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首页 2009年考研英语阅读超详细分析,2010年考研建议

2009年考研英语阅读超详细分析,2010年考研建议.pdf

2009年考研英语阅读超详细分析,2010年考研建议

bloomsyer
2009-01-25 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《2009年考研英语阅读超详细分析,2010年考研建议pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

年考研英语阅读真题来源分析及年考研建议年考研尘埃方才落定年考研销烟再起古人云以史为镜可以知兴衰今日哈尔滨新东方考研教研组李春亮赵春雨朱殿勇老师对考研真题进行了详尽的分析比较希望能给各位年的考生起到明镜的作用!(注:红色文字为原文本有但是被考研阅读文章删除的部分黑色文字为考研阅读原文部分蓝色文字为考研阅读文章将来源文章的单词替换的部分)年考研英语阅读理解第一篇摘自纽约时报(http:wwwnytimescom)年月日原文标题为CanYouBecomeaCreatureofNewHabits链接地址:http:wwwnytimescombusinessunboxhtmlCanYouBecomeaCreatureofNewHabitsByJANETRAEDUPREEPublished:May,HABITSareafunnythingWereachforthemmindlessly,settingourbrainsonautopilotandrelaxingintotheunconsciouscomfortoffamiliarroutine“Notchoice,buthabitrulestheunreflectingherd,”WilliamWordsworthsaidinthethcenturyIntheeverchangingstcentury,eventheword“habit”carriesanegativeconnotationSoitseemsantitheticaltotalkabouthabitsinthesamecontextascreativityandinnovationButbrainresearchershavediscoveredthatwhenweconsciouslydevelopnewhabits,wecreateparallelsynapticpaths,andevenentirelynewbraincells,thatcanjumpourtrainsofthoughtontonew,innovativetracksRatherthandismissingourselvesasunchangeablecreaturesofhabit,wecaninsteaddirectourownchangebyconsciouslydevelopingnewhabitsInfact,themorenewthingswetrythemorewestepoutsideourcomfortzonethemoreinherentlycreativewebecome,bothintheworkplaceandinourpersonallivesButdon’tbothertryingtokilloffoldhabitsoncethoserutsofprocedurearewornintothehippocampus,they’retheretostayInstead,thenewhabitswedeliberatelyingrainintoourselvescreateparallelpathwaysthatcanbypassthoseoldroads“Thefirstthingneededforinnovationisafascinationwithwonder,”saysDawnaMarkova,authorof“TheOpenMind”andanexecutivechangeconsultantforProfessionalThinkingPartners“Butwearetaughtinsteadto‘decide,’justasourpresidentcallshimself‘theDecider’”Sheadds,however,that“todecideistokilloffallpossibilitiesbutoneAgoodinnovationalthinkerisalwaysexploringthemanyotherpossibilities”Allofusworkthroughproblemsinwaysofwhichwe’reunaware,shesaysResearchersinthelatesdiscoveredthathumansarebornwiththecapacitytoapproachchallengesinfourprimaryways:analytically,procedurally,relationally(orcollaboratively)andinnovativelyAtpuberty,however,thebrainshutsdownhalfofthatcapacity,preservingonlythosemodesofthoughtthathaveseemedmostvaluableduringthefirstdecadeorsooflifeThecurrentemphasisonstandardizedtestinghighlightsanalysisandprocedure,meaningthatfewofusinherentlyuseourinnovativeandcollaborativemodesofthought“ThisbreaksthemajorruleintheAmericanbeliefsystemthatanyonecandoanything,”explainsMJRyan,authorofthebook“ThisYearIWill”andMsMarkova’sbusinesspartner“That’saliethatwehaveperpetuated,anditfostersmediocrity(commonness)Knowingwhatyou’regoodatanddoingevenmoreofitcreatesexcellence”ThisiswheredevelopingnewhabitscomesinIfyou’reananalyticalorproceduralthinker,youlearnindifferentwaysthansomeonewhoisinherentlyinnovativeorcollaborativeFigureoutwhathasworkedforyouwhenyou’velearnedinthepast,andyoucandrawyourownmapfordevelopingadditionalskillsandbehaviorsforthefuture“IapprenticemyselftosomeonewhenIwanttolearnsomethingnewordevelopanewhabit,”MsRyansays“OtherpeoplereadabookaboutitortakeacourseIfyouhaveapathwaytolearning,useitbecausethat’sgoingtobeeasierthancreatinganentirelynewpathwayinyourbrain”MsRyanandMsMarkovahavefoundwhattheycallthreezonesofexistence:comfort,stretchandstressComfortistherealmofexistinghabitStressoccurswhenachallengeissofarbeyondcurrentexperienceastobeoverwhelmingIt’sthatstretchzoneinthemiddleactivitiesthatfeelabitawkwardandunfamiliarwheretruechangeoccurs“Gettingintothestretchzoneisgoodforyou,”MsRyansaysin“ThisYearIWill”“IthelpskeepyourbrainhealthyItturnsoutthatunlesswecontinuetolearnnewthings,whichchallengesourbrainstocreatenewpathways,theyliterallybegintoatrophy,whichmayresultindementia,Alzheimer’sandotherbraindiseasesContinuouslystretchingourselveswillevenhelpusloseweight,accordingtoonestudyResearcherswhoaskedfolkstodosomethingdifferenteverydaylistentoanewradiostation,forinstancefoundthattheylostandkeptoffweightNooneissurewhy,butscientistsspeculatethatgettingoutofroutinesmakesusmoreawareingeneral”SherecommendspracticingaJapanesetechniquecalledkaizen,whichcallsfortiny,continuousimprovements“Wheneverweinitiatechange,evenapositiveone,weactivatefearinouremotionalbrain,”MsRyannotesinherbook“Ifthefearisbigenough,thefightorflightresponsewillgooffandwe’llrunfromwhatwe’retryingtodoThesmallstepsinkaizendon’tsetofffightorflight,butratherkeepusinthethinkingbrain,wherewehaveaccesstoourcreativityandplayfulness”Simultaneously,takealookathowcolleaguesapproachchallenges,MsMarkovasuggestsWetendtobelievethatthosewhothinkthewaywedoaresmarterthanthosewhodon’tThatcanbefatalinbusiness,particularlyforexecutiveswhosurroundthemselveswithlikethinkersIfseniorityandpromotionarebasedonsimilaritytothoseatthetop,chancesarestrongthatthecompanylacksintellectualdiversity“Trylacingyourhandstogether,”MsMarkovasays“YouhabituallydoitonewayNowtrydoingitwiththeotherthumbontopFeelsawkward,doesn’titThat’sthevaluablemomentwecallconfusion,whenwefusetheoldwiththenew”AFTERthechurnofconfusion,shesays,thebrainbeginsorganizingthenewinput,ultimatelycreatingnewsynapticconnectionsiftheprocessisrepeatedenoughButif,duringcreationofthatnewhabit,the“GreatDecider”stepsintoprotestagainsttakingtheunfamiliarpath,“yougetconvergenceandwekeepdoingthesamethingoverandoveragain,”shesays“Youcannothaveinnovation,”sheadds,“unlessyouarewillingandabletomovethroughtheunknownandgofromcuriositytowonder”JanetRaeDupreewritesaboutscienceandemergingtechnologyinSiliconValley年考研英语阅读理解第二篇摘自科学美国人(http:wwwsciamcom)年月日原文标题为Who'sYourDaddyTheAnswerMayBeattheDrugstore。链接地址:http:wwwsciamcomarticlecfmid=whoisyourdaddytheanswermaybeatthedrugstoreWho'sYourDaddyTheAnswerMayBeattheDrugstoreGenetictestingisalltherageamonggenealogistsandpeoplelookingfortheirbloodrelativesbutisitaccurateByTabithaMPowledgeIT'SALLRELATIVE:CanasimplemouthswabandanoverthecountergenetictestrevealourgenealogicalrootsJonathanParryiStockphotoItisawisefatherthatknowshisownchild,buttodayamancanboosthispaternal(fatherly)wisdomoratleastconfirmthathe'sthekid'sdadAllheneedstodoisshellout$forapaternitytestingkitathislocaldrugstoreandanother$togettheresultsMorethan,peoplehavepurchasedthepaternitytestingkits(PTKs)sincetheyfirstbecameavailablewithoutprescriptionslastyear,accordingtoDougFogg,chiefoperatingofficerofIdentigene,whichmakestheoverthecounterkitsMorethantwodozencompaniessellDNAtestsdirectlytothepublic,ranginginpricefromafewhundreddollarstomorethan$,Amongthemostpopular:paternityandkinshiptesting,whichadoptedchildrencanusetofindtheirbiologicalrelativesandfamiliescanusetotrackdownkidsputupforadoptionDNAtestingisalsothelatestrageamongpassionategenealogistsandsupportsbusinessesthatoffertosearchforafamily’sgeographicrootsMosttestsrequirecollectingcellsbyswabbing(webbing)salivainthemouthandsendingittothecompanyfortestingAlltestsrequireapotentialcandidatewithwhomtocompareDNAButsomeobserversareskeptical"There'sakindoffalseprecisionbeinghawkedbypeopleclaimingtheyaredoingancestrytesting,"saysTroyDuster,aNewYorkUniversitysociologistHenotesthateachindividualhasmanyancestorsnumberinginthehundredsjustafewcenturiesbackYetmostancestrytestingonlyconsidersasinglelineage,eithertheYchromosomeinheritedthroughmeninafather'slineormitochondrialDNA(mtDNA),whichispasseddownonlyfrommothersThisDNAcanrevealgeneticinformationaboutonlyoneortwoancestors,eventhough,forexample,justthreegenerationsbackpeoplealsohavesixothergreatgrandparentsor,fourgenerationsback,othergreatgreatgrandparentsAfewcompaniesofferabroaderservice,includingandMe's$testthatexamineschromosomesthroughaswellasmtDNAandtheYThatgeneratesinformationontraitsanddiseasesbutalsoonthecontinentaloriginsofeachDNAsegmentinacustomer'sgenome"Peoplearelookingformoredetail,andwe'reworkinghardtoprovidethatdetail,"saysJoannaMountain,thecompany'sseniorresearchdirectorCriticsalsoarguethatcommercialgenetictestingisonlyasgoodasthereferencecollectionstowhichasampleiscomparedDatabasesusedbysomecompaniesdon'trelyondatacollectedsystematicallybutratherlumptogetherinformationfromdifferentresearchprojectsThismeansthataDNAdatabasemayhavealotofdatafromsomeregionsandnotothers,soaperson'stestresultsmaydifferdependingonthecompanythatprocessestheresultsInaddition,thecomputeralgorithms(programs)acompanyusestoestimaterelationshipsmaybeproprietary(patented)andnotsubjecttopeerrevieworoutsideevaluation"Wereallydon'thaveagoodhandleonwhatcompaniesareusing,"saysSandraLee,seniorresearchscholarattheStanfordCenterforBiomedicalEthicsinPaloAlto,CalifTheAmericanSocietyforHumanGenetics(ASHG)inBethesda,Md,yesterdaycalledupontheindustrytoalertconsumerstothelimitsofoverthecountergenetictestsandurgedresearchontheaccuracyofDNAdatabasesandstatisticalmethodsthecompaniesrelyonDeborahBolnick,anthropologicalgeneticistattheUniversityofTexasinAustin,praisedthegroupforweighinginbutsaiditshouldhaveprovidedspecificguidelinesforindustrybehavior年考研英语阅读理解第三篇摘自麦肯锡季刊(http:wwwmckinseyquarterlycom)年月原文标题为Educatingglobalworkers链接地址:http:wwwmckinseyquarterlycomEducatingglobalworkers#EducatingglobalworkersPooreducationinthedevelopingworldisnotabarriertoimprovingproductivitythereButeconomicgrowthisneededbeforeeducationcanprogressDECEMBER•WiiliamWLewisAsmanyofthearticlesinthisissueofTheMcKinseyQuarterlydemonstrate,companiesinthedevelopedworldareoutsourcingeverlargerportionsoftheirbusinesstolowcost,highlyskilledworkersinthedevelopingworldDrivingthistrendistheremarkableabilityoftheglobalworkforcetolearnonthejobInfact,therelationshipbetweenformaleducationandeconomicgrowthinpoorcountriesiswidelymisunderstoodbyeconomistsandpoliticiansalikeProgressinbothareasisundoubtedlynecessaryforthesocial,political,andintellectualdevelopmentoftheseandallothersocietieshowever,theconventionalviewthateducationshouldbeoneoftheveryhighestprioritiesforpromotingrapideconomicdevelopmentinpoorcountriesiswrongWearefortunatethatitis,becausebuildingneweducationalsystemsthereandputtingenoughpeoplethroughthemtoimproveeconomicperformancewouldrequiretwoorthreegenerationsTheresearchoftheMcKinseyGlobalInstitute(MGI)duringthepastdecade(findingofaresearchinstitution)hasconsistentlyshownthatworkersinallcountriescanbetrainedonthejobtoachieveradicallyhigherproductivityand,asaresult,radicallyhigherstandardsoflivingBrazil,India,andRussiacouldalldoubletheirGDPpercapitawiththeirpresentworkforceandwithoutanyadditionalinvestmentinformaleducationIronically,thefirstevidenceforthisideaappearedintheUnitedStatesNotlongago,withthecountryenteringarecessionandJapanatitsprebubbleapex(peak),theUSworkforcewasderidedaspoorlyeducatedandoneoftheprimarycausesofthepoorUSeconomicperformanceJapanwas,andremains,thegloballeaderinautomotiveassemblyproductivityYetMGI’swork(research)revealedthattheUSfactoriesofHonda,Nissan,andToyotaachievedaboutpercentoftheproductivityoftheirJapanesecounterpartsaresultofthetrainingthatUSworkersreceivedonthejobMorerecently,whileexamininghousingconstruction,MGI(theresearchers)discoveredthatilliterate,nonEnglishspeakingMexicanworkersinHouston,Texas,consistentlymetbestpracticelaborproductivitystandardsdespitethecomplexityofthebuildingindustry’sworkOnceagain,apooreducationwasn’tabarriertohigheconomicperformanceMoreimportant,MGIalsofoundampleevidenceinthedevelopingworldtosupportthisconclusionInBrazil,forexample,thetwoleadingprivateretailbanksarelocallyownedandstaffedbutachieveneargloballevelsofbestpracticeproductivityAHondafactoryinBrazilperformsalmostaswellasthecompanysJapaneseandUSplantsInthesamecountry,theFrenchhypermarketchainCarrefourachievesaboutpercentoftheproductivitythatitachievesathomeAnd,astherecentboominoutsourcingtothedevelopingworldclearlyshows,theglobalworkforcecantakeadvantageofeconomicopportunitytherewithoutadditionaleducationWhatistherealrelationshipbetweeneducationandeconomicdevelopmentI(We)havebeguntosuspectthatcontinuingeconomicgrowthpromotesthedevelopmentofeducationevenwhengovernmentsdon’tforceitAfterall,that’showeducationgotstartedWhenourancestorswerehuntersandgatherers,yearsago,theydidn’thavetimeforeducationTheydidn’thavetimetowondermuchaboutanythingbesidesfindingfoodOnlywhenhumanitybegantogetitsfoodinamoreproductivewaywastheretimeforotherthingsAseducationimproved,humanity’sproductivitypotentialincreasedaswellWhenthecompetitiveenvironmentpushedourancestorstoachievethatpotential,theycouldinturnaffordmoreeducationThisincreasinglyhighlevelofeducationisprobablyanecessary,butnotasufficient,conditionforthecomplexpoliticalsystemsrequiredbyadvancedeconomicperformanceThuspoorcountriesmightnotbeabletoescapetheirpovertytrapswithoutpoliticalchangesthatmaybepossibleonlywithbroaderformaleducationAlackofformaleducation,however,doesn’tconstraintheabilityofthedevelopingworld’sworkforcetosubstantiallyimproveproductivityfortheforeseeablefutureOnthecontrary,constraintsonimprovingproductivityexplainwhyeducationisn’tdevelopingmorequicklytherethanitisNotes:BillLewisisdirectoremeritusoftheMcKinseyGlobalInstitute年考研英语阅读理解第四篇摘自IntellectualLifeinAmerica:AHistory作者LewisPerry出版社:芝加哥大学出版社年出版文章出自原文第页页ThemostthoroughlystudiedintellectualsinthehistoryoftheNewWorldaretheministersandpoliticalleadersofseventeenthcenturyNewEnglandAccordingtothestandardhistoryofAmericanphilosophy,nowhereelseincolonialAmericawas"somuchimportanceattachedtointellectualpursuits"Accordingtomanyotherbooksandarticles,NewEngland'sleadersestablishedthebasicthemesandpreoccupationsofanunfolding,dominantPuritantraditioninAmericanintellectuallifeTotakethisapproachtotheNewEnglandersnormallymeanstostartwiththePuritans'theologicalinnovationsandtheirdistinctiveideasaboutthechurchimportantsubjectsthatwemaynotneglectButinkeepingwithourexaminationofsouthernintellectuallife,wemayconsidertheoriginalPuritansascarriersofEuropeanculture,adjustingtoNewWorldcircumstancesTheNewEnglandcolonieswerethescenesofimportantepisodesinthepursuitofwidelyunderstoodidealsofcivilityandvirtuosityTheearlysettlersofMassachusettsBayincludedmenofimpressiveeducationandinfluenceinEnglandBesidestheninetyorsolearnedministerswhocametoMassachusettschurchesinthedecadeafter,therewerepoliticalleaderslikeJohnWimhrop,aneducatedgentleman,lordofthemanor,lawyer,andofficialoftheCrownbeforehejourneyedtoBostonThesemenwroteandpublishedextensively,reachingbothNewWorldandOldWorldaudiences,andgivingNewEnglandanaura(atmosphere)ofintellectualearnestnessSamuelWillard,forexample,devisedaCompleatBodyofDivinityinsermonsdeliveredonTuesdaysbetweenandNotlongafterfinishingthelastoneontheLord'sPrayer,helooktohisbedanddiedWeshouldnotforget,however,thatmostNewEngenderswerelesswelleducatedWhilefewartisansorfarmers,letalonedependentsandservants,leftliterarycompositionstobeanalyzed,itisobviousthattheirviewswerelessfullyintellectualizedTheirthinkingoftenhadatraditionalsuperstitiousqualityAtailornamedJohnDane,whoemigratedinthelates,leftanaccountofhisreasonsforleavingEnglandthatisfilledwithsignsandportentsSexualconfusion,economicfrustrations,andreligioushopeallcametogetherinadecisivemomentwhenheopenedtheBible,toldhisfatherthatthefirstlinehesawwouldsettlehisfate,andreadthemagicalwords:"Comeoutfromamongthem,touchnouncleanthing,andIwillbeyourCodandyoushallbemypeople"OnewonderswhatDanethoughtofthecarefulsermonsexpoundingScripture(explainingtheBible)thatheheardinPuritanchurches(Meanwhile)ManysettlershadslighterreligiouscommitmentsthanDane's,asoneclergymanlearnedinconfrontingfolkalongthecoastwhojeered(mocked)thattheyhadnotcometotheNewWorldForreligion"Ourmainendwastocatchfish"以史为镜可以知兴衰。从下表中可以看出考研命题所选用的文章也开始与时俱进年考研选用的文章还都是年前的文章而年考试中最新的文章已经是年月日的了距离考试还不到个月。另外值得考生注意的是年考试中在考研考试中长盛不衰的经济学家杂志第一没有出现任何文章从到几乎每年都有篇文章选自经济学家杂志年的完型和阅读都有涉及而年一篇都没有可见命题组也注意到了这个问题。年来源出版时间第一篇探索频道网站文章第二篇经济学家年月第三篇科学美国人年月第四篇美国新闻及世界报道年月年来源出版时间第一篇纽约时报年月第二篇科学美国人年月第三篇麦肯锡季刊年月第四篇IntellectualLifeinAmerica:AHistory(专著)年出版考研文章是怎样炼成的:一般来说当文章选好后命题人要对原文进行以下几方面的改编:一、删去文章标题。文章标题概括文章的主题如果出现文章大意就未睹先知。为了测试对文章主题和其他内容的理解阅读理解原文的标题都要删去让考生根据文章的内容去总结和把握。二、删减细节信息。出于把文章字数控制在要求的范围内的考虑一些可有可无的细节、不影响文章总体结构的细节内容都要删除。三、替换超纲词汇。为了将超纲词汇控制在要求的范围内(全文的)也为了便于考生真正发挥阅读水平有些超纲词汇被替换。如在第一篇文章当中将超纲词汇mediocrity替换成了commonness在第二篇文章当中将超纲词汇algorithms替换成了programs在第三篇文章当中将超纲词汇apex替换成了peak在第四篇文章当中将超纲词汇aura替换成了atmosphere。四、合并拆分段落。为了使文章语言更加精炼结构更加严谨在删去部分内容后为使上下文连贯相邻段落被合并。为了使上下文更有层次有时也会将统一的段落拆分。经过四步改编之后的文章不仅没有破坏原文的结构和内容反而显得更加精炼:结构严谨层次清晰一篇成型的文章就完成了。给年参加考研的学生的几点建议:、打好基础从文章的改写情况和考试命题趋势来看考研对于大纲词汇要求还是很严格的所以在准备考试之初就要背好单词突破单词关。、选择较新的辅导材料和语言素材从最近几年的考试来看考研阅读理解部分的文章和考题的风格还

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  • nihao thank you

    2009-02-07 04:49:59

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2009年考研英语阅读超详细分析,2010年考研建议

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