelatingtotheeleventhandfourteenthcenturiesaretheproductofroughhypothesesTheirmarginoferrorisfairlyhigh,notlessthanpercentandperhapshigherAlthoughthefiguresinthelasttwocolumnsaremorereliable,theyalsomustnotbetakenaspreciseMorereliablefiguresareavailableforselectedcities(seeAppendixTableA),buttheytooareaffectedbylargemarginsoferrorandmustbetakenonlyasestimatesHoweverrough,allthefiguresinTabledoconsistentlyindicatethatupuntiltheeighteenthcenturythepopulationofEuroperemainedrelativelysmallForlongperiodsitdidnotgrowatall,andwhenitdid,therateofincreasewasalwaysverylowFewcitiesevernumberedmorethanonehundredthousandinhabitants(seeAppendixTableA)AnycityoffiftythousandinhabitantsormorewasconsideredametropolisThepreindustrialworldremainedaworldofnumericallysmallsocietiesIfapopulationdoesnotincreaseorincreasesonlyslightly,intheabsenceofsizablemigratorymovements,thereasonlieseitherinlowfertilityorhighmortalityorbothInpreindustrialEuropefertilityvariedfromperiodtoperiodandfromareatoarea,sothatanygeneralizationmustbetakenwithmorethanapinchofsaltCelibacywasalwaysfairlywidespread,andwhenpeoplemarriedtheygenerallydidsoatarelativelyadvancedageThesefactstendedtoreducefertilityhowever,prevailingbirthrateswerestillveryhigh,alwaysabovetheperthousandlevel(seeAppendixTableA)Whilefertilityrarelyreachedthebiologicalmaximum,itwasnearertothismaximumthantolevelsprevailingindevelopedcountriesofthetwentiethcenturyIfthepopulationofpreindustrialEuroperemainedrelativelysmall,thereasonlaylessinlowfertilitythaninhighmortalityWeshallreturntothispointbelow,inChapterTableApproximatepopulationofthemajorEuropeancountries,–(inmillions)cccccBalkansLowCountriesBritishIslesDanubiancountriesFranceGermanyItalyPolandRussiaScandinaviancountriesSpainandPortugalSwitzerlandItisworthdistinguishingbetweennormalandcatastrophicmortalityThedistinctionisarbitraryandsomewhatartificial,butithasthemeritoffacilitatingdescriptionWecanbroadlydefinenormalmortalityasthemortalityprevailinginnormalyearsthati

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[意]奇波拉:工业革命前欧洲的社会与经济,1000–1700(劳特里奇 2003)

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