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首页 History of the English People, Volume VI

History of the English People, Volume VI

History of the English People, …

惜花
2008-12-22 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《History of the English People, Volume VIpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

CHAPTERIXCHAPTERXCHAPTERXICHAPTERXIICHAPTERICHAPTERIICHAPTERIXCHAPTERXCHAPTERXICHAPTERXIICHAPTERICHAPTERIIHistoryoftheEnglishPeople,VolumeVI(ofbyJohnRichardGreenTheProjectGutenbergeBook,HistoryoftheEnglishPeople,VolumeVI(of),byJohnRichardGreenThiseBookisfortheuseofanyoneanywhereatnocostandwithalmostnorestrictionswhatsoeverYoumaycopyit,giveitawayorreuseitunderthetermsoftheProjectGutenbergLicenseincludedwiththiseBookoronlineatwwwgutenbergorgTitle:HistoryoftheEnglishPeople,VolumeVI(of)PuritanEngland,TheRevolution,Author:JohnRichardGreenHistoryoftheEnglishPeople,VolumeVI(ofbyJohnRichardGreenReleaseDate:January,eBook#Mostrecentlyupdated:May,Language:EnglishCharactersetencoding:ISO***STARTOFTHEPROJECTGUTENBERGEBOOKHISTORYOFTHEENGLISHPEOPLE,VOLUMEVI(OF)***EtextpreparedbyPaulMurray,LisaReigel,andtheProjectGutenbergOnlineDistributedProofreadingTeam(http:wwwpgdpnet)Note:ProjectGutenbergalsohasanHTMLversionofthisfilewhichincludestheoriginalmapsandlinkstoimagesoftheoriginalpagesSeehhtmorhzip:(http:wwwgutenbergnetdirshhhtm)or(http:wwwgutenbergnetdirshzip)Transcriber'snote:TextinitalicsintheoriginalissurroundedbyunderscoresTheindexfortheentirevolumesetofHistoryoftheEnglishPeoplewaslocatedattheendofVolumeVIIIForeaseinaccessibility,ithasbeenremovedandproducedasaseparatevolume(http:wwwgutenbergorgetext)Anadditionaltranscriber'snotewillbefoundattheendofthetextHISTORYOFTHEENGLISHPEOPLEbyJOHNRICHARDGREEN,MAHonoraryFellowofJesusCollege,OxfordVOLUMEVIPURITANENGLAND,THEREVOLUTION,LondonMacMillanandCo,LtdNewYork:MacMillanCoAllrightsreservedFirstEditionReprinted,,EversleyEdition,CONTENTSBOOKVIIPURITANENGLANDPAGEHistoryoftheEnglishPeople,VolumeVI(ofbyJohnRichardGreenCHAPTERIXTHECIVILWARCHAPTERIXCHAPTERXTHEARMYANDTHEPARLIAMENTCHAPTERXCHAPTERXITHECOMMONWEALTHCHAPTERXICHAPTERXIITHEPROTECTORATEBOOKVIIITHEREVOLUTIONCHAPTERXIICHAPTERITHERESTORATIONCHAPTERICHAPTERIITHEPOPISHPLOTMAPSIMAPOFMARSTONMOORvii:Pages,IIMAPOFNASEBYFIGHTvii:TofacepageIIIMAPOFEUROPE,WITHFRANCEASITWASUNDERLEWISXIVTofacepageFOOTNOTES:vii:BypermissionofMrMarkhamCHAPTERIICHAPTERIXTHECIVILWARSidenote:EdgehillThebreakingoffofnegotiationswasfollowedonbothsidesbypreparationsforimmediatewarHampden,Pym,andHollesbecametheguidingspiritsofaCommitteeofPublicSafetywhichwascreatedbyParliamentasitsadministrativeorganOnthetwelfthofJulytheHousesorderedthatanarmyshouldberaised"forthedefenceofthekingandtheParliament,"andappointedtheEarlofEssexasitscaptaingeneralandtheEarlofBedfordasitsgeneralofhorseTheforcesoonrosetotwentythousandfootandfourthousandhorseandEnglishandScotchofficersweredrawnfromtheLowCountriesTheconfidenceontheParliamentarysidewasgreat"Weallthoughtonebattlewoulddecide,"Baxterconfessedafterthefirstencounterforthekingwasalmostdestituteofmoneyandarms,andinspiteofhisstrenuouseffortstoraiserecruitshewasembarrassedbythereluctanceofhisownadherentstobeginthestruggleResolvedhowevertoforceonacontest,heraisedtheRoyalStandardatNottingham"ontheeveningofaverystormyandtempestuousday,"thetwentysecondofAugust,butthecountrymadenoanswertohisappealMeanwhileLordEssex,whohadquittedLondonamidsttheshoutsofagreatmultitudewithordersfromtheParliamenttofollowtheking,"andbybattleorotherwayrescuehimfromhisperfidiouscouncillorsandrestorehimtoParliament,"wasmusteringhisarmyatNorthamptonCharleshadbutahandfulofmen,andthedashofafewregimentsofhorsewouldhaveendedthewarbutEssexshrankfromadecisivestroke,andtrustedtoreducethekingpeacefullytosubmissionbyashowofforceButwhileEssexlingeredCharlesfellbackatthecloseofSeptemberonShrewsbury,andthewholefaceofaffairssuddenlychangedCatholicsandRoyalistsralliedfasttohisstandard,andtheroyalforcebecamestrongenoughtotakethefieldWithhisusualboldnessCharlesresolvedtomarchatonceonthecapitalandforcetheParliamenttosubmitbydintofarmsButthenewsofhismarchrousedEssexfromhisinactivityHehadadvancedtoWorcestertowatchtheking'sproceedingsandhenowhastenedtoprotectLondonOnthetwentythirdofOctoberthetwoarmiesfellinwithoneanotheronthefieldofEdgehill,nearBanburyTheencounterwasasurprise,andthebattlewhichfollowedwaslittlemorethanaconfusedcombatofhorseAtitsoutsetthedesertionofSirFaithfulFortescuewithawholeregimentthrewtheParliamentaryforcesintodisorder,whiletheRoyalisthorseoneitherwingdrovetheiropponentsfromthefieldbutthereserveofLordEssexbrokethefoot,whichformedthecentreoftheking'sline,andthoughhisnephew,PrinceRupert,broughtbackhissquadronsintimetosaveCharlesfromcaptureorflight,thenightfellonadrawnbattleSidenote:CharlesatOxfordThemoraladvantagehoweverrestedwiththekingEssexhadlearnedthathistrooperswerenomatchfortheCavaliers,andhiswithdrawaltoWarwickleftopentheroadtothecapitalRupertpressedforaninstantmarchonLondon,wheretheapproachoftheking'sforceshadrousedutterpanicButtheproposalfoundstubbornopponentsamongthemoderateRoyalists,whodreadedthecompletetriumphofCharlesasmuchashisdefeatandtheirpressureforcedthekingtopauseforatimeatOxford,wherehewasreceivedwithuproariouswelcomeWhenthecowardiceofitsgarrisondeliveredReadingtoRupert'shorse,andhisdaringcaptureofBrentfordinNovemberdrewtheroyalarmyinhissupportalmosttothewallsofthecapital,thepanicoftheLondonerswasalreadyover,andthejunctionoftheirtrainbandswiththearmyofEssexforcedCharlestofallbackagainonhisoldquartersButthoughtheParliamentralliedquicklyfromtheblowofEdgehill,thewar,asitsareawidenedthroughthewinter,wentsteadilyforthekingThefortificationofOxfordgavehimafirmholdonthemidlandcountieswhilethebalanceofthetwopartiesintheNorthwasoverthrownbythemarchoftheEarlofNewcastle,withaforcehehadraisedinNorthumberland,uponYorkLordFairfax,theParliamentaryleaderinthatcounty,wasthrownbackbyNewcastle'sattackonthemanufacturingtownsoftheWestRiding,wherePuritanismfounditsstrongholdandthearrivalofthequeenCHAPTERIXinFebruarywitharmsfromHollandencouragedtheroyalarmytopushitsscoutsacrosstheTrent,andthreatentheeasterncounties,whichheldfirmlyfortheParliamentThestressofthewarwasshownbythevigorouseffortsoftheHousesSomenegotiationswhichhadgoneonintothespringwerebrokenoffbytheolddemandthatthekingshouldreturntohisParliamentLondonwasfortifiedandataxoftwomillionsayearwaslaidonthedistrictswhichadheredtotheParliamentarycauseSidenote:TheCornishrisingInthespringofLordEssex,whosearmyhadbeenfreshlyequipped,wasorderedtoadvanceuponOxfordButthoughthekingheldhimselfreadytofallbackontheWest,theEarlshrankfromagainriskinghisrawarmyinanencounterHeconfinedhimselftotherecaptureofReading,andtoamonthofidleencampmentroundBrillButwhilediseasethinnedhisranksandtheRoyalistsbeatuphisquartersthewarwentmoreandmoreforthekingTheinactionofEssexenabledCharlestosendapartofhissmallforceatOxfordtostrengthenaRoyalistrisingintheWestNowherewastheroyalcausetotakesobraveornobleaformasamongtheCornishmenCornwallstoodapartfromthegenerallifeofEngland:cutofffromitnotonlybydifferencesofbloodandspeech,butbythefeudaltendenciesofitspeople,whoclungwithaCelticloyaltytotheirlocalchieftains,andsufferedtheirfidelitytotheCrowntodeterminetheirownTheyhadasyetdonelittlemorethankeepthewaroutoftheirowncountybutthemarchofasmallParliamentaryforceunderLordStamforduponLauncestonforcedthemintoactionInMayalittlebandofCornishmengatheredroundthechivalrousSirBevilGreenvil,"sodestituteofprovisionsthatthebestofficershadbutabiscuitaday,"andwithonlyahandfulofpowderforthewholeforcebut,starvingandoutnumberedastheywere,theyscaledthesteepriseofStrattonHill,swordinhand,anddroveStamfordbackonExeterwithalossoftwothousandmen,hisordnanceandbaggagetrainSirRalphHopton,thebestoftheRoyalistgenerals,tookthecommandoftheirarmyasitadvancedintoSomerset,anddrewthestressofthewarintotheWestEssexdespatchedapickedforceunderSirWilliamWallertochecktheiradvancebutSomersetwasalreadylosterehereachedBath,andtheCornishmenstormedhisstrongpositiononLansdowneHillintheteethofhisgunsThestubbornfightrobbedthevictorsoftheirleadersHoptonwaswounded,Greenvilslain,andwiththemfellthetwoheroesofthelittlearmy,SirNicholasSlanningandSirJohnTrevanion,"bothyoung,neitherofthemaboveeightandtwenty,ofentirefriendshiptooneanother,andtoSirBevilGreenvil"Wallertoo,beatenashewas,hungontheirweakenedforceasitmovedforaiduponOxford,andsucceededincoopingupthefootinDevizesButinJulythehorsebrokethroughhislinesandjoiningaforcewhichCharleshadsenttotheirrelief,turnedback,anddashedWaller'sarmytopiecesinafreshvictoryonRoundwayDownSidenote:HampdenandtheWarTheCornishrisingseemedtodecidethefortuneofthewarandthesuccourswhichhisqueenwasbringinghimfromthearmyoftheNorthdeterminedCharlestomakeafreshadvanceuponLondonHewaspreparingforthisadvance,whenRupertsalliedfromOxfordtobeatupthequartersofthearmyunderEssex,whichstillremainedencampedaboutThameForemostamongthisParliamentaryforcewerethe"Greencoats"ofJohnHampdenFromthefirstoutbreakofwarfareHampdenhadshownthesameenergyinthefieldthathehadshownintheParliamentHehadcontributedtwothousandpoundstotheloanraisedbytheHousesfortheequipmentofanarmyHehadraisedaregimentfromamonghisowntenantry,withtheparsonofGreatHampdenfortheirchaplainThemenworehisliveryofgreen,asthoseofHollesorBrookeorMandevilleworetheirleaders'liveriesofred,andpurple,andbluetheonlysignoftheircommonsoldiershipbeingtheorangescarf,thecolourofLordEssex,whichallworeovertheiruniformFromthefirstthe"Greencoats"hadbeenforemostinthefrayWhileEssexlayidlywatchingthegatheringofanarmyroundtheking,HampdenwasalreadyengagedwiththeroyaloutpostsItwasthecomingupofhismenthatturnedthedayatEdgehillandthatagainsavedLordBrookefromdestructionintherepulseoftheroyalforcesatBrentfordItwasHampden'sactivitythatsavedReadingfromasecondcaptureDuringthegloomywinter,whenthefortunesoftheHousesseemedattheirworst,hisenergyredoubledHispresencewasasnecessaryintheParliamentasinthefieldandhewascontinuallyontheroadbetweenLondonandWestminsterItwasduringthesebusyCHAPTERIXmonthsthathebroughtintopracticalshapealeaguewhichwasdestinedtobethemainstayoftheParliamentaryforceNowherewasthePuritanfeelingsostrongasinthecountiesaboutLondon,inhisownBuckinghamshire,inHertfordshire,Bedfordshire,andthemoreeasterlycountiesofHuntingdon,Cambridge,andNorthamptonHampden'sinfluenceaswellasthatofhiscousin,OliverCromwell,whowasalreadyactiveinthewar,wasbenttobindtheseshirestogetherinanassociationfortheaidoftheParliament,withacommonforce,acommonfundforitssupport,andLordManchesterforitsheadTheassociationwasatlastbroughtaboutandHampdenturnedhisenergiestoreinforcingthearmyofEssexSidenote:Rupert'sraidThearmywasstrengthenedbutnoeffortscouldspuritsleaderintoactivityEssexhadlearnedhistradeintheThirtyYearsWarandlikemostprofessionalsoldiersheundervaluedtheworthofuntrainedleviesAsagreatnoble,too,heshrankfromactivehostilitiesagainstthekingHebelievedthatinthelongrunthewantofmoneyandofmenwouldforceCharlestolaydownhisarms,andtocometoapeacefulunderstandingwiththeParliamentTosuchafairadjustmentoftheclaimsofbothavictoryoftheParliamentwould,hethought,beasfatalasavictoryofthekingAgainstthispolicyofinactionHampdenstruggledinvainItwastonopurposethatheurgedEssextofollowCharlesafterEdgehill,ortoattackhimafterhisrepulsebeforeBrentfordItwasequallytonopurposethatheurgedattheopeningofanattackuponOxfordEssexdrewnearertothetownindeedbutatthenewsofthequeen'sjunctionwithherhusband,andofthesuccessesoftheCornishmen,hefellbacktohisoldcantonmentaboutThameHampden'sknowledgeofthecountrywarnedhimofdangerfromtheloosedispositionofthearmy,andheurgedEssextocallinthedistantoutpostsandstrengthenhislinebuthiswarningswereunheededSocarelesslywerethetroopsscatteredaboutthatRupertresolvedtobeatuptheirquartersandleavingOxfordintheafternoonofSaturday,thethofJune,heseizedthebridgeovertheThameatChiselhampton,andleavingaforceoffoottosecurehisretreat,threwhimselfboldlywithhishorsemenintothemidstoftheParliamentaryarmyEssexwiththebulkofhismenlayquietlysleepingafewmilestothenorthwardatThameasRupertstruckinthedarknessthroughtheleafylanesthatledtotheChilterns,andswoopedonthevillagesthatlaybeneaththeirslopesAtthreeinthemorninghefellonthetroopsquarteredatPostcombe,thenonthoseatChinnorHeresomefiftywereslain,andmoretakenprisoners,astheyspranghalfnakedfromtheirbedsThevillagewasfired,andRupertagaincalledhismentogethertopursuetheirforayButtheearlysummersunhadnowrisenitwastoolatetoattackWycombeashehadpurposedandthehorsemenfellbackagainthroughTetsworthtosecuretheirretreatacrosstheThameSidenote:DeathofHampdenItwastimetothinkofretreat,forHampdenwasalreadyinpursuitHehadsleptatWatlingtonbutthetidingsoftheforayinthevillagehardbyrousedhimfromslumber,andheatoncedespatchedatroopertoEssextobidtheEarlsendfootandhorseandcutoffthePrincefromChiselhamptonbridgeEssexobjectedanddelayedtillHampden'spatiencebrokedownThethoughtofhisownvillageblazinginthatSundaydawn,hisownfriendsandtenantsstretcheddeadinthevillagestreets,carriedhimbeyondallthoughtofprudenceAtroopofhorsevolunteeredtofollowhimandfewastheywere,hepushedatoncewiththemforthebridgeThemorningwasnowfargoneandRuperthadreachedChalgroveField,abroadspacewithoutenclosures,wherehehadlefthisfootdrawnupamidstthestandingcorntosecurehisretreatToHampdenthespotwasamemorableoneitwasthere,ifwetrustaRoyalistlegend,that"hefirstmusteredanddrewupmeninarmstorebelagainsttheking"ButhehadlittletimeformemoriessuchastheseHisresolvewastoholdRupertbychargeafterchargetillEssexcouldcomeupandthearrivalofthesetroopsofhorsewithsomedragoonsenabledhimtoattackTheattackwasroughlybeatenoff,andtheassailantsthrownintoconfusion,butHampdenralliedthebrokentroopsandagainledthemonAgaintheywererouted,andRupertdrewoffacrosstheriverwithoutfurthercontestItwasindeedonlythecourageofHampdenthathadfiredhislittletrooptofacetheCavaliersandhecouldfirethemnomoreInthelastchargeashotstruckhimintheshoulderanddisabledhisswordarmHisheadbendingdown,hishandsrestingonhishorse'sneck,herodeoffthefieldbeforetheactionwasdone,"athingheneverusedtodo"ThestoryofthecountrysidetoldhowthewoundedCHAPTERIXmanrodefirsttowardsPyrtonItwasthevillagewherehehadweddedthewifehelovedsowell,andbeyonditamongthebeechtreesoftheChilternslayhisownhouseofHampdenButitwasnottherethathewastodieApartyofRoyalistsdrovehimbackfromPyrton,andturningnorthwardshepausedforamomentatalittlebrookthatcrossedhispath,thengatheringstrengthleapedit,androdealmostfaintingtoThameAtfirstthesurgeonsgavehopesofhisrecovery,buthopewassoonoverForsixdayshelayingrowingagony,sendingcounselaftercounseltotheParliament,tillonthetwentyfourthofJunetheenddrewnear"OLord,savemycountry,"soendedHampden'sprayers"OLord,bemercifulto!"herehisspeechfailedhim,andhefellbacklifelessonhisbedWitharmsreversedandmuffledflags,hisownmenborehimthroughthelanesandwoodsheknewsowelltothelittlechurchthatstillstandsunchangedbesidehishomeOnthefloorofitschancelthebrassesofhisfatherandhisgrandfathermarktheirgravesAstepnearertothealtar,unmarkedbybrassorepitaph,liesthegraveinwhich,withbittertearsandcries,hisgreencoatslaidthebodyoftheleaderwhomtheyloved"NeverwereheardsuchpiteouscriesatthedeathofonemanasatMasterHampden's"WithhimindeedallseemedlostButbitterasweretheirtears,anoblefaithliftedthesePuritansoutofdespairAstheyborehimtohisgravetheysang,inthewordsoftheninetiethpsalm,howfleetinginthesightoftheDivineEternityisthelifeofmanButastheyturnedawaytheyetnoblerwordsofthefortythirdpsalmbrokefromtheirlips,astheyprayedthattheGodwhohadsmittenthemwouldsendoutanewHislightandHistruth,thattheymightleadthemandbringthemtoHisholyhill"Whyartthoucastdown,OmysoulandwhyartthousodisquietedwithinmeHopeinGodforIshallyetpraisehim,whichisthehelpofmycountenance,andmyGod!"Sidenote:ReliefofGloucesterToRoyalistsastoParliamentariansthedeathofHampdenseemedanomenofruintothecausehelovedDisasterfolloweddisaster:Essex,moreandmoreanxiousforapeace,fellbackonUxbridgewhileacowardlysurrenderofBristoltoPrinceRupertgaveCharlesthesecondcityofthekingdom,andthemasteryoftheWestThenewsofthelossofBristolfellontheParliament"likeasentenceofdeath"TheLordsdebatednothingbutproposalsofpeaceLondonitselfwasdivided"Agreatmultitudeofthewivesofsubstantialcitizens"clamouredatthedooroftheCommonsforpeaceandaflightofsixofthefewpeerswhoremainedatWestminstertothecampatOxfordprovedthegeneraldespairoftheParliament'ssuccessFromthismomenthoweverthefirmnessoftheParliamentaryleadersbeganslowlytoreversethefortunesofthewar

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