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首页 [美]诺玛·兰道:法律、犯罪与英国社会,1660–1830(剑桥 2004)

[美]诺玛·兰道:法律、犯罪与英国社会,1660–1830(剑桥 2004)

[美]诺玛·兰道:法律、犯罪与英国社会,1660–1830(剑…

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简介:本文档为《[美]诺玛·兰道:法律、犯罪与英国社会,1660–1830(剑桥 2004)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ThispageintentionallyleftblankLaw,CrimeandEnglishSociety,–Thisbookexamineshowthelawwasmade,defined,administeredandusedineighteenthcenturyEnglandAninternationalteamofleadinghistoriansexplorethewaysinwhichlegalconcernsandprocedurescametopermeatesociety,andreflectoneighteenthcenturyconceptsofcorruption,oppressionandinstitutionalefficiencyThesethemesarepursuedthroughoutinabroadrangeofcontributions,whichincludestudiesofmagistratesandcourts,theforcibleenlistmentofsoldiersandsailors,theeighteenthcentury‘bloodycode’,themakingoflawbasictonineteenthcenturysocialreform,thepopulace’sextensionoflaw’sarenatonewspapers,theologians’useofassumptionsbasictoEnglishlaw,LordChiefJusticeMansfield’sconceptofthelibertyintrinsictoEnglandandBlackstone’sconceptoftheframeworkofEnglishlawTheresultisaninvaluableaccountofthelegalbasesofeighteenthcenturysocietywhichisessentialreadingforhistoriansatalllevelsistheauthorofThejusticesofthepeace,–,publishedinLaw,CrimeandEnglishSociety,–editedbyNormaLandauUniversityofCaliforniaatDavisThePittBuilding,TrumpingtonStreet,Cambridge,UnitedKingdomTheEdinburghBuilding,CambridgeCBRU,UKWestthStreet,NewYork,NY,USAWilliamstownRoad,PortMelbourne,VIC,AustraliaRuizdeAlarcón,Madrid,SpainDockHouse,TheWaterfront,CapeTown,SouthAfricahttp:wwwcambridgeorgFirstpublishedinprintedformatISBNhardbackISBNeBookCambridgeUniversityPress(AdobeReader)©InhonourofJohnMBeattieMentor,scholar,friendContentsListoffigurespageixNotesoncontributorsxIntroductionPartLawDreadoftheCrownOffice:theEnglishmagistracyandKing’sBench,–Thetradingjustice’stradeImpressmentandthelawineighteenthcenturyBritainPartCrimeWarasajudicialresourcePressgangsandprosecutionrates,–Makingthe‘bloodycode’ForgerylegislationineighteenthcenturyEnglandMappingcriminallaw:BlackstoneandthecategoriesofEnglishjurisprudenceviiviiiContentsPartSocietyAfterSomerset:Mansfield,slaveryandthelawinEngland,–Religionandthelaw:evidence,proofand‘matteroffact’,–ThepressandpublicapologiesineighteenthcenturyLondonOriginsofthefactoryacts:theHealthandMoralsofApprenticesAct,JohnMBeattie’spublicationsIndexFiguresAgestructureofmaleandfemalepropertyoffenders,Lancashire,–pageAgestructureofmaleandfemalepropertyoffenders,Lancashire,–Agestructureofmalepropertyoffenders,Lancashire,–and–Agesofmaleandfemalepropertyoffenders,Gloucestershire,–Agesofmalepropertyoffenders,Gloucestershire,–,–and–Agesofmalepropertyoffenders,Bristol,–,–and–ixContributorsisaprofessorofmodernBritishhistoryattheUniversityofGuelphinCanadaSheistheauthorofPhilanthropyandpolice:Londoncharityintheeighteenthcentury(Princeton,),thecompilerofLondondebatingsocieties–(LondonRecordSociety,)and,withRandallMcGowen,jointauthorofThePerreausandMrsRudd:forgeryandbetrayalineighteenthcenturyLondon(Berkeley,)SheiscurrentlycompletingabookentitledTheattackonaristocraticvice:culturalskirmishesineighteenthcenturyEngland,andbeginninganewprojectoneighteenthcenturyLondonnewspaperadvertisementholdsajointappointmentintheHistoryDepartmentandOsgoodeHallLawSchool,YorkUniversity,TorontoHeisacontributortoandaneditorofAlbion’sfataltree(LondonandNewYork,),PolicingandprosecutioninBritain–(Oxford,)andLabour,lawandcrime:anhistoricalperspective(LondonandNewYork,)andisjointauthorwithNicholasRogersofEighteenthcenturyEnglishsociety:shuttlesandswords(OxfordandNewYork,)HehasalsowrittennumerousarticlesandchapterswhichhaveappearedinjournalsandothercollectionsHeiscurrentlyworkingonastudyofthecourtofKing’sBench,andacollaborativeprojectonmasterandservantlawintheBritishEmpireisafellowofSomervilleCollege,Oxford,whereshehastaughtsinceShehaspublishedextensivelyonsocialproblemsandpolicyinthelongeighteenthcentury,andiscurrentlyatworkontwovolumesofhercollectedessaysisProfessorofSocialHistoryatUniversityCollegeNorthamptonHehaspublishedmorethanadozenarticlesonthehistoryofcrime,lawandsociety,isjointeditorofChroniclingpoverty:thevoicesandstrategiesofthelabouringpoor–(London,)andxNotesoncontributorsxiauthorofCrime,justiceanddiscretioninEngland–(Oxford,)isaprofessorofhistoryattheUniversityofCaliforniaatDavisSheistheauthorofThejusticesofthepeace,–(Berkeley,)andofarticlesonthepolitical,social,andlegalhistoryofeighteenthcenturyEnglandSheisnowworkingontwostudies:ontheregulationofmigrationwithinearlymodernEnglandandonthejusticesofthepeaceandtheircourtsineighteenthcenturymetropolitanLondonistheJeffersonEPeyserProfessorofLawandtheChairandAssociateDeanoftheJurisprudenceandSocialPolicyProgramattheUniversityofCalifornia,BerkeleyHeistheauthorofTheprovinceoflegislationdetermined:legaltheoryineighteenthcenturyBritain(Cambridge,)andotherstudiesinthehistoryoflegalideasHeiscurrentlypreparingforpublicationacriticaleditionofJeanLouisDeLolme’sTheconstitutionofEngland,professorofhistoryattheUniversityofOregon,hascoauthoredwithDonnaAndrewThePerreausandMrsRudd:forgeryandbetrayalineighteenthcenturyLondon(Berkeley,)Heisalsotheauthorofnumerousarticlesonpunishmentandthecriminallaw,andiscurrentlyatworkonabookonthedebateoverforgeryandcapitalpunishmentinearlynineteenthcenturyEnglandworksattheHistoryofParliamentTrustwheresheisresponsibleforThehistoryoftheHouseofLords,–SheistheeditorofJusticeineighteenthcenturyHackney:thejusticingnotebookofHenryNorrisandtheHackneypettysessionsbook(LondonRecordSociety,),andhaspublishedarticlesonpolicingineighteenthandnineteenthcenturyLondonSheiscurrentlypreparing,incollaborationwithElaineAReynolds,towriteaboutthehistoryofpolicingLondonfromto,andiseditingavolumeofcriminalcasesthatweretriedinLondonfromtoisaprofessorofhistoryatYorkUniversity,TorontoHeistheauthorofWhigsandcities:popularpoliticsintheageofWalpoleandPitt(OxfordandNewYork,)Crowds,cultureandpoliticsinGeorgianBritain(OxfordandNewYork,)and,withDouglasHay,ofEighteenthcenturyEnglishsociety:shuttlesandswords(OxfordandNewYork,)HeiscurrentlycompletingabookonnavalimpressmentanditsopponentsinGeorgianBritainandtheAtlanticseaboardxiiNotesoncontributors,professorintheGraduateSchoolattheUniversityofCalifornia,Berkeley,istheauthorofJohnWilkins–:anintellectualbiography(Berkeley,),ProbabilityandcertaintyinseventeenthcenturyEngland:astudyoftherelationshipsbetweennaturalscience,religion,history,law,andliterature(Princeton,),‘Beyondreasonabledoubt’and‘probablecause’:historicalperspectivesontheAngloAmericanlawofevidence(Berkeley,)andAcultureoffact:England–(Ithaca,)SheiscurrentlyworkingonEnglishpoliticalthoughtinthesixteenthandseventeenthcenturiesIntroductionNormaLandauThisvolumeisatributetoJohnBeattie,whoseworkisfundamentaltotheburgeoningstudyofcrimeandthecourtsinearlymodernEngland,andwhoseenthusiasticinterestintheworkofhisfellowhistoriansisoneoftheattractionsofeighteenthcenturyEnglishhistoryOnhisretirement,John’scurrentstudentsandcolleaguesattheUniversityofTorontopublishedaFestschriftinhishonourThisisthereforethesecondvolumededicatedtoJohnOfthecontributorstothisvolume,somewereJohn’sstudentsasundergraduates,othershisgraduatestudents,andallenjoyhisfriendshipJohnisanextraordinaryscholar:notonlyacute,persistent,andinsightfulinhisownwork,butgenerousingivinghistime,advice,andaidtoothersJohn’sworkhasmadeourworkbetterhispresencehasenhancedourenjoymentofourworkThisvolumeisonewayinwhichwesay‘thankyou’ThechaptersinthisvolumedevelopthemesraisedbyJohnBeattie’ssecondandthirdbooks,CrimeandthecourtsinEngland,–andPolicingandpunishmentinLondon,–ThefoundationofbothbooksisanalysisofthechargesoffeloniousconductbroughtbeforeQuarterSessions,Assizes,andtheOldBailey(LondonandMiddlesex’sAssizes),andthewayinwhichthesecourtsdealtwiththeseallegationsTheevidentialcoreofthebooksaretheallegationsthemselves–chargespresentedaccordingtothedictatesoflegalformulae,writtenondirtystripsinanowobsoletehand,andannotatedwiththescribbledLatinshorthandofthecourt’sclerksastheyrecordedthecourt’sverdictandsentenceoneachallegationMasteryandanalysisofsuchrecordsisinitselfaformidableachievement–anachievementprognosticatedbyBeattie’sfirstbook,TheEnglishGSmith,AMayandSDevereaux,Criminaljusticeintheoldworldandthenew(Toronto,)JMBeattie,CrimeandthecourtsinEngland,–(Princeton,),andPolicingandpunishmentinLondon,–:urbancrimeandthelimitsofterror(Oxford,)Forproblemsintrinsictoanalysisofindictments,seeJMBeattie,‘TowardsastudyofcrimeineighteenthcenturyEngland:anoteonindictments’,inPFritzandDWilliams,eds,Thetriumphofculture(Toronto,)NormaLandaucourtinthereignofGeorgeIThisbook,onGeorgeI’shousehold,likeBeattie’stwolaterbooksonthecriminalcourts,isfoundedonarcanedocuments,inthiscasehouseholdaccounts,whichBeattieusestodelineatethewayinwhichtheking’shouseholdfunctionedAsinhislaterwork,BeattiehereusesanalysisofadministrationasameansofposingquestionsresonatingbeyondadministrativestructureThisbookexaminesthedistributionandnatureofthecourt’spatronage,anissuecentraltothedebateabouttheearlyHanoverianconstitutionSo,too,inwaysforeshadowingBeattie’sanalysisoftheadministrationofthecriminallaw,hisanalysisoftheadministrationofthehouseholddisclosedsomethingquiteunexpected:GeorgeI’seffortstomakehiscourtthecentreofpoliticallifewhenhecouldnotrelyonhissontofulfilthemonarch’sroleassocialcentreofEngland’spoliticsBeattietherebyrevealedthatacliche´whichhadshapeddepictionofearlyHanoverianpolitics–thatGeorgeIwasinterestedneitherinEnglandnoritsthrone–wassimplywrongAsBeattiedemonstrated,GeorgeItookanactivepartinEngland’spoliticallifeandthisreassessmentofthefirstHanoverianmonarch’spoliticalrole,coupledwithBeattie’sanalysisofthefunctioningandimportanceoftheroyalcourt,isamajorcontributiontocurrentdepictionsofEnglishpoliticsBeattie’ssecondandthirdbooksexamineanothervarietyofroyalcourt–thecriminalcourtsLikehisbookontheroyalhousehold,thesetoodelineatethewayinwhichacourtworks,thewaysinwhichitchanged,andthewaysinwhichbothfunctionsandtheirchangerevealthestructuresandstressesofthesocietyitgovernedBeattie’sworkhasbroughtanewperspectivetothestudyoftheeighteenthcenturycriminallaw,asubjectwhosestudyhadbeendefinedbySirLeonRadzinowicz’sAhistoryofEnglishcriminallawThisdistinguishedworkwasthefirsttogiveanextendedhistoricalanalysisofthecriminallawthatwentbeyondthestatutelaw,anditdidsobylookingatopinionaboutthelawanditsadministrationAsonewouldthereforeexpect,Radzinowicz’sHistoryisamasterfulorchestrationofvoicescriticizingthecriminallaw,declaringitcorrupt,ineffective,illogical,asystematic,arbitrary,antithetictotheendsofjustice,andthereforeinneedofdrasticreformSuchanemphasiswashighlycompatiblewithwhatButterfieldtermedthe‘Whiginterpretation’ofEnglishhistory,aninterpretationthatshaped(Cambridge,)SeealsoJMBeattie,‘ThecourtofGeorgeIinEnglishpolitics’,EnglishHistoricalReview,vol()SirLRadzinowicz,AhistoryofEnglishcriminallawanditsadministrationfrom,volsI–IV(London,–),volVwithRHood(London,)SirHButterfield,TheWhiginterpretationofhistory(London,)IntroductionthehistoriographyofeighteenthcenturyEnglanduntilthemiddleofthetwentiethcenturyTheWhiginterpretation’sthrustwasanalysisoftheevolutionofEnglishprogress,andasRadzinowicz’sfirstsentenceproclaimed,hewasheirtothistradition:‘LordMacaulay’sgeneralisationthatthehistoryofEnglandisthehistoryofprogressisastrueofthecriminallawasoftheothersocialinstitutionsofwhichitisapart’Radzinowiczbeganhisdelineationoftheprogressofthecriminallawinthemideighteenthcentury,achoicewhichwhencombinedwithhisWhiggishproclivitybrandedtheeighteenthcenturycriminallawasinterestingchieflyforthescopeitprovidedforreformHereagainRadzinowicz’sanalysisaccordedwiththatoftheWhiginterpretation,inwhichtheeighteenthcenturyfeaturedasahiatusinthestoryofEnglishprogress,anerapossessingthepoliticalstructureswhich,asthenineteenthcenturyshowed,couldbetheengineofprogress,butwhichwereemployedinamannercorruptingboththestructuresandthosewhoranthemSince,intheWhigs’view,theEnglishhadthestructuresrequisiteforgoodgovernmentbutdidnotusethosestructuresastheywouldbeusedinthenineteenthcentury,thenitcouldbeassumedthatmuchofwhatalatereraconsideredgoodgovernmentsimplydidnotappearineighteenthcenturyEnglandWhiletheinterpretivetraditionfoundedbySirLewisNamierchallengedtheWhigdepictionofeighteenthcenturypoliticalinstitutions,ittooprovidedanhistoriographicalenvironmentcongenialtoRadzinowicz’spresentationNamierdevotedhishistoriestodemonstrationsthattheeighteenthcenturyconstitutionanditspoliticalstructuresdifferedfundamentallyfromthosecharacterizingthepoliticsandconstitutionofthenexttwocenturiesAsaresult,hefocusedonthoseactivitiesandepisodeswhichWhighistorianshadcitedasprimeexamplesoftheage’scorruption,evaluatingtheminalightquitedifferentfromthatbroughtbytheWhigs,butnotdirectingattentiontoeighteenthcenturygovernmentalactivitiesneglectedinWhighistoriography’sdepictionoftheneedforreformWhileNamieritehistoriographythereforepresentseighteenthcenturyEnglandasgovernedthroughstructuresfundamentallydifferentfromthoseoftheVictorianeraandadequateforitsneeds,itdoessobyassigningdifferentvaluestotheWhigdepictionofagovernmentthatdidlittleratherthanbypresentingevidenceofhithertoneglectedgovernmentalactivitySinceRadzinowiczpresentstheeighteenthcenturycriminallawasastrikingexampleoftheineffectiveandminimalRadzinowicz,HistoryofEnglishcriminallaw,volI,pixSirLBNamier,EnglandintheageoftheAmericanrevolution(ndedn,London,)SirLBNamier,ThestructureofpoliticsattheaccessionofGeorgeIII(revedn,London,)NormaLandaugovernmentofeighteenthcenturyEngland,anewviewofthatlawwouldalsoprovideanewperspectiveoneighteenthcenturyEnglandBeattie’sworkprovidesjustsuchanewviewRatherthanmeasuringtheeighteenthcenturycriminallawagainstmodernexpectationsoflaw,BeattieinsteadpresentsthecriminallawascontemporariesthoughtitworkedAsaresult,featuresofthelawwhichtomoderneyes,astoreformers,seeminefficacious,illogicalandarbitraryappearinBeattie’sanalysisasintegraltoitssystemAccordingtoBeattie,themajorgoalofeighteenthcenturycriminallawwasdeterrenceAndsoParliamentenactedwhatlaterageswouldchristen‘thebloodycode’–overlawsdecreeingthatthepenaltyforactsdetailedintheselawswasdeathHowever,asBeattiestates,effectivedeterrencedemandsnothundredsofhangings,butinsteadarelativelyfewterrifyingexamplesoftheaweinspiringpowerofthelawTherefore,judgesandjurorshadtoselectthosetobesenttothegallowsfromamongthoseindictedforcapitalcrimesInsodoing,theymadedecisionswhichlaterageswouldderideasarbitraryandillogical:judgessecuredthemonarch’spardonforalargeproportionofthecapitallyconvictedjuriesroutinelyconvicteddefendantsofalesseroffence,andsoalessseverelypunishedoffence,thanthatforwhichadefendantwasindicted,andtheydidsoevenwhenitwasmanifestlyclearthatthedefendanthadindeedcommittedtheoffenceforwhichhehadoriginallybeenindictedBeattie’sinterpretationthereforetransformsthejudgeandjury’sseeminglyillogicalandarbitrarydecisionsintorationalchoicesmadewithinasystemdemandingthattheymakesuchchoicesIndeed,asheshows,featuresoftheeighteenthcenturycriminaltrialwhichtomoderneyesappearabsurdlyunfairfunctionedsoastoaidjudgeandjuryinmakingthesedecisionsSo,forexample,therulethatdefendantsdefendthemselves,thattheyuselawyerstoaddresspointsoflawonly,meantthatjudgeandjurycouldassessthecharacterofdefendantsandthewaytheyrespondedtothechargesagainstthemWhen,intheearlynineteenthcentury,Parliamentreplacedthebloodycodewithapenalregimeemphasizingnotdeterrencebutinsteadthereformationofcriminalsthroughimprisonment,judgeandjurynolongerselectedfromamongallconvictsthosesuitableforexemplarydeath,andtheeighteenthcenturytriallostitsrationaleInitsturn,thattrialwasbyreplacedwithanewstructure,astructurefeaturingthecombatoflawyersAsisevident,Forananalysisshowingthat,whenrecommendingpardonsforthoseconvictedofcapitalcrimes,judgesusedcriteriasimilartothoseusedtoday,seePKing,‘DecisionmakersanddecisionmakingintheEnglishcriminallaw,–’,HistoricalJournal,vol()Foreighteenthcenturytrials,see:JMBeattie,‘CrimeandthecourtsinSurrey’,inJSCockburn,ed,CrimeinEngland,–(London,)Beattie,CrimeandIntroductionBeattie’sanalysisintegratespunishment–andsothebloodycode

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[美]诺玛·兰道:法律、犯罪与英国社会,1660–1830(剑桥 2004)

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