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首页 [荷]彼得·李伯庚:欧洲文化史(劳特里奇 1998)

[荷]彼得·李伯庚:欧洲文化史(劳特里奇 1998)

[荷]彼得·李伯庚:欧洲文化史(劳特里奇 1998)

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2008-12-21 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[荷]彼得·李伯庚:欧洲文化史(劳特里奇 1998)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

AdministratorFileAttachmentfdcovervbjpgEurope:ACulturalHistoryFromthebeginningsofagriculturalsocietyinAfricaandtheeasternMediterraneanseventeencenturiesbeforeChristuptolatetwentiethcenturymassculture,RietbergendescribesEurope’scolourfulculturalhistoryintermsofcontinuityandchangeassocietiesdevelopednewwaysofsurviving,believing,lookingatmanandtheworld,andofconsumingandcommunicatingHeexaminesculturethroughthemediaofliterature,art,science,technologyandmusicAmajorandoriginalcontributiontostudiesoftheideaofEurope,thisbookisdistinctiveinpayingparticularattentiontotheimpactofotherculturesonEuropeandtheinteractionbetweenEuropeand‘otherworlds’LookingbeyondancientandrenaissanceEuropeanculturalhistory,theauthoralsocoversthemorerecentculturalchangesofthelasttwocenturiesAwideselectionofexcerptssupportandenliventheargumentsFromtheancientBabylonianlawcodestoPopeUrbanII’scalltocrusadein,andfromMichelangeloonItalianartintothelyricsofIronMaidenandStinginthelatetwentiethcentury,Europe:ACulturalHistoryisathoroughandstimulatingoverviewPeterRietbergenisProfessorofCulturalHistoryattheCatholicUniversityofNijmegeninTheNetherlandsEuropeACulturalHistoryPeterRietbergenLondonandNewYorkFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEEThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotohttp:wwwebookstoretandfcouk”SimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeWestthStreet,NewYork,NY©PeterJANRietbergenAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataRietbergen,PJANEurope:aculturalhistoryPeterRietbergenpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexEuropeHistoryEuropeCivilizationITitleDR–dc–CIPISBNMasterebookISBNISBN(hbk)ISBN(pbk)ContentsListofplatesviiListofmapsxiPrologueEuropeapresentwithapastxiiiPARTIContinuityandchange:newwaysofsurvivingBefore‘Europe’:towardsanagriculturalandsedentarysocietyRomeanditsempire:theeffectsandlimitsofculturalintegrationAnempirelostanempirewonChristianityandtheRomanEmpirePARTIIContinuityandchange:newformsofbeliefTowardsonereligionforallThreeworldsaroundtheInnerSea:westernChristendom,easternChristendomandIslamOneworld,manytraditionsElitecultureandpopularcultures:cosmopolitannormsandregionalvariationsInterlude:TheworldsofEurope,c–PARTIIIContinuityandchange:newwaysoflookingatmanandtheworldAnewsociety:Europe’schangingviewsofmanAnewsociety:EuropeasawiderworldAnewsociety:EuropeandthewiderworldsincethefifteenthcenturyAnewsociety:migration,travelandthediffusionandintegrationofcultureinEuropeAnewsociety:the‘RepublicofLetters’asavirtualandvirtuousworldagainstadividedworldAnewsociety:fromHumanismtotheEnlightenmentPARTIVContinuityandchange:newformsofconsumptionandcommunicationEurope’srevolutions:freedomandconsumptionforallProgressanditsdiscontents:nationalism,economicgrowthandthequestionofculturalcertaintiesEuropeandtheotherworldsThe‘DeclineoftheOccident’thelossofadreamFromthenineteenthtothetwentiethcenturyTowardsanewEuropeEpilogueEuropeapresentwithafutureNotesIndexListofplatesCavepaintingatNiaux,France,datedc,–,BCEngravingshowingthepillarwitharticlesofHammurápi’slaws,andtheKinghimselfbeforethesungod,ShamashBronzechariotfromaseventhcenturyBCgraveatStrettweg,StyriaDecorationonaGreekwinejar,cBCScenefromafunerarymonumentfoundatNeumagen,Germany,datedcADMosaicofEmpressTheodora,wifeofJustinian,datedsixthcentury,fromthechurchofSanVitale,Ravenna,ItalyShrinededicatedtotheserviceofMithras,locatedundertheChristianchurchofSanClemente,RomeFrescodepicting‘amealoffraternallove’foundinoneoftheRomancatacombsMapsanddrawingsillustratingthevariouselementsofKosmas’ChristianCosmologyGermaniclimestonetombstone,eighthcentury,fromAlskogTjangvideontheislandofGotland,SwedenFifteenthcenturyfrescocycleinthechurchatBrancion,FranceTurkishminiatureofthearchangelGabrielappearingtoMuhammad,fromtheTopkapiMuseum,IstanbulDetailfromamidfifteenthcenturymanuscriptonalchemy,intheUniversityLibraryofPragueTheteachingoftheologyattheSorbonne,fromafifteenthcenturyFrenchmanuscriptConstructionoftheTowerofBabel,aminiatureinKingWenceslas’Biblec–WaterdrivenflourmillonthebankoftheRiverVltavaatPrague,inacolourwash,pendrawingbytheDutchartistRoelantSavery,cARomanmosaicallegedlydepictingPlato’sacademy,attheNationalMuseumofNaplesDrawingofagroupofbathingsoldiersbeforetheBattleofCascina,attributedtoAristoteledaSangallo,ThescholarscribeMasterHildebertteacheshispupilEverwin,depictedinahandwrittencopyofStAugustine’sDeCivitateDeimadeforHeinrichZdík,BishopofOlomouc,c–Printer’smarkshowingasimpleprintingpress,usedbyPetrusCaesarofGhent,oneoftheearliestprinters,workinginthesSixteenthcenturyengravingshowingFranciscoPizarro,theSpanishadventurerwhoconqueredtheIncaEmpire,watchingthelastemperor,Atahualpa,collectinghistreasuresasaransom,inEighteenthcenturyengravingshowingtheobservatoryforastronomicalresearchoftheJesuitmissioninPekingSixteenthcenturymapshowingthesevenmainbasilicasinRomeJacobFugger,theAugsburgbanker,andhischiefaccountant,MatthäusSchwarz,depictedintheFugger’sheadquartersinEngravingshowingpeoplewatchinghereticsandwitchesbeingburnedinastrawhut,depictedinatextoncriminallawandprocedure,theCautioCriminalisofEngravingshowinganimaginaryconversation,probablyonthequestionofHolyEucharist,betweenthePope,aProtestantministerandaJesuit,beforeChrist,onaFrenchengravingfromtheseventeenthcenturyWaterdrivenorganautomatadevisedbythelearnedJesuitAthanasiusKircher(–)Eighteenthcenturyprintmakingfunofscience,inavisionofanairborneworldAnengravedbroadsheetcontainingthe‘DeclarationoftheRightsofManandtheCitizen’withallegoricalillustrationsThefirstGermanrailwaybetweenNurembergandFürth,inacontemporaryengraving,AviewoftheKruppfirm’sfactoriesatEssen,Germany,inanengravingofcPrintbytheFrenchartistGustaveDoré,fromhisLondon,aPilgrimage,,showingthesmogandsootcoveredslumsLithographshowingtheParisian‘AuBonMarché’,thegreatdepartmentstorecGermanpoetJWvonGoethecontemplatingtheRomancountrysidewithitsruinsofancientgrandeurinapaintingbyTischbeincTheLastofEnglandbyFordMaddoxBrown,fromthemidsEngravingshowingLivingstonecrossingthecontinentofAfrica,–EngravingshowingexplorerstryingtoteachtheBibletoindigenousrulerssuchasKingKamrasiofNyoro,PrintfromPunchdiscussingthequestionoftheveracityofDarwin’stheories,SatiricalprintofDarwinasandwithanapeAnengravedrepresentationoftheGreatExhibitionatViennain,showingtheGermansectionofthe‘HallofMachines’EngravingshowinghowmachinesinthefamilyhomecouldfreewomenofheavyhouseholdchoresFrenchartistRaoulHausmann’s‘assemblage’calledthe‘MechanicalHead’cJamesWatsonandFrancisCrick,discoverersofthefamous‘doublehelix’structureofDNAandNobelprizewinnersListofmapsMigrationsinWesternEurasia,thirdtofirstmillenniumBCExtentofGreekinfluenceintheancientMediterraneanworld,c–BCRomanEmpireinADLinguisticboundaries,cAD(witheleventhandtwelfthcenturypilgrimageroutes)EuropeanexpansionattheendoftheMiddleAgestocAgenciesandcommercialinterestsoftheFuggertradingandbankinghouse,cMajorspheresofEuropeanculturalinfluence,cPrologueEuropeapresentwithapastEsirrtderMensch,solangerstrebtManshallerraslongashestrivesGod,inthe‘Prologue’toGoethe’sFaustIIntroduction:EuropeadreamWhatisEuropeItis,ofcourse,wrongtoconsideritasa‘naturalfact’,tocallitacontinentandtoattributetoitthespecioussecurityofadistinctgeographicalentity,assooftenhappensIfanything,Europeisapoliticalandculturalconcept,inventedandexperiencedbyanintellectualelitemorespecificallywhenevertherewascausetogiveamoreprecisedefinitionofwhatcanpragmaticallyyetsimplybedescribedasthewesternedgeofEurasia,theearth’slargestlandmassWhenwastherecausetogivesuchdefinitionsOften,inamomentorperiodofcrisis,ofconfrontationAfterall,itisonlywhenselfdefinitionisnecessarythatpeoplebecomeselfreflective,anddescribetheirownidentityThequestionwhytheconceptwascoinedatallleadstoanotherproblem,namely,whentheconcept‘Europe’wasfirstused,andbywhomOfcourseitisequallyimportanttoknowwhatwasthecontentofthisconceptatdifferenttimesinhistoryandforwhomandinwhatwayitwasalivingrealityForthefactthatthe‘ideaofEurope’wasoftenvoicedexplicitlyeitherastheutopia,orasthepropagandainstrumentonlyofanelite,innowaymeansthatithasnotbecomearealityofsortsinthecourseoftime,bothforthateliteandforfarlargergroupsofpeoplewhomadeandmakenoclaimstothatstatusAsFriedrichNietzschewrote:‘EinTraum,ewigwiederholtkanndurchausalsWirklichkeitempfundenundbeurteiltwerden’(‘Thecontinuousrepetitionofadreammaywellturnitintoarealityfeltandjudged’)Allthesequestionsandconsiderationsfirsttakeusfarbackintothepastbeforereturningtothesituationwhichdevelopedfromthenineteenthcenturyonwardsand,morespecifically,aftertheSecondWorldWarForitreallywasonlythenthatpoliticians,whoweremainlyeconomistsandlawyers,attemptedtobringtofruitionwhatthey,interpretivelyandsometimesmanipulatively,presentedasthe‘ideaofEurope’,attributingit,inaccordancewiththeiridealism,toalonghistoricaltraditionWithaviewtoforeversuppressingthechancesofEuropeoncemoredestroyingitselfwithitsownarms,theybegantopresentitasa‘culture’ora‘civilization’,asaunitywithfeaturesdistinctlyitsownTofurthertheacceptationofwhattheyfelttobeapolitical,militaryandeconomicnecessity,the‘integration’ofEurope,theytriedtogiveitanideologicalfoundationAshadhappenedbefore,‘Europe’onceagainwasheldupasanidealtocontemporarysociety,urgingittorealizeadreamofcohesionYet,inattemptingtoacceleratetheprocessofunification,thesepoliticiansembarkeduponacoursewhoseconsequencesreachedmuchfurtherthaninanypreviousperiod,pittinganasyetuntestedbeliefinthepowerofacollective,Europeanidealagainstthetenacityofolder,regionalandnationalallegiancesAgainstthisbackground,ahistoricalanalysisseemscalledforofthephenomenathatcanbeconsideredtohavecontributedtoEurope’sculturalcohesion,toitspastandpresentrealityOntheproblemsofwritingaculturalhistoryofEuropeWritinghistoryisaculturalandpolitical,perhapsevenamoraldilemmaIndeed,historiansofnecessityinvolvetheirowncultureandselfintheirwritingIftheydonotcreateacontemporarypictureofthepast,fewwillwanttoreadthemBut,ifthehistorian’simagesaretooperiodbound,theywillquicklyfadeMysearchforEuropeisunavoidablyawilfuljourneyalonganumberofpaths,someofwhichhavenotyetbeentaken,whileothersareobviouslywelltroddenWhethermystrollleadsanywhereisforthereadertodecideItishopedthatthisbookwillprovideatimeandplaceboundjourneythroughselectedfieldsofEurope’sculturalhistory,guidingreaderspastvariouspointsofrecognitionandyetstimulatingtheirthoughtRegardlessoftheextenttowhichone’spointofviewisdeterminedbytheviewsofearliertravellers,whatweseeisalwaysnewAsalandscapeandourperspectiveofitchangeduringajourney,similarly,whenwethinkaboutEuropeitscontoursshiftanditscharacteristicsrearrangethemselvesSincetheseventhcenturyBC,whenthetermwasfirstused,muchhasbeenthought,writtenandsaidaboutEurope,rightuptothepresentdayEuropehasbeendescribed,respectively,asanAsianprincess,aGreekdemigoddess,thequeenoftheworldEuropehasbeenexpressedmetaphoricallyinimagesandwordswhichencodeemotionsEuropehasalsobeentheresultofwaysofthinking,ofideologieswhichactivelycontributedtothecreationofrealitiesEuropehasevenbecomeamoreorlessobjectivegeographicalconceptBecauseofallthat,EuropenowisamoreorlessstronglyfeltbondbetweenthoselivinginitEuropeissituatedinthatareaoftensionwhichlinksdreamtodeed,thinkingtodoingButitisalsoarestrictivecriterionforthosewhowanttodistinguishthemselvesfromanoutsideworldWhatfollowsdoesnotintendtosummarizeallthisNordoesitintendtodefinitelydefinethatwhichcannotbesodefined,namely,whatEuropereallyis,forEuropewillcontinuetochange,tobeitselfinnewwaysEuropeisaseriesofworldviews,ofpeoples’perspectivesontheirreality,sometimesonlydreamtordesired,sometimesexperiencedandrealizedaswellThiswasnevermorecleartomethanwhenIhadfinishedthefirstdraftofthisbookObviously,atextlikethepresentoneisnotwrittenorpublishedwithoutbeingscrutinizedbyanumberofreaders,boththecriticalfriendsandtheprofessionalreviewers,whoremainanonymousfortheveryreasonthatthepublisherasksthemtocommentonthetextinviewofitsscholarlyacceptabilityanditscommercialviabilityByandlarge,theircommentshavepreparedmeforthecriticismwhichabookonEuropeancultureisboundtoreceiveSomecriticsvehementlyaccusedmeofbeingtooirreverentastothebiblicalsourcesofChristiantraditionOthers,however,feltthatthetextshouldnotgivesuchprominencetotheinfluenceofChristianityonEuropeancultureasitdoesTheyalsoarguedthataculturalhistoryshouldchastisetheChurchesfortheiniquitiesperpetratedbythemorintheirname,showingthatEurope’srecordisfarfromunblemishedSometookmetotaskfornotwritingaboutthemasseswhosufferedinthemakingofEurope,indicatingoneshouldexpatiateonthehumancostsoftheprocess,bothinEuropeandelsewhereOthers,however,askedwhyinaculturalhistorytherewassomuchconcernfortheeconomicandpoliticalbackgroundSomewonderedwhetherthetextdidnotprovewhattheyalwayshadheld,namelythatculturalhistorywasnothingbutapaeantogreatmenandgreatideasOthersnotedthedozensofeminentculturemakersthatIfailedtomention,arguingthatitsart,itsliteratureanditsmusicconstituteEurope’smostpreciousheritageand,indeed,itsveryidentitynotsurprisingly,perhaps,thesepastculturemakersoftenprovedtobethecompatriotsofthepresentreviewersthelatterwerenotconvincedbytheargumentthatanattemptatcreatingacanonwouldinviteonlyahostofhostilereactionsFinally,afewreaderswereconvincedthatIwasinthepayoftheEuropeanUnion,writinganapologiafortheideologiesofitspowerbrokersOthers,however,blamedmeforpresentinganaltogethertoobleakviewoftherealityofthevaluesthatarepresentedasuniquelyEuropean,andoftheblessingsoftheunificationbaseduponthemIndeed,ifwritingthisbookhastaughtmeonethingitistherealityofpresentpassionsarousedbyEurope’spast,whethertheybereligious,moral,nationalistorpoliticalinoriginRealizinghowgenuinethesepassionsare,realizing,also,thatEuropecontinuestochangeintime,itsideadifferingfromindividualtoindividual,fromgrouptogroup,IcouldnotbutaskmyselfifIshouldnotgiveupmyprojectaltogetherHowever,whileacknowledgingthattheremaywellbesometruthineachandallofthesecriticalremarks,consideringthepleasurewritingthisbookhadgivenmealreadyIdecidedIwouldrathercontinueandfinishit,tryingtopresentasbalancedaviewaspossibleOndefinitionsWritinghistorymeansmakingchoicesThesechoicesaremadeagainstabackgroundofcomplexfactors,includingtheproblemswhichwritersposeforthemselves,theirassumptionsaboutthereader’sinterestsandthemassofdisorganizeddetailsfromdifferentandoftendiscordantsourcesaboutthepastattheirdisposalUltimately,allthesefactorscontributetothestoryButinthelastinstance,ofcourse,theinterpretationgivenistheresultofanefforttoaskmeaningful,presentmindedquestionswhiletryingtoavoidmeaningless,presentmindedanswersSeenagainstthisbackground,writinga‘culturalhistoryofEurope’isnotaneasytaskNotonlymustonedeterminethechronologicalscopeofsuchatale,moreimportantlyonemustdecidewhere,bothgeographicallyandculturally,EuropebeginsandendsThiscallsforadefinitionofthetwoconstituentelementsofthisbook:EuropeandCultureMusteverythingbedescribed,totheextentthatitcanbeuncovered,whichhashappenedfromtheNorthCapetoGibraltar,fromthewestcoastofIrelandtotheUralstheacceptedgeographicaldefinitionofEuropeasacontinentOrshouldonlythosedevelopmentsbeemphasizedwhichcanhelpusunderstandEurope’sc

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[荷]彼得·李伯庚:欧洲文化史(劳特里奇 1998)

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