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首页 [美]珍·高梭迈尔斯:中古世界的话语(布里尔 2003)

[美]珍·高梭迈尔斯:中古世界的话语(布里尔 2003)

[美]珍·高梭迈尔斯:中古世界的话语(布里尔 2003)

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2008-12-21 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[美]珍·高梭迈尔斯:中古世界的话语(布里尔 2003)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

SPEAKINGINTHEMEDIEVALWORLDCULTURES,BELIEFSANDTRADITIONSmedievalandearlymodernpeoplesEditorialBoard:williambrinner,UniversityofCaliforniaatBerkeleyflorikeegmond,LeidenUniversitygustavhenningsen,DanishFolkloreArchivesmaykedejong,UniversityofUtrechtmirirubin,PembrokeCollege,OxfordUniversityeliyassif,TelAvivUniversityVOLUMECBTRgodsallqxd:PageiiSPEAKINGINTHEMEDIEVALWORLDEDITEDBYJEANEGODSALLMYERSBRILLLEIDEN•BOSTONCBTRgodsallqxd:PageiiiThisbookisprintedonacidfreepaperLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataSpeakinginthemedievalworldeditedbyJeanEGodsallMyerspcm(Cultures,beliefs,andtraditions,ISSNv)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBNLiterature,MedievalHistoryandcriticismGodsallMyers,JeanE,IISeriesPNS'dcISSN–ISBN©CopyrightbyKoninklijkeBrillNV,Leiden,TheNetherlandsAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,translated,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,withoutpriorwrittenpermissionfromthepublisherAuthorizationtophotocopyitemsforinternalorpersonaluseisgrantedbyBrillprovidedthattheappropriatefeesarepaiddirectlytoTheCopyrightClearanceCenter,RosewoodDrive,SuiteDanversMA,USAFeesaresubjecttochangeprintedinthenetherlandsCBTRgodsallqxd:PageivvForMuzz,motherbybirthForAudrey,motherbylawFürMutti,AustauschmutterForNancy,Doktormuttergodsallfprelims:AMPagevThispageintentionallyleftblankviiCONTENTSAcknowledgmentsixNotesontheContributorsxiIntroductionJeanEGodsallMyersPARTONEPeccatumlinguaeandthePunishmentofSpeechViolationsintheMiddleAgesandEarlyModernTimesBettinaLindorferHeConqueredaltheRegneofFemenye:WhatChaucer’sKnightdoesn’ttellaboutTheseusLaurelBroughtonGenderConflicts,Miscommunication,andCommunicativeCommunitiesintheLateMiddleAges:TheEvidenceofFifteenthCenturyGermanVerseNarrativesAlbrechtClassenWithaSilverSpooninhisMouthWolfram’sCourtlyContestantsJeanEGodsallMyersPARTTWONegotiatingthePresent:LanguageandTroutheintheFranklin’sTaleAndreaSchutzBilingualismandBetrayalinChaucer’sSummoner’sTaleTomShippeyTheDiscourseofCharacterizationinJehanetBlondeCarolHarveyWaysofUsingAbusiveLanguageinLaCelestinaLourdesAlbuixechIndexgodsallfprelims:AMPageviiThispageintentionallyleftblankixACKNOWLEDGMENTSIfpublishingabookisinherentlyacollaborativeeffort,thenpublishingananthologyisevenmoresoIwouldliketoacknowledgetheotherpeopleinvolvedinthecreationofthisanthologyBrill’sAssistantEditorMarcellaMulderhasbeenasattentiveasshehasbeenexpertinseeingthisprojectthroughfrombeginningtoendThepublisher’sanonymousreaderandProfessorNCDorianofferedcriticalcommentaryintheinitialstageBrill’sProductionEditorIvanRossumworkedonthemanuscriptinthefinalstageThecontributorsoftheseessayshaveinspiredmewiththeirscholarshipandpatienceSWalleratWidenerUniversity’sWritingCenterreviewedthedraftfortechnicalissuesSBeattyofferedcomputerassistanceTKohm,asalways,assistedmewithmorethanjustclericalskillsthroughoutthiswholeprojectObviously,theremaybeerrorsremaininginthemanuscriptIaccepttheresponsibilityforthoseAtWidenerUniversity,formerPresidentBruce,ProvostBuck,formerDeanSkinner,DeanPanek,andAssociateDeanSerembusallencouragedmeduringmyyearsofadministrativeemploymenttopursuemycommitmenttoscholarshipDrMClark,DrILieberman,andDrRMelzihavebeenscholarlymentorsProfessorsSChristoph,AClassen,PDyer,MGibbs,SJaeger,BKratz,AMielke,BNorton,SSamples,GWeise,DWienroederSkinner,CWulf,andMZelljadthaveallgivencommentstome,particularlyatconferences,aboutmyideasandworkATrumm,JCamhi,GAlburger,TKershaw,CDreher,JFrank,andothershaveinspiredmetocontinuelearningabouttheGermanspeakingworldThatworldhasincludedthefamiliesBastHaider,Kawohl,Kuckhoff,Lohse,Osteroth,Reitz,Schatz,andTjarks,amongothersDAllison,EBaldwin,andPNussbaumhavebeenloyalfriendsandtheAlmquistshavebeenkindredspiritsFamilymembershavebeensupportive,butthethreeotherGodsallMyersontheplanet,namelySteve,Rob,andTim,continuedtolovemewhilewealldeterminedandrespondedtowhatreallyisimportantinlife–SDGJeanEGodsallMyersgodsallfprelims:AMPageixThispageintentionallyleftblankxiNOTESONTHECONTRIBUTORSLA,AssistantProfessorofSpanishatSouthernIllinoisUniversity,specializesinMedievalandEarlyModernSpanishliteratureShehaswrittenarticlesonsentimentalromanceandonGoldenAgeDramaLGBisLecturerinEnglishattheUniversityofVermontHermedievalpublicationsincludeCatalogofMedievalMiraclesoftheVirgin(forthcoming),andarticlesonChaucer,Hildegard,andtheVirginMaryACisProfessorofGermanattheUniversityofArizonaintheUSAMorerecentlyheeditedMeinSeelfanganzusingen,MedievalGermanVoicesinthestCentury,andDeutscheFrauenliederdesfünfzehntenundsechszehntenJahrhundertsandpublishedhislatestmonographonVerzweiflungundHoffnungHisteachingandresearchinterestsspanmedievallife,comparativeinterpretation,andliterarytheoryJEGMisAssociateProfessorofHumanitiesatWidenerUniversity,USAShehaspublishedonMedievalandModernGermanliteratureandAnnaSeghersHerresearchandteachinginterestsincludesociolinguisticapproachestoliterature,theMiddleAges,andtheGDReraCHisProfessorofFrenchattheUniversityofWinnepeginCanadaHerbooksLafrancophoniesurlesmarges,LaLittèratureauféminin,andLecyclemanitobaindeGabrielleRoyarecomplementedbynumerouschapterstootheranthologiesandarticlesonPhilippedeRemyandcourtlyliteratureShesitsontheeditorialboardsofFlorilegiumandCahiersfrancocanadiensdel’OuestBLisAssistantProfessorinthedepartmentofPhilosophieundGeisteswissenschaftenwithintheFreieUniversitätBerlinHerdissertationRolandBarthes:ZeichenundPsycholanalysewaspublishedbyFinkVerlaginHerresearchareasincludelanguagetheory,semiotics,andhistoricalanthropologyoflanguagegodsallfprelims:AMPagexixiiASisAssistantProfessoratStThomasUniversityinFredericton,CanadaShehaspublishedonChaucerandpedagogyShehaspresentedpapersatconferencesinCanada,theUSA,andtheUnitedKingdomSheiscurrentlyworkingonabookaboutmetamorphosis,oneofhermanymedievalresearchinterestsTSisWalterJOngChairatStLouisUniversityHehaspublishedwidelyonOldandMiddleEnglish,andonhispredecessorinthemedievalChairatLeeds,JRRTolkienHeiscurrentlyworkingonabookonspeechinearlyGermanicliteraturegodsallfprelims:AMPagexiiINTRODUCTION*JeanEGodsallMyersIntheearly’s,DellHymesposedatheoreticalbasisforconsideringlanguageuseHis“ethnographyofspeaking”wasbasedonastraightforwardassumption:“Thewholeofbehaviorisapproachedfromthepointofviewofdiscoveringtherelevantclassesofspeechevents,thefactorsconstitutingthem,therangeoffunctionsservedbyspeechintheparticularcommunity,andtherelationsexistingamongthem”(HymesLanguage)Subsequentscholarsbeganrefiningtheparametersofspeechsituations,events,andacts(seeespeciallyBaumanandScherzerIV),andtheconceptofaspeechcommunity(eg,Kloss)Asstudiescametorevealfascinatinglinguisticinteractionwithinbothfamiliarlocalandexoticdistantcultures,literaryscholarsalsobegantoexaminemorecloselythenatureofdialogaswellThescholarscontributingtothisvolumeofferexamplesofsuchinvestigationwithinthemedievalworldButtoappreciatefullythevalueoftheconnectionbetweenHymes’theoreticalperspectiveandtheessayspublishedhere,abriefoverviewconnectingthefieldsoflinguisticandmedievalliteraryscholarshipisofferedObviouslyomittingdevelopmentssignificantotherwise,IwouldconsiderthreestagesshowingparallelswithintheacademicfieldsThefirststageinlinguisticsincludedthediachronicandsynchronicfocusongrammar(morphologyandsyntax)anddialectology(semanticsaswellasphonology)Intheearlyyears,linguistsdependedonwrittentexts,oftenliteraryones,onwhichtobasetheirassertionsColleaguesinmedievalliteraturetraveledthesameroute,ifnotevencarryingthesameprofessionaltitlewhilebeinghousedinliteraturedepartments,examiningmedievalliteraturefromthestandpointofwordstudies,comparingmanuscriptsofasametext,andrenderingtheoldertextsintomodernonesSeveralofthesesamescholarshavealsoprovidedcolleagueswithvaluableresourcesontheweb*ThisintroductionisbasedonapaperIpresentedatthethInternationalCongressonMedievalStudiesinKalamazoo,Michigan,May–,Thetranslationsprovidedinthisintroductionaremyown,unlessotherwisenotedgodsallf:AMPage(eg,WhateverymedievalistshouldknowandtheMiddleHighGermanConceptualDataBase,listedintheWorksCitedarea)Inthetwentiethcentury,asecondstageevolved,asthefieldoflinguisticsexpandeditsscope,toincludetransformationalgenerativegrammarAmongotheraspects,theinvestigationspositedthepresenceofadeepstructureandasurfacestructureoperantinsentences,anditwasclearthatmeaningwascreatedbymorethanjustwordsstrungnexttoeachotherinaparticularorderThemedievalliteraryscholarswerealsosensitiveforthericherpotentialofatexttocommunicatemeaningThusscholarsexaminedthemanyperspectivesofatextanddiscussedthevoiceoftheauthor,thevoiceofthecharacter,andthevoiceoftheaudiencewithinaliterarytheorythatpursuedatext’sreceptionTheterm“discourseanalysis”foundinmanytitlesrefersseldomtoconversationalanalysisperseRogerFowlerillustratesusinglinguisticswithmoremodernliterature(seeespeciallyhisChapter),andArthurGroosandEvelynBirgeVitzofferfascinatinginsightsintomedievalliteratureAndalmostsimultaneously,thethirdstageevolvedandhashadagreaterimpactasfarasthisvolumeisconcernedThethirdstageincludedtheprimacyofthespokenword,thatistosay,speechThelinguistsreachedacrossdisciplinarylinestoothersocialscientistsinanthropology,sociology,andethnology,andothers,justasmedievalistshadalwaysreachedouttootherhumanistsinhistory,arthistory,history,music,philosophy,andreligionThelinguistslookedatspeechtodiscoverdiversewaysofspeakinginotherculturesTheyattemptedtoclassifyspeechwithinanentiresystemoforganizationthatincludedthesituation,event,act,etc(HymesFoundationsf)Theyestablishedsomewaysthatspeakingworks,includingturntaking,etcAnd,finally,thelinguistsstressedthecontextofthatspeakingTheevolutionofsociolinguistics,thestudyoflanguageinsociety,hasindeedyieldedvaluableresultsforitseffortsItisofnotethattheliteraryscholarswerenotaskeentofollowsuitwiththesedevelopmentsastheyhadbeenearlierThefollowingcommentsareintendedtohighlightseveralissuesextantwithinsociolinguisticanalysisofliterarytextsAfirstcommentisobvious:sociolinguistshaveexaminedmostlylivespeech,andassuch,speechthatisspontaneousLiteraryscholarstreatingdialoghavenothadaccesstothatluxury,unlesswatchingastageddramaorfilm,hardlytheaccessroutetomostmedievaltextsLiteraryscholarsinterestedindialoganalysiswillfindhelpfultheassessmentofTraugottandgodsallf:AMPagePratt(f)andorPerson(Structure–)oftenevenspokenlanguageisreportinganeventorreportingwhatsomeoneelsesaid,andtothatextent,evenliveandspontaneousspeechisconstructedinwayssimilartoliterarydialogArelatedcommentisalsonoted:medievalliteratureexudesliteraryconvention,whichalsocouldinfluencetheproductionofdialogandthusthekindsofconclusionsascholarcoulddrawAndagainevenhere,thediscussionofthosedialogsinviewoftheseconventionscouldbeveryvaluableAnothercommentmoreapparenttothemedievalists:literaryscholarsoftenworkwithatextthatstemsfromseveralmanuscripts,eachofwhichmayreflectthedialect,expertise,andwritingconventions(includingevenpunctuation,orlackthereof)ofthelocalscribe,asituationwhichcertainlycouldinfluenceanyconclusionsdrawnaboutthenatureofdialogThusexaminingthedialoginatextviamanuscriptcontrastmightbequiterevealingAndalongthatvein,IwouldmentionthattheadditionalintrigueofinterpretationwithwhichmedievalistscontendMedievalauthorsoftenhavesourcesfortheplotoutsidetheirownculturesIfascholarexaminesthedialogin,say,Hartmann’sIwein,whichisbasedonChrétiendeTroyes’Yvain,thescholarisdealingwithseverallayersofevidenceFortheparticularspeechact,saygreetingsatcourt,thescholarneedstoconsiderthepossibilitythatthenormmaybeindicativeofHartmann’sworld,Chrétien’sworld,theliteraryconventionsofbothcultures,thestyleofthescribe,andortheeditingdecisionmadeincompilinganormalizedtextSuchvariedperspectiveisacallforextensiveinvestigation,requiringbroadexpertiseThesecommentsareintendedtoencouragemedievalistsandsociolinguiststoundertakeworksimilartothatofthecontributorsofthisvolumeLiteraryscholars,bothmedievalandbeyond,havebegunappreciatingthepotentialthatasociolinguisticapproachhas,andsociolinguistshaveexaminedliterarytextsRaymondPersonhasusedconversationalanalysisintreatingthebiblicalstoryofJonahGünterWeise,DeborahTannen(Silence)andotherconversationalanalystshaveexaminedaspectsofdialogwithinseveralgenresofmoremodernliteratureAndcertainlyLanguageinSocietyasajournalincludestreatmentsofliterature,eg,Yonglin’sarticleonShakespeareMedievalistshavebeenlessinterestedinadaptingsuchanapproach,buteventhelimitedefforthasbeenproductiveThesescholarshavebegundescribinghowpeoplespeakintheMiddleAges,thescholarshavedemonstratedthattheliterarydialogsdoreflectothermedievalgodsallf:AMPagevalues,andthescholarshavebeenassertingthatspokenlanguagewarrantsattentionwithinmedievalliteraryscholarshipWhilethelistsattheendofthisintroductionandthesubsequentchaptersaremoreinclusive,afewexamplesareofferedhereTomShippeyconsiderstheroleoflistenerhearerinlookingatearlierpoeticbirdimageryPatrickMcConeghyusesthestrategymodelofBrownandLevinsonwhenhetreatsmedievalwomen’sspeechRelatedstudiesofsilenceincludetheworkofAlbrechtClassenandBarbaraThoranLindaSussmandemonstratesthevalueofspeakingamongcharactersinvolvedwiththeGrailThechaptersofthisvolumeintendtocontributetothatscholarship,bytreatingspeechinmedievaltextsItshouldbeclarifiedtowhatextenttheseessaysaretobeconsidered“sociolinguistic”AstrictsociolinguistmaybedisappointedtonotetheabsenceofconversationalanalysisassuggestedbyTaylorandCameron,orothers,andmaythinkofGarriochwhenreadingthechapterbyAlbuixechormaythinkofTannen’sworkwhenreadingClassen’schapter,ormayeventhinkofBachandHarnishwhenreadingthechapterbySchutzThosereadersmayfeelmorecomfortablewiththedegreeofsociolinguisticanalysisofferedherebyHarveyorShippeyOntheotherhand,Hymesdefined“sociolinguistics”fairlygenerally:“Sociolinguisticscouldbetakentorefertouseoflinguisticdataandanalysesinotherdisciplines,concernedwithsociallife,and,conversely,touseofsocialdataandanalysesinlinguistics”(Foundationsvii)Totheextentthatreadersareinterestedinbothlanguageandsociety,theywillfindsomeenlighteninginsightswithinthemedievalcontextTheessaysinthisvolumesuggestthatlookingcarefullyatthewayscharactersspeakinmedievaltextsisnotonlyproductive,butitcanalsobeimportantforseveralreasonsThefirstisthatunderstandingsuchstudieswillgiveusinformationaboutthesocialnetworksextantinthemedievalsocietyWehaveallunderstoodsuchstructuresastheclassesoflordsandknights,monksandclerics,noblesandpeasantsSeveralcloserexaminationofwhospeakstowhomandhowthatconversationreallyworksmayleadustosomedifferentconclusionsaboutmedievalsocialorganizationSecondly,suchstudiesmayrevealartisticskillsofwriterswehavenotyetrealizedandthereforecouldnotappreciateMedievalwriterscreateddialogthatmovestheplotalong,revealsaspectsofcharacterdevelopment,etcButthemedievaldialogalsoneededtoresonatewithsomeoftheculturalspeakingnormsortheaudiencewouldneverhavecontinuedlisteningThusthewritersofdialogneededtobeverycreativegodsallf:AMPageatthesametimetheyneededtooperatewithincontemporaryrestraintsAssuch,thewritersmaybeartistsdeservinggreatercreditthanofferedtodateThirdly,wedothewritersadisservicewhenweoverlooktheirattentiontodialogbecausethewritersthemselvesconsideredspeechsignificantInsometexts,dialogmayconstituteuptoathirdofthelinesThewritersuseanynumberofadverbstodescribehowacharacterspeaks,tosaynothingofthenumerousverbsforspeakingToparaphraseBaumanandScherzer,thereisalotoftalkabouttalk(),ie,speechisnotjustquotedThisaspectisimportantbecausewhenanauthordescribesthespeechaspoliteorrude,thedescriptionaffordsreaderspotentialaccesstoattitudetowardsspeakingEquippedwiththeauthor’ssenseofastandard,thereadercanpursuewhattriggeredthatassessment,andthenapplythestandardelsewhereforcomparisonAssumingtheauthorusesspecificitemstotriggerspecificassessmentsaccurat

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[美]珍·高梭迈尔斯:中古世界的话语(布里尔 2003)

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