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首页 [美]塞缪尔·亨廷顿&彼得·柏格:多样全球化:当今世界的文化差异(牛津 2002)

[美]塞缪尔·亨廷顿&彼得·柏格:多样全球化:当今世界的文化差异(牛津 2002)

[美]塞缪尔·亨廷顿&彼得·柏格:多样全球化:当今世界的文化差…

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2008-12-28 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[美]塞缪尔·亨廷顿&彼得·柏格:多样全球化:当今世界的文化差异(牛津 2002)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ManyGlobalizations:CulturalDiversityintheContemporaryWorldPeterLBergerSamuelPHuntington,EditorsOXFORDUNIVERSITYPRESSManyGlobalizationsThispageintentionallyleftblankManyGlobalizations•PeterLBergerandSamuelPHuntingtonOxfordNewYorkAucklandBangkokBuenosAiresCapeTownChennaiDaresSalaamDelhiHongKongIstanbulKarachiKolkataKualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityMumbaiNairobiSãoPauloShanghaiSingaporeTaipeiTokyoTorontoandanassociatedcompanyinBerlinCopyright©byPeterLBergerandSamuelPHuntingtonPublishedbyOxfordUniversityPress,IncMadisonAvenue,NewYork,NewYorkOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorpermissionofOxfordUniversityPressLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataManyglobalizations:culturaldiversityinthecontemporaryworldTamotsuAokietaleditedbyPeterLBergerandSamuelPHuntingtonpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBNCultureGlobalizationIAoki,TamotsuIIBerger,PeterLIIIHuntington,SamuelPHMMdcPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaonacidfreepaperContents•ListofIllustrationsviiAcknowledgmentsixIntroductionPeterLBergerPartOneGlobalizationandAlternativeModernitiesManagedGlobalizationYunxiangYanCoexistenceandSynthesisHsinHuangMichaelHsiaoAspectsofGlobalizationinContemporaryJapanTamotsuAoki“ATrystwithDestiny”TulasiSrinivasvviPartTwoGlobalizationandRegionalSubglobalizationCulturalGlobalizationinGermanyHansfriedKellnerandHansGeorgSoeffnerRivalTemptationsandPassiveResistanceJánosMátyásKovácsPartThreeGlobalizationonthePeripheryGlobalization,Culture,andDevelopmentAnnBernsteinTrendstowardGlobalizationinChileArturoFontaineTalaveraCulturalGlobalizationinTurkey,,ErgunÖzbudunandEFuatKeymanPartFourTheAmericanVortexIntheVanguardofGlobalizationJamesDavisonHunterandJoshuaYatesIndexIllustrations•FigureCallforYouontheMobileFigureSouthAfrica’sCoatofArmsFigureCartoonLampooningSouthAfrica’sCoatofArmsTableAvailabilityofDurableGoodsinChile(byProportionofHomes)TableTrustinSocietyFigureImportsofUsedClothingandEquivalentNewClothingFigureBeliefinReligiousMiracles:PercentageAnswering“Definitely”Or“ProbablyYes”FigureAbortionIfFamilyIsPoor:PercentageAnswering“AlwaysIncorrect”and“AlmostAlwaysIncorrect”FigureFamilySuffersIfWifeWorks:PercentageAnswering“Agree”or“StronglyAgree”viiThispageintentionallyleftblankAcknowledgments•ThisbookistheprincipalproductofthethreeyearstudyonglobalizationandcultureintencountriesconductedundertheauspicesoftheInstitutefortheStudyofEconomicCulture(ISEC)atBostonUniversityThestudywascodirectedbytheeditors,PeterLBerger(sociologist,directorofISEC)andSamuelPHuntington(politicalscientist,AlfredJWeatherheadIIIUniversityProfessor,HarvardUniversity)AnumberofadditionalmonographsandarticlesarebeingpreparedbyseveralofthecountryresearchersThePewCharitableTrustsprovidedmajorfundingforthestudyTheTaiwanresearchwasfundedbytheHimalayaFoundation,TaipeiTheJapanresearchwasfundedbytheNipponFoundationandtheSuntoryFoundationTheadministrationofthestudyatISECwasmadepossiblebytheongoingsupportofBostonUniversityandtheLyndeandHarryBradleyFoundationSpecialthanksgotoLuisLugoofthePewCharitableTrusts,notonlyforthefinancialsupportofhisfoundationbutforhispersonalinterestandencouragementAnoccasionforgreatsorrowwasthedeathofSeizaburoSato(politicalscientist,InstituteofInternationalPolicyStudies,Tokyo),whobegantheresearchinJapanHewasbothanesteemedcolleagueandapersonalfriendoftheeditorsUponhisdeaththeJapanresearchwastakenoverbyTamotsuAokiAsthefollowinglistshows,thecountryresearcherswhocontributedtothisvolumerepresentedarangeofacademicdisciplines:ixxTamotsuAoki,anthropologist,GraduateInstituteofInternationalPolicyStudies,TokyoAnnBernstein,policyanalyst,CentreforDevelopmentandEnterprise,JohannesburgArturoFontaineTalavera,politicalscientist,CentrodeEstudiosPublicos,SantiagoHsinHuangMichaelHsiao,sociologist,AcademiaSinica,TaipeiJamesHunter,sociologist,UniversityofVirginiaHansfriedKellner,sociologist,UniversityofFrankfurtEFuatKeyman,politicalscientist,BilkentUniversity,AnkaraJánosMátyásKovács,economist,InstituteofHumanSciences,Vienna,andEötvösLorandUniversity,BudapestErgunÖzbudun,politicalscientist,BilkentUniversity,AnkaraHansGeorgSoeffner,sociologist,UniversityofKonstanzTulasiSrinivas,anthropologist,presentlyatISEC,duringtheresearchaffiliatedwiththeNationalInstituteofAdvancedStudies,BangaloreYunxiangYan,anthropologist,UniversityofCalifornia,LosAngelesJoshuaYates,sociologist,UniversityofVirginiaDuringtheperiodoftheresearchamonthlyseminaronthetopicofculturalglobalizationwasconductedattheHarvardAcademyforInternationalandAreaStudiesunderthedirectionofSamuelHuntingtonThediscussionsatthisseminarwerehelpfulinsharpeningthefocusoftheresearchThecontributionsofDonPosnerandTimSnydershouldbeparticularlymentionedColleaguesatISECcontributedideasandcriticismsthroughoutthesameperiod,bothinformallyandatthebiweeklyISECcolloquiumThanksarespecificallyduetoMarilynHalter,RobertHefner,MarianoPlotkin,AdamSeligman,andRobertWellerThanksarealsoduetheRockefellerFoundationformakingavailableitsBellagioCenterforoneoftheteammeetingsFinally,specialthanksareduetoLaurelWhelanandAmySimmons,oftheadministrativestaffatISEC,andtoDonaldHalsteadforaskillfuljobofcopyeditingthisvolumeThethreeyearsofthestudyprovidedarichexperienceforallconcerned,bothintermsofintellectualstimulationandagreeablepersonalinteractionItisagreatpleasuretowelcomethisbookasthemosttangibleresultoftheirjointendeavor•IntroductionPeterLBergerThepurposeofthisintroductionisnottosummarizetherichanddiversecontentsofthisbook,buttopresentapictureoftheculturaldynamicsofglobalizationasseemsplausibletomeatthispointMostofthedatamakingthispicturepossiblehascomefromtheresearchprojectonwhichthebookisbasedhowever,giventhefactthatthechaptersonthevariouscountriesstudiedintheprojectareherewithinthesamecovers,IhaverefrainedfromtediouscrossreferencestothesechaptersAsomewhatcynicalcolleagueonceremarkedthatthegoalofeveryscholarlyenterpriseistoblowsomeone’stheoryoutofthewaterInthisinstancethatsomeonewasmeWhileitwouldbeawildexaggerationtosaythatIhadatheoryofculturalglobalization,Ididhaveapictureofit,andIsucceeded,moreorless,inconvincingSamuelHuntington,thecodirectoroftheproject,andtheinternationalresearchteamtoacceptmypictureasastartingpointfortheinvestigation(or,ifyouwanttobeproperlywissenschaftlich,asasetofhypotheses)Notsurprisingly,overthemorethantwoyearsoftheproject,mostofthemkepthackingawayatthispictureand,attheendoftheday,IhadtoagreewithmostofthecriticismsInmyownmind,atanyrate,thebasicfeaturesoftheoriginalpicturehaveremainedunscathed,butithasalsobecomeconsiderablymorecomplicatedAsIoftentellmystudents,oneofthepleasuresofbeingasocialscientist(asopposedto,say,aphilosopherortheologian)isthatyoucanhaveasmuchfunwhenyouareprovenwrongaswhenyouareprovenrightTheinitialpicturethattheprojecthadwasaToynbeelikeoneofchallengeandresponseThechallengeissupposedtocomefromanemergingglobalculture,mostofitofWesternandindeedAmericanprovenance,penetratingtherestoftheworldonbotheliteandpopularlevelsTheresponsefromthetargetsocietiesisthenseenasoccurringonascalebetweenacceptanceandrejection,withinbetweenpositionsofcoexistenceandsynthesisIthinkthatthispicturestillholdsuphowever,onemustaddtoitamuchmorevariegatedsetofreactionsbythetargetsocieties,includingthoseinitiatedbygovernmentsIwillmakesomefurtherpreliminaryobservationsbeforeIbegintodescribethismorecomplicatedpictureTheterm“globalization”hascometobeemotionallychargedinpublicdiscourseForsome,itimpliesthepromiseofaninternationalcivilsociety,conducivetoaneweraofpeaceanddemocratizationForothers,itimpliesthethreatofanAmericaneconomicandpoliticalhegemony,withitsculturalconsequencebeingahomogenizedworldresemblingasortofmetastasizedDisneyland(charminglycalleda“culturalChernobyl”byaFrenchgovernmentofficial)Itiscleartomethatboththepromiseandthethreathavebeengreatlyexaggerated,andthisinsightowesmuchtothecomplicatedpicturecomingoutofourresearchFurthermore,therecanbenodoubtthattheeconomicandtechnologicaltransformationsthatdrivethephenomenonofglobalizationhavecreatedlargesocialandpoliticalproblemssuchasthebifurcationbetweenwinnersandlosers,bothbetweenandwithinsocieties,andthechallengetotraditionalnotionsofnationalsovereigntyTheseproblemscannotbedealtwithhere,thoughofcoursetheymustbetakenintoaccountasaneverpresentbackgroundThepresenttopicistheculturaldimensionofthephenomenon,and“culture”isunderstoodhereinitsconventionalsocialscientificsense:asthebeliefs,values,andlifestylesofordinarypeopleintheireverydayexistenceWhateveryoneassumesisnotalwayswrongThereisindeedanemergingglobalculture,anditisindeedheavilyAmericaninoriginandcontentItisnottheonlygameintown,asIshalltrytomakeclear,butitisthebiggestgamegoinganditwilllikelystaythatwayfortheforeseeablefutureTheChileanhistorianClaudioVelizhascalleditthe“HellenisticphaseofAngloAmericancivilization,”aphrasethatismeanttodissociateitfromexplanationsintermsofimperialismThethenrelevantworldbecameGreekatatimewhenGreecehadvirtuallynoimperialpowertoday,thoughtheUnitedStatesdoeshaveagreatdealofpower,itscultureisnotbeingimposedonothersbycoercivemeansThenasnow,languageisacrucialfactorinthisculturaldiffusionTheprincipalvehicleofHellenismwasKoine,thebasicandrathervulgarGreekinwhich,notsoincidentally,theNewTestamentwaswrittenToday,theEnglishlanguage,initsAmericanratherthanBritishform,isthekoineoftheemergingglobalcultureRegardlessofthefutureofAmericanimperialpower,norivalisonthehorizonThemillionsofpeopleallovertheworldwhoincreasinglyuseEnglishastheirlinguafrancadosomainlyforpracticalreasonsYoungChinesewhoimportunetouriststoletthempracticetheirEnglishdosobecausetheywanttogetontheInternetandimprovetheirjobprospects,nottoreadShakespeareorFaulknerButpeopledonotuselanguageinnocentlyEverylanguagecarrieswithitaculturalfreightofcognitive,normative,andevenemotionalconnotationsSodoestheAmericanlanguage,evenapartfromthebeliefsandvaluespropagatedthroughtheAmericanmasscommunicationmediaJustthinkofseeminglyinnocuoustermslike“religiouspreference”or“sexualorientation,”orphraseslike“Icannotexpressmyselfinthisjob,”“Ineedmorespaceinthisrelationship,”or“Youhavetherighttoyouropinion”TheemergingglobalcultureisdiffusedthroughbotheliteandpopularvehiclesArguablythemostimportantelitevehicleiswhatSamuelHuntingtonhasfelicitouslycalledthe“Davosculture”(aftertheannualWorldEconomicSummitmeetinginthatSwissmountainresort),aninternationalcultureofbusinessandpoliticalleadersItsbasicengineisinternationalbusiness,thesameenginethatdriveseconomicandtechnologicalglobalizationButitwouldbemisleadingtothinkofthiscultureonlyintermsofthosefewlikelytobeinvitedtoDavostherearemillionswhowouldliketobeinvitedandwhoengageinwhatsociologistshavenicelycalled“anticipatorysocialization”Thereis,forinstance,aglobalnetworkofambitiousyoungpeopleinbusinessandtheprofessionswhohavepoppedupineverycountrystudiedinourproject:asortofyuppieinternationale,whosemembersspeakfluentEnglishanddressalikeandactalike,atworkandatplay,anduptoapointthinkalikeandhopethatonedaytheymightreachtheelitesummitsHowever,onemustbecarefulaboutassumingthatthisapparenthomogeneityembracestheirentireexistenceItclearlydoesforsomeofthemforbetterorforworse,theyarecosmopolitansallthewayButothersmanageanartofcreativecompartmentalization,seekingtocombineparticipationintheglobalbusinessculturewithpersonallivesdominatedbyverydifferentculturalthemesItwillalwaysbeanempiricalquestionwhichofthesetwooptionsoneascribestoaparticulargroupAcomparisonbetweeneasternGermanyandIndiaisinterestinginthisregardAfterunification,ahordeofbusinessconsultantsdescendedontheformerGermanDemocraticRepublic,teachingandadvisingonhowtobehaveintheneweconomyessentially,howtobecomeWessiesTherehasbeenagooddealofsullenresistancetothis(includingthesocalledOssienostalgia),buttheculturalresourcestomaintainorconstructalternativepersonallifestyleshavebeenverymeagerBycontrast,despiteamultitudeofbusinessschoolsandtrainingcoursestoteachIndianshowtobehaveasparticipantsintheglobaleconomy,manyofthecomputerprofessionalsinBangaloresucceedincombiningsuchparticipationwithpersonallifestylesdominatedbytraditionalHinduvaluesThereisanotherelitesectoroftheemergingglobalculture,sometimesmergingwiththebusinessculture,sometimesintensionwithitThatistheglobalizationoftheWesternintelligentsiaIhavecalledit,notsofelicitously,the“facultyclubculture”Itiscarriedbyavarietyofvehicles:academicnetworks,foundations,nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),somegovernmentalandintergovernmentalagenciesIttooseeksandactivelycreatesmarketsthroughouttheworld,buttheproductsitpromotesarenotthoseofmultinationalcorporationsbuttheideasandbehaviorsinventedbyWestern(mostlyAmerican)intellectuals,suchastheideologiesofhumanrights,feminism,environmentalism,andmulticulturalism,aswellasthepoliticsandlifestylesthatembodytheseideologiesJustaswouldbeEastGermanandIndianparticipantsintheelitebusinessculturemustlearntheappropriatebehaviorandacceptableopinionsofthisculture,so,mutatismutandis,mustthosewhowanttobesuccessfulintheeliteintellectualcultureInaddition,sincethelattercultureisbydefinitionmuchmoreideologicalthanthepragmaticbusinessworld,thepriceofadmissiontofacultyclubcultureishigherintermsofitsimpingementonpersonallifePutsimply,asuccessfulbusinessmaninEasternEuropemayactlikeanAmericanintheboardroombutgohomeand,inthebestindigenoustradition,beathiswifeandorderthechildrenaboutTheEasternEuropeanintellectualwhowantstohaveagoodrelationshipwiththeFordFoundation,however,willhavetobemorecarefulifhewantstokeepacomparablecompartmentalizationgoingThetwoculturesofteninterpenetrateThuscorporationshirelonghairedacademicstoteachinterculturalorgender“sensitivity”totheiremployees(inthepossiblymistakenbeliefthatthiswillenhanceproductivity)ontheotherhand,humanrightsandenvironmentalistactivistsattackcorporationsforthisorthatallegedmisbehaviorThetwoculturesthenfindthemselvesinconflictWhatmaybebroadlycalledthe“healthideology,”whichhasitsoriginsintheAmericanintellectualclass,hasspreadbeyondittoaffectmuchwidermassesofpeopleintheirvaluesandbehaviorandhasledtoglobalpoliticalactivismThebusinessculturehasabsorbedmuchofthisbyinstituting“wellness”programsandencouraging“fitness”Attimes,though,therehasbeenconflict,asintheassaultoftheantismokingmovementonthetobaccoindustryThestoryoftheantismokinglegislationinSouthAfricaisinstructiveinthisregardWiththedemiseoftheapartheidregimeagovernmentcameintopowerthatwasdominatedbypeoplewithalongandpositiverelationshipwithWesternNGOsTheantismokinglegislation(proudlyannouncedasthemoststringentanywhereintheworld)wasthedirectresultabizarreoneinacountryonthevergeofacatastrophicAIDSepidemicThisactionwasclearlynottheresultofapragmaticassessmentofthecountry’smostpressinghealthneeds,butoftheinfluenceoftheWesterndominatedfacultyclubcultureItisintriguingtolookatthetwoeliteculturesinthelightoftheoldneoMarxistdependencytheoryTheDavosandthefacultyclubcultureshavetheir“metropolitan”centers,witha“periphery”dependentonthemButthecentersoftheformerculturearenolongerexclusivelyWesternTherearealsopowerfulcentersinTokyo,HongKong,andSingapore,withShanghaiandBombayaspotentialadditionsThe“metropolis”oftheglobalizedintelligentsiaismuchmoreexclusivelyWestern,indeedAmericanThus,whentheterm“culturalimperialism”isused,itisprobablymoreapplicabletoEastrdStreet,wheretheimpressiveheadquartersoftheFordFoundationarelocated,thantothecorporatebastionsofWallStreetandMadisonAvenueImightaddthatthisisadescriptivestatement,notnecessarilyavaluejudgmentOnemaydeploreorwelcometheinfluencesemanatingfromanyoftheseManhattanaddressesBethisasitmay,thepreponderantpositionoftheUnitedStatesinbothelitesisnotopentodoubtItfollowsthatthemostimportant“globalizers

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