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首页 [美]H·C·埃里克·米德福特著:驱魔与启蒙:约翰·约瑟夫·葛斯南与十八世纪德国的魔鬼(耶鲁大学…

[美]H·C·埃里克·米德福特著:驱魔与启蒙:约翰·约瑟夫·葛斯南与十八世纪德国的魔鬼(耶鲁大学 2

[美]H·C·埃里克·米德福特著:驱魔与启蒙:约翰·约瑟夫·葛…

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简介:本文档为《[美]H·C·埃里克·米德福特著:驱魔与启蒙:约翰·约瑟夫·葛斯南与十八世纪德国的魔鬼(耶鲁大学 2pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

theterrylecturesEXORCISMANDENLIGHTENMENTOTHERVOLUMESINTHETERRYLECTURESERIESAVAILABLEFROMYALEUNIVERSITYPRESSTheCouragetoBePaulTillichPsychoanalysisandReligionErichFrommBecomingGordonWAllportACommonFaithJohnDeweyEducationattheCrossroadsJacquesMaritainPsychologyandReligionCarlGJungFreudandPhilosophyPaulRicoeurFreudandtheProblemofGodHansKüngMasterControlGenesinDevelopmentandEvolutionWalterJGehringBeliefinGodinanAgeofScienceJohnPolkinghorneIsraelisandtheJewishTraditionDavidHartmanTheEmpiricalStanceBasCvanFraassenOneWorldPeterSingerHCERIKMIDELFORTExorcismandEnlightenmentJohannJosephGassnerandtheDemonsofEighteenthCenturyGermanyYALEUNIVERSITYPRESS≤NEWHAVENANDLONDONPublishedwithassistancefromtheLouisSternMemorialFundCopyright∫byYaleUniversityAllrightsreservedThisbookmaynotbereproduced,inwholeorinpart,includingillustrations,inanyform(beyondthatcopyingpermittedbySectionsandoftheUSCopyrightLawandexceptbyreviewersforthepublicpress),withoutwrittenpermissionfromthepublishersDesignedbyNancyOvedovitzandsetinJansonOStypebyKeystoneTypesetting,IncPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabySheridanBooksLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataMidelfort,HCErikExorcismandEnlightenment:JohannJosephGassnerandthedemonsofeighteenthcenturyGermanyHCErikMidelfortpcm(TheTerrylectures)Includesbibliographicalreferences(p)andindexisbn(cloth:alkpaper)GassnerJohannJoseph,–ExorcismGermanyHistorythcenturyFaithandreasonChristianityHistoryofdoctrinesthcenturyEnlightenmentGermanyITitleIISeriesbxmdcAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryThepaperinthisbookmeetstheguidelinesforpermanenceanddurabilityoftheCommitteeonProductionGuidelinesforBookLongevityoftheCouncilonLibraryResourcesThisbookisforAnneTHEDWIGHTHARRINGTONTERRYFOUNDATIONLECTURESONRELIGIONINTHELIGHTOFSCIENCEANDPHILOSOPHYThedeedofgiftdeclaresthat‘‘theobjectofthisfoundationisnotthepromotionofscientificinvestigationanddiscovery,butrathertheassimilationandinterpretationofthatwhichhasbeenorshallbehereafterdiscovered,anditsapplicationtohumanwelfare,especiallybythebuildingofthetruthsofscienceandphilosophyintothestructureofabroadenedandpurifiedreligionThefounderbelievesthatsuchareligionwillgreatlystimulateintelligenteffortfortheimprovementofhumanconditionsandtheadvancementoftheraceinstrengthandexcellenceofcharacterTothisenditisdesiredthataseriesoflecturesbegivenbymeneminentintheirrespectivedepartments,onethics,thehistoryofcivilizationandreligion,biblicalresearch,allsciencesandbranchesofknowledgewhichhaveanimportantbearingonthesubject,allthegreatlawsofnature,especiallyofevolutionalsosuchinterpretationsofliteratureandsociologyasareinaccordwiththespiritofthisfoundation,totheendthattheChristianspiritmaybenurturedinthefullestlightoftheworld’sknowledgeandthatmankindmaybehelpedtoattainitshighestpossiblewelfareandhappinessuponthisearth’’ThepresentworkconstitutesthelatestvolumepublishedonthisfoundationCONTENTSAcknowledgmentsxiIntroductionTheExperienceofDemonsANicheintheIncubator:EcclesiasticalPoliticsandtheEmpireHealingInterpretationConversationandRidiculeEpilogueNotesIndexxiACKNOWLEDGMENTSThisbookhaditsoriginintheDwightHTerryLecturesdeliveredatYaleUniversityduringthespringsemesterofbeforealivelyaudienceIshouldliketoexpressheremyprofoundgratitudeforhavingthechancetoliveoncemoreatYale,tousethemagnificentlibrarycollections,andtoenjoythecordialcollegialitythatgoeswithlivinginaresidentialcollegeTheTerryCommitteeservedasmyintroductiontoseveralofthecongenialcommunitiesofscholarswhopopulateYale,andIwouldliketothankspecificallycommitteemembersHarryAttridge,MichaelDellaRocca,LeoHickey,DaleMartin,BillSummers,andespeciallyDianneWitte,whomanagedthemanydetailsofmylectureshipwithgraceandefficiencyMysojournwouldalsohavebeenmuchthepoorerwithoutthehelpandconstantfriendshipofCarlosEire,whocommentedfrequentlyonmyevolvingthoughtsaboutJohannJosephGassnerandreassuredmethatconcentratingonsuchanapparentlyminorandlargelyforgottenfigurewouldproveproductiveIwouldbesadlyremiss,too,ifIdidnotacknowledgemydebttothedepartmentofhistoryatYaleforgrantingmeanofficeandadministrativesupportAtEzraStilesCollege,MasterTraugottLawlerandhiswifePeggywentoutoftheirwaytoincludemeinthelifeofthecollegeandprovidedmewithchancestoexplainmyselftocolleaguesTheyhelpedmakelifeformywife,Anne,andmemostpleasantThemostextraordinarysocialexperienceatYale,however,cameatthehandsofProfessorsNelsonDoneganofneuroscienceandHowardSternoftheGermandepartment,whotogetherhostedaFridayafternoon‘‘moderatelycheerful’’Stammtischthatsurpassedallexpectationsofaffability,learnedconversation,andfriendshipThisproject,however,begantenyearsagowiththefriendshipofscholarswhohelpedmefindmywayintotheforbiddingworldofthelateeighteenthcenturyWolfgangBehringerwasperhapsthefirsttoxiiACKNOWLEDGMENTSencouragemetotakeonGassner,andIonlyregretthatthisbookdoesnotsettleoreventrytosettlemanyoftheintriguingquestionsheposedasIbeganmyresearchElmarSchallert,thediocesanarchivistofFeldkirch,washelpfulandfriendlywhenIfirstturneduplookingforGassnerianaHegavemeperhapsmyfirstintroductiontothesurvivingmanuscriptremainsoftheexorcistandhelpedmetounderstandtheplaceandpurposeofGassner’sdiariesInNeuensteinIwasluckyenoughtohavethehelpofDrPeterSchiffer,whonotonlyknewwhatImightbelookingforbutwaswillingtophotocopymostofitInAugsburgIwasfortunatetofallinwithanotherremarkablebandofcongenialscholars,chiefofwhomwerethemembersoftheThursdayStammtischcomprisingscholarsandadministratorsofthelocalarchivesandlibrariesIshouldthankbynameHansJörgKünast,MarjorieElizabethPlummer,andGeorgFeuererAttheAugsburgStaatsundStadtbibliothek,IwasgraciouslyaidedbyWolfgangMayerandEckehartNowak,whoprovidedmemanycourtesiesWithouttheirhelp,mystudieswouldhavetakenmuchlongerandwouldsurelyhavebeenevenmoreincompletethantheyareThisisalsotheplacetothankKlausGrafforhistirelessworkfortheweblist‘‘Hexenforschung,’’throughwhichIhavediscoveredmanyresearchersinrelatedfieldsandcountlessbibliographicalleadsDrBurkhardPeterkindlyallowedmetoreadseveralpapersonGassnerandpsychotherapybeforetheywerepublished,andProfessorGerhardAmmererprovidedmewelcomeassistanceinlocatingarticleshehadpublishedinobscurelocationsHermannEhmerandMartinBrechtwerealsohelpfulonspecificpointsofdetailLibrariansatthestatelibrariesofBregenz,Feldkirch,Bamberg,Munich,andStuttgarthavealwaysbeenwillingtohelpmeonshortnoticeThenotesrecordmyspecificdebts,butIshouldalsoliketothankgenerallythefriendlyandhelpfularchivistsofstate,ecclesiastical,andlocalarchives,whodidsomuchtorecoverdiaries,letters,notes,reactions,andreportsconcerningGassner,aswellasthepostmorteminquestrecordinghisfewworldlypossessionsatthetimeofhisdeathTheserepositoriesincludethediocesanarchiveofFeldkirch,theprincelyarchiveofACKNOWLEDGMENTSxiiiHohenloheinNeuenstein,theepiscopalOrdinariatsarchivinRegensburg,theBavarianHauptstaatsarchivinMunich,andtheepiscopalarchiveofAugsburgNeartheendofmyresearches,IspentasemesteratOxfordUniversityenjoyingthehospitalityofWolfsonCollegeI’mdeeplygratefultothemanylibrariesofOxfordforprovidingaperfectenvironmentinwhichtoreadandwriteImustspecificallythankLyndalRoper,RobinBriggs,RobertEvans,andThomasBiskupfortheiradviceandassistanceVariousversionsofthechaptersofthisbookhavebeendeliveredaslecturesattheuniversitiesofOxford,Cambridge,andLondon,aswellasatTübingenUniversityandtheHistorischesKolleginMunichAtCambridgeIlearnedmuchinaveryshorttimefromSimonSchafferAttheInstituteofHistoricalResearchinLondonIgainedimmeasurablyfromDavidWoottonIamgratefultoalloftheseinstitutionsandtomyalertlisteners,fromwhomIhavelearnedmuchColleaguesattheUniversityofVirginia,moreover,havelonghadtolistentomegoonaboutanobscureeighteenthcenturyexorcistTheyhavedonemuchmorethantoleratethistediousbehavior,andIoweagreatdebttoAlonConfino,TedLendon,DuaneOsheim,andAnneJacobsonSchutteSophieRosenfeldsubjectedtheentiremanuscripttoalearnedandsearchingcritiquefromwhichIhavegratefullyprofitedTwoanonymousreadersforYaleUniversityPressalsomadeseveralshrewdcriticisms,towhichIhavetriedtorespondItwasalsoaproudmomentwhenmydaughterLucyreadpartofthemanuscriptandmadeusefulsuggestionsMostofall,IamgratefultoAnneMcKeithen,whohasrepeatedlyrearrangedherlifeandworkinordertohelpmeShehasaccompaniedmetostrangetownsinstrangelands,hascheeredmeupwhenIoccasionallyconcludedthatthisprojectwasgoingnowhere,andhasscrutinizedeverywordofthisbookmorethanonce,appraisingmyconclusionsandmyprosewithahumaneandcriticaleyeImighthavewrittenabookwithouther,butitwouldnothavebeensogood,andtheprocesswouldnothavebeensomuchfunThankyou,AnneINTRODUCTIONInDecemberofwonderswerereportedinthelittleFranconiantownofEllwangen,situatedinthebroad,pleasantvalleyoftheJagstRivernortheastofStuttgartThetownwastheproudseatoftheimperialprinceprovostofEllwangenandhishighnoblecanons,andarefugefortheembattledformermembersoftheJesuitOrderTwocenturiesearliersomeofGermany’sfiercestwitchcrafttrialshadtakenplaceinEllwangen,andnowthedevilseemedtobeontherampageagainBeneathhergraystonewalls,intheimposingcastleandinahouseexemptfromthejurisdictionofthebishopofAugsburg,ashort,balding,rotundCatholicpriestcreatedasensationbyexorcisingcountlessepileptics,thecrippled,andeventheblindOnthemorningofDecember,onesupplicantwasasturdyrusticwhosufferedfrom‘‘StVitus’dance,’’thestrangeailmentthatcauseditsafflictedtoleapandtwitchuncontrollablyWedonotknowwhatStVitus’danceactuallywas,andmostcaseshaddisappearedbythesixteenthcentury,butperhapstheconditionlingeredonintheregionaroundEllwangen,becausetheimposingRomanesquechurchofEllwangenwasdedicatedtoStVitusAnexcitedcrowdhadgatheredtowatchtheproceedings,includingnoblemenandvisitorsfromdistantMunichAstonishingly,thepriestdidnotimmediatelysummonforththedemonsafflictingthemaninstead,withsolemnimprecationshebadedemonstodotheirworstAthiscommandthedemonsrespondedThefarmerbegansuddenlydancingandsnappinghisfingersHehoppedroundtheroomthreetimes,makingsomeoftheassembledobserversgiggleAhostilewitnessdeclaredthathejiggedaboutasifhewereinatavernWhenthishadgoneonforatime,however,thepriestorderedthedemonstogivethepoormananattackofepilepsy(fallendeSucht)Suddenlythefellowcollapsedonthefloor,flailingandthrashing,hurlinghimselfaboutand‘‘bellowinglikeanox’’ThenwithoneLatinwordcesset,‘‘letitcease’’theINTRODUCTIONexorcistmadeitallstop∞OnlythendidthepriestproceedtoafullcanonicalexorcismOneskepticalwitnessfromMunichwasastonishedtoseethatthispieceofreligioustheaterwastakenseriouslybyalmostallofthoseassembledHelaughedatsuchanticsanddeclaredthattheywereflatlyincredible,buthecouldnotdenythatthepeasanthadactedasifpossessedbydemonsandthattheyseemedtohaverelaxedtheirgriponthemanassoonasthepriestorderedthemtodosoThispeasantwasnotanisolatedexampleSuchepisodeswererepeatedcountlesstimesindifferentplaces,andthereportsbybothcredulousandhostilewitnessesmultipliedassouthernGermanyexperiencedafullfledgedreligiousrevivalsurroundingthefigureofFatherJohannJosephGassner,anowlittlerememberedexorcistfromtheVorarlberginthemountainsoffarwesternAustriaHisstoryisfullofsurprises,notleastforthoseliketheincredulouswitnessinEllwangen,whorefusedtorecognizethatinthecontroversybetweenreligionandreasoninthelateeighteenthcenturymostofthebestempiricalevidencelayonthesideoftheexorcistsSlowly,slowlywearelearningthattheeighteenthcenturywasmorethananageofreasonReligiousthinkersandbelieversdidnotsimplyevaporateunderthebrilliantilluminationoftheselfanointedrepresentativesofEnlightenmentinsteadtheyoftensturdilyresistedthetrivializingvoicesofadvancedcriticismandcracklinganticlericalismItwouldalsobewrongtoassumethatreligiousthinkersmerelyjoinedinreactiontothe‘‘progressive’’forcesoftheage≤InthisbookwewillseethatthechiefscientificideasthatcompetedwiththereligiousnotionofdemonicpossessionwerehardlysecureThisisthereasonthestoryofJohannJosephGassner(–)cametofascinatemeIwasamazedtodiscoverthatheandhisenthusiasticsupportersoftenmarshaledevidenceandargumentsthatseemedatleastaspersuasiveasthoseoftheEnlightenmentDrFranzAntonMesmer(–),forexample,claimedthathehadsuccessfullyexplainedGassner’sexorcismsbyinvokinghisnewlydiscoveredforceof‘‘animalmagnetism,’’butwithinafewyearssuchexplanationslookedevenlesscrediblethanthosethatdependedupondemonsInINTRODUCTIONfivechaptersIwillexplore,first,thereasonswhypeopleofthelateeighteenthcenturycontinuedtousedemonsasatoolwithwhichtounderstandandexplaintheirexperiencesInsubsequentchaptersIwillconcentrateontheimperialpoliticsthatfirstguaranteedGassnerahearingandthenshuthimdown(chapter)thecuresthatGassnerachieved(chapter)thelearned(andsometimesnotsolearned)debateoverJesus’exorcisms(chapter)andtheremarkablecontestconcerningGassnerthatconvulsedalmostallofGermany,acontroversythathelpedtodefinethenatureofEnlighteneddebate(chapter)CriticsofGassneroftenclaimedthathisexorcismsachievedtheireffectsby‘‘sympathy’’orbysuggestion(orwhattheGermanscalledEinbildung)Wemayseeinthisinterpretationanearlydefinitionofthe‘‘placeboresponse,’’butunfortunatelythesecriticswereusuallyarguingbyunsubstantiatedassertionratherthanrelyingonanyevidenceIndeed,aswewillseeinthechapteronhealing,JohannJosephGassnerhadbushelbasketsofcarefuleyewitnesstestimonytotheeffectivenessofhishealingritualsInaccordwiththebestscientificstandardsofhisday,hissympatheticwitnessesincludednoblemenandsoberphysiciansEnlightenedbiblicalcommentatorstriedtoshowthatthestoriesofJesus’supposedlypowerfulexorcismshadbeenbadlymisunderstoodforcenturiesandrestedonnothingmorethanJewishsuperstitionandtheerrorsoftranslatorsButhere,too,closerscrutinyshowsthatthe‘‘neologist’’biblicalcriticswereusuallyassertingwhattheycouldnoteasilyprove,andinsodoingtheywereimputingtoScripturemeaningsthatwenowregardashopelesslyanachronisticHereagainthebackersoftraditionalreligiondidnotslinkawayinhelplessdisgrace(seechapter)AsJeffreyFreedmanhasrecentlypointedout,intheircontroversieswithreligiousconservatives,Enlightenedobserversoftenhadsuchheavyaxestogrind,suchaprioriassumptionsthatsupernaturaleventsweresimplyimpossible,thattheycouldnotseethattheirownprejudicesweregettinginthewayofamoresoberevaluationofwhatevidencetheyhad≥Indeed,onecouldconcludepolemicallythattheEnlightenedtheologiansweretryingtoperformINTRODUCTIONanexorcismoftheirown,tryingtobanishthedemonsofbaroqueculturebyrenamingthemassuperstitionandenthusiasm,thususingtheirownverbalritualsandgesturesofderisionSowhenwestudythebriefperiodofFatherGassner’scelebrityandhisfinaldefeat,wearenotlookingatasimplevictoryfortheEnlightenmentThepoliticalforcesthatultimatelycalledahalttoGassner’sexorcismswereatleastasupsetathisevidentsuccessandthepublictumulthewasprovokingastheywereincensedathisunauthorizedextensionofexorcismtothousandsofcasesthattheRomanChurchwouldnotatthattimehaveapproved(seechapter)EventhenoisydebatethateruptedaroundGassnerwasnotaclearcutvictoryfortheforcesofreasonoverthediehardpartisansof‘‘baroqueCatholicism’’ParticipantsintheNorthGermanEnlightenmentandtheirSouthGermanimitatorsoftenengagedinraucous,cruel,anddemeaningridiculeratherthaninthecalmerconversationofsweetreasonTheGassnercontroversy,therefore,polarizedwithoutpersuadingandestablishedasadlyfamiliarpatternforsuchargumentsthatwecanobserverightdowntoourownday(seechapter)InallthesewaysexorcismandthisspecificexorcistbroughtoutboththeworstandthebestfromtheEnlightenedopponentsoftraditionaldemonologyandCatholicritualInthestruggleoverGassnerandhiscureswecangettoknowsomeofthewrinkledcontoursoflateeighteenthcenturyGermanpoliticsandcultureIntheprocessIthinkwecanalsoglimpsetheoriginsofproblemsthathavenotgoneawayItseemsremarkablethataneighteenthcenturyCatholicexorcistshouldbecomethecenterofreligiousattentionthroughoutmuchofsouthernGermanySuchexcitementsdonotsitcomfortablywithourschoolbookversionoftheageAndyetthousandsofdesperatepeople,theblind,thehalt,andthelame,madetheirwaytovisitFatherGassner,hopingthathewouldhealthemoftheirinfirmitiesbycastingoutdemonsCountlessobserverscamejusttogawkManyothersfoundinFatherGassnerwelcomeproofthattraditionalreligionstillhadsomefightleftinitForus,accustomedtothinkofthesasthedecadeoftheAmericanRevolutionandtheflourishingofatransINTRODUCTIONEuropeanEnlightenment,thecelebrityofaGermanCatholicexorcistseemsdistinctlyoddWasthisnottheageof‘‘thelawsofnatureandofnature’sGod’’WasthisnotthedecadewhenFrench,German,andBritishphilosophersreachedthepeakoftheirinfluence,anapogeemarkedbythepublicationofthelastvolumesofDiderotandd’Alembert’sEncyclopédie,bythepublicationofJosephPriestley’sdiscover

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[美]H·C·埃里克·米德福特著:驱魔与启蒙:约翰·约瑟夫·葛斯南与十八世纪德国的魔鬼(耶鲁大学 2

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