加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 [美]郝若贝 750—1550年期间中国的人口、政治和社会变迁 (1982)

[美]郝若贝 750—1550年期间中国的人口、政治和社会变迁 (1982)

[美]郝若贝 750—1550年期间中国的人口、政治和社会变迁…

Stlnz
2008-12-10 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[美]郝若贝 750—1550年期间中国的人口、政治和社会变迁 (1982)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

Demographic,Political,andSocialTransformationsofChina,RobertMHartwellHarvardJournalofAsiaticStudies,Vol,No(Dec,),ppStableURL:http:linksjstororgsicisici=ACADPASTOECOBLHarvardJournalofAsiaticStudiesiscurrentlypublishedbyHarvardYenchingInstituteYouruseoftheJSTORarchiveindicatesyouracceptanceofJSTOR'sTermsandConditionsofUse,availableathttp:wwwjstororgabouttermshtmlJSTOR'sTermsandConditionsofUseprovides,inpart,thatunlessyouhaveobtainedpriorpermission,youmaynotdownloadanentireissueofajournalormultiplecopiesofarticles,andyoumayusecontentintheJSTORarchiveonlyforyourpersonal,noncommercialusePleasecontactthepublisherregardinganyfurtheruseofthisworkPublishercontactinformationmaybeobtainedathttp:wwwjstororgjournalshyihtmlEachcopyofanypartofaJSTORtransmissionmustcontainthesamecopyrightnoticethatappearsonthescreenorprintedpageofsuchtransmissionJSTORisanindependentnotforprofitorganizationdedicatedtoandpreservingadigitalarchiveofscholarlyjournalsFormoreinformationregardingJSTOR,pleasecontactsupportjstororghttp:wwwjstororgTueApr::Demographic,Political,andSocialTransformationsofChina,ROBERTMHARTWELLUniversipofPennsylvaniaBETWEENand,theChinesedemographic,political,andsociallandscapewasdramaticallyalteredInmidT'ang,lessthanhalfthepopulationlivedinSouthChina,thefociofcentralandlocalgovernmentalorganizationandauthoritywereintheimperialcapitalandtheprefectural(chou$,fuR,orchiini$)seats,andpoliticalpowerandhighsocialstatusweresharedbyahereditaryelitewhichspecializedingovernmentserviceandmonopolizedhighThisarticleisarevisedandexpandedversionofapaperpresentedattheSymposiumonSocialandEconomicHistoryofChinafromtheSungto,whichwasheldinBeijing,People'sRepublicofChina,OctobertoNovember,ItrepresentsthefirstofaprojectedseriesofpublicationsbasedonadecadeofresearchonthetransformationsthattookplaceinChinesesocietyandeconomybetweenandSincethedemographicandcollectivebiographicaldatausedinthisstudywerecollectedfromnearlyonethousandsourcesandwouldreauiretensofthousandsofseDaratecitations,fulldocumentationwasclearlyoutofthequestionIhave,however,triedtoproviderepresentativedocumentationforalltheimportantconclusionsThecrudestatisticaltechniquesusedinthispresentationaretreatedinanystandardtextbookonstatisticsIreferthereadertoHubertMBlalock,Jr,SocialStatistics(NewYork:McGrawHill,)IwishtoexpressmygratitudetoalltheparticipantsintheBeijingSymposiumfortheirvaluablecommentsaswellastoProfessorJosephFletcherandDrMarianqeHartwellwhosesuggestionshavemateriallycontributedtotherevisionofthisarticleinbothsubstanceandstyleofpresentationProfessorGWilliamSkinnerwaskindenoughtoallowmeaccesstohistableswhichlocatethepopulationofChinainmacroregionsMycolleagueWalterLichtreviewedmyuseofquantitativetechniquesPartoftheresearchandwritingforthisessaywasdonewhileIwassupportedbyagrantfromtheNationalEndowmentfortheHumanitiesIam,ofcourseresponsibleforanyerrorsROBERTMHARTWELLofficeBy,oversixtyeightpercentofChinesehouseholdswerelocatedintheSouth,provincial(sheng)anddistrict(hsienR)administratorsmanagedmostaspectsofcivilgovernment,andofficialsweredrawnfromabroadlybasedgentrythatviewedabureaucraticcareerasonlyoneofavarietyofoccupationalchoicesQuantitativeandqualitativechangesintheChineseeconomyduringthefirstfivehundredyearsofthisperiodtheT'angFiveDynastiesearlySungdemographicandagriculturaltransitionweresoremarkablethatsomescholarsrefertotheeraasoneofeconomicrevolutionsandothersviewitasanearlystageofprotocapitalismVetneithertherateofmaterialprogressnortheuniversallyrecognizedconcomitantachievementsinnearlyallotheraspectsofChineselifepolitical,social,artistic,scientific,andintellectualwerematchedinthesucceedingcenturiesWhyDespitewidelyvariedanswerstothisquestion,mostscholarsbasetheirconclusionsontheimplicitassumptionsthat()materialThefollowingabbreviationsareusedinthisarticle:HCPLiTao,HsuTzuchiht'ungchiench'angpien*BffQ(ChekiangShuchuj'ffizgged,)HNYLLiHsinch'uan,G#,ChienyenilaihsinienyaoluQ,Rg$ji(Kuangyashuchugged,)KHCPTSKuohsuehchipents'ungshumjiBMCPCTuTakuei$kABJi,(SungMingch'enpeichuanwanyenchigZ$sMS)YCOuyangHsiua{,(SPPY),"ChushihOuyangWenchungchiJjft,g,gchi"EsSCKYLiCh'ih,HuangSungshihch'aokangyaosf$$g(Shanghai:TungfanghsuehhuiRk,)SHYSungHuiyaochikaosf(Shanghai,)SKCSSsuk'uch'uanshuchenpenQBgBjiSKSLShihk'oshihliaots'ungshu$RH(Taipei:Iwens*,)SST'oT'oetal,Sungshihj(ed)TPHYCYuehShihSR,T'aip'inghuanyuchikqsqz(ed)WYTWuyingtienYHTCLiChifuzE,Yuanhochunhsient'uchihfi$~flf$$Hb(Chifuts'ungshu$$ed)YLTTYunglotatien$$I(Taipei:WorldBookCo,)RobertMHartwell,"ARevolutionintheChineseIronandCoalIndustriesduringtheNorthernSung,AD,"JAS,(),MarkElvin,ThePatternoftheChinesePast(Stanford:StanfordUnivPress,),ppEtienneBalazs,"TheBirthofCapitalisminChina,"JournalofEconomicandSocialHistoryoftheOrient,(),ShuShihch'engxa,"LunPeiSungtzupenchuikuanhsitich'ansheng"$ikg$=$mzE~,Shihhsiiehchik'anR~TIJ(July),ppTRANSFORMATIONSOFCHINAprogresswaslinearand()thedeterminativevariables(economic,social,technological,political,intellectual,etc)wereidenticalandhadsimilareffectsthroughouttheempireineachhistoricalperiodButduringthesecenturies,asinearlierandlaterperiodsofChinesehistory,changewascyclicalaswellaslinear,tookplaceatdifferentrates,andsometimesmovedinoppositedirectionsinthevariousregionsoftheempireThissuggestsanalternativehypothesiswhichviewsthehistoryofChineseeconomicdevelopmentasthehistoriesofregionalcyclesofgrowthduringwhichthecrucialvariablesare:()uniquehistoricaleventsthateitherinauguratedorterminatedperiodsofdevelopmentinspecificregions,()thevaryingcostsofinterregionaltransfersoftechnology,productivefactors,andsurpluses,and()thedifferentinstitutionalresponsesthatshapedthecourseofintraregionaldevelopmentaswellasinterregionalexchangesInotherwords,anunderstandingofthehistoricalprocessrequiresasystematicanalysisoftheinternaldynamicsofecologicallydiversephysiocraticregionswhichwereatdifferentstagesofdevelopmentandacarefulinquiryintothecumulativeimpactoftheinterrelationshipsbetweenthesemajorareasonthenatureofChinesesocietyatvariouspointsintimeTheobjectiveofthisessayistotestafewofthemanypropositionsthatcanbededucedfromthisgeneralhypothesisinordertoprovideapossibleframeworkforfurtherinvestigationThiseffortwillfocusonanexaminationoftherelationshipsbetween()intraregionaldevelopment,()differentialpatternsofinterregionalsettlement,()theformalorganizationofthegovernment,and()thesocialandpoliticalbehaviorofelitesduringthisextendedperiodoftransformationsTheinterrelationshipsbetweenthesevariablescanonlybeunderstoodwithinaconceptualframeworkthataccountsfortheinternaldynamicsofthevariousregionsofChinaduringdifferentperiodsintheirdevelopmentINTRAREGIONALDEVELOPMENTInthetheoriesoflocationandtransportationcostsdevelopedbyeconomistsandgeographer^,^aswellasintheapplicationoftheseJohannHeinrichvonThiinen,DerisolierteStaatinBetiehungaufLandwirtschaftundNationalokonomie,nded()AlfredWeber,TheTheoryoftheLocationofIndustries,transbyCarlJFriedrich(Chicago:Univ,ofChicagoPress,)WalterChristaller,ROBERTMHARTWELLideastothestudyofthepast,physicalterritoryisviewedasconsistingofanumberofregionaleconomicsystemsthatareintegratedwitheachotheralongacontinuumrangingfromlittleconnectiontofullarticulationregardlessofpoliticaloradministrativeboundariesTheworkofGWilliamSkinnerrepresentsthemostambitiousattempttosynthesizethisanalyticalandempiricaltraditionandapplyregionalsystemsanalysistothestudyofChinaAccordingtoSkinner,Chinacanbedividedintoanumberoffinitemacroregions,eachcomposedofahierarchyofnestedeconomicsystems"characterizedbytheconcentrationofresourcesofallkindsarableland,population,capitalinvestmentsinacentralareaandathinningoutofresourcestowardtheperi~hery"~PortionsofallofsevenoftheseareasweresituatedwithinthepoliticalboundariesofSungChinaWiththeexceptionoftheUpperYangtze,thesemacroregionsaresubdividedintoregionalcoresandperipheriesInaddition,ImodifySkinnerbydistinguishingbetweenwesternandeasternsubregionsinLingnanandtheMiddleYangtze,easternandnorthernsubregionsinNorthChina,andbyseparatingtheperipheriesofLingnanintowestern,coastal,andnorthernsections(SeeMapandTablealsoseeAppendixI:NoteonPopulation,andAppendixI:ListofPlaceNames)Theseparateterritories(intermediateregions)withinamacroregionwereconnectedwitheachotherinasystematicwayeg,networksofmarketsforgoods,services,andlandthesesubdivisionsDiezentralenOrteinSuddeutschland(Jena,)AugustLosch,TheEconomicsofLocation,transWilliamHWoglom(NewHaven:YaleUnivPress,)NSBGras,TheEvolutionoftheEnglishCornMarket(Cambridge:HarvardUnivPress,)RobertMHartwell,"Markets,Technology,andtheStructureofEnterpriseintheDevelopmentoftheEleventhCenturyChineseIronandSteelIndustry,"TheJournalofEconomicHistory,(),RobertMHartwell,"ACycleofEconomicChangeinImperialChina:CoalandIroninNortheastChina,C,"JournaloftheEconomicandSocialHistoryoftheOrient,(),JuanJLinzandAmandoDeMiguel,"WithinNationDifferencesandComparisons:TheEightSpains,"inRichardCMerrittandSteinRokkan,ed,ComparingNations:TheUseofQuantitativeDatainCrossNationalResearch(NewHaven:YaleUnivPress,)GWilliamSkinner,"RegionalSystemsinLateImperialChina"(unpubl,paperpresentedatthendannualmeetingoftheSocialScienceHistoryAssociation,AnnArbor,),pGWilliamSkinner,ed,TheCityinLateImperialChina(Stanford:StanfordUnivPress,),ppCompareJohnCHFei,"The'StandardMarket'ofTraditionalChina,"inDwightHPerkins,ed,China'sModernEconomyinHistoricalPerspective(Stanford:StanfordUnivPress,),ppTABLERegionalDistributionofChineseHouseholds,AD(,households)LINGNANWestCoreWestPeripheryEastCoreCoastalPeripheryNorthPeripherySOUTHEASTCHINACorePeripheryUPPERYANGTZEMIDDLEYANGTZEWestCoreWestPeripheryEastCoreEastPeripheryLOWERYANGTZECorePeripheryNORTHWESTCHINACorePeripheryNORTHCHINAEastCoreEastPeripheryNorthCoreNorthPeripheryTOTALArea(K),,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,ADSource:AppendixI:NoteonPopulation,andTableROBERTMHARTWELLmirroredthestructureofthelargerunitsInsomeinstances,thestructureofformal(andinformal)politicalinstitutionsparalleledthehierarchiesofcentralplaces,centralareasofagriculturalactivity,andruralpopulationdensitiesThisstudytreatstheconstantboundariesoffiftysampleSungprefecturesrepresentativeofthedifferentpartsofChinaassurrogatesforintermediateregionalsystemsThecomparablemodernterritoryisanareainwhichtheSungadministrativestructuretheprefecturalcapitalandtheseatsofthesurroundingdistrictsroughlycoincideswiththecentralplacehierarchyofalocalcityandseveralsubordinatemarkettowns:thecoredistrictsnormallycontainthelargestconcentrationofarableland,andthereisaclosecorrelationbetweendensityofpopulationandcultivatedacreagewithineachprefecture,suggestingahighdegreeofhomogeneityandselfsufficiencyinbasicfoodstuffsIn,thehsienwhichwereseatsof()oftheseprefectureshadahigherpercentageofgrosslandareaundercultivationthantheaverageintheirhinterlandhsienofthehinterlanddistricts()hadlowerpercentagesofcultivatedacreagethantheprefecturalseats,andtherewasaneightyonepercentcovariancebetweenpercentagesofprefecturalcultivatedlandandpopulationinthehsienItisunlikelythatpopulationlevelswerelesscloselytiedtocultivatedacreageinearliertimesAtleastincaFuchou'I,acorrelationofnumberofhouseholdswithcultivatedacreageyieldsacoefficientofdetermination(r)ofAndJohnSteurmerhasfoundacloserelationbetweencultivatedareaandpopulationinanumberofotherprefecturesintheLowerYangtzeduringthelateSouthernSung,Yuan,andearlyMingThesettlementswithineachoftheseintermediateregionsThefiftysampleprefecturesusedassurrogatesforintermediateregionsare:T'engg,YulinBjM,Kuang,Yung,Ch'iunga,andShaoinLingnanCh'ao,Fug,Hsinghuagik,WenjE,T'ai,andChieninSoutheastCoastalChinaChiag,MeiB,Kuog,andYujintheUpperYangtzeT'anjg,E,Hungg,SuiE,Chi$,Yuang,Fua,Chiench'angBE,andHsinintheMiddleYangtzeSu,HangG,Yiieh,Mingm,Ch'angg,Hua,Mu,andWuintheLowerYangtzeT'ungm,Hochung$J,Chiang#$,Chieh,Fen$,andChin$ijinNorthwestChinaandHsu,Laijff,Ch'ingB,Sheng,Yungchingjk,Hsingfl,Chao,Lua,Yen,andIfiinNorthChinaAnadditionaltwentynineprefectureswereusedinpopulationprojections(seeTable)'JohnLossingBuck,LandUtilizationinChina:Statistics(Chicago:UnivofChicagoPress,),ppLiangK'ochiaa,Ch'unhsiSunshanchihEzuTRANSFORMATIONSOFCHINAsharedthesamepasthistory,andthishistory,inturn,wascloselytiedtothatoftheirrespectivemacroregionItispossibletoconstructaworkingtypologythatdescribesfourperiodsinthehistoryofamacroregion:()frontiersettlement,()rapiddevelopment,()systemicdecline,and()equilibriumTheseparateterritoriesofaphysiocraticregionexperiencedquitedifferentpatternsofpopulationgrowthanddeclineineachperiodinthefrontierdevelopmentstage,coreareasgrewatafasterratethanperipheriesduringdevelopment,hinterlandsfasterthancentralareasandduringdeclinethepopulationofperipheraldistrictsfellmorequicklythanthatofthecoreUnderconditionsofequilibrium,demographicchangeinspecifichsienresultedfromtemporarylocalcircumstancesthathadlittleconnectionwithlongtermdevelopmentsinotherdistrictsofthesameregionTheseculargrowthandspread(ordeclineandcontraction)ofpopulationinthevariouslocalitiesofpremodernChinaandtheconcomitantevolutionofeconomic,political,andsocialinstitutionsfollowedpredictablepatternsthatparalleledthesynchronichierarchiesofregionalsystemsinequilibriumSettlementsstartedinplaceswiththelargestareasofcontiguousproductivelandsDuringthisfrontierstageofdevelopment,itisimpossibletodistinguishintraregionalsystemsbecausetherewerefeweconomicorinstitutionallinkagesbetweencoresandperipheriesThiswastheprevailingsituationinalmostallofthemacroregionsofSouthChinabeforethemidT'ang,mostofLingnanuntilthelateMing,andSzechwanaftertheprecipitouspopulationdeclineofthethirteenthcenturyreducedtheentireUpperYangtzeareatoafrontierWhenpopulationdensitiesreachedacriticalpoint,eitherowingtoimmigration,naturalincrease,ormorecommonlya(SKCS,"Iiuchiks''),JohnSteurmer,"PolderConstructionandthelalobPatternofLandOwnershipintheT'aihuBasinDuringtheSouthernSungDynasty,"DissUnivofPennsylvaniaAchisquaretestofpredictedagainstactualmovementsofcoreandperipheraldistrictpopulationsinthefiftysampleprefecturesorintermediateregions(aggregatedintotwentygroups)duringfrontiersettlement,development,anddeclineyieldsx=,df=,andlevelofsignificance=Ontheotherhand,asimilartestofmovementsinmacroregionsinequilibrium(aggregatedintoclasses)computestox=,df=,andlevelofsignificance=lessthan,ROBERTMHARTWELLcombinationofboth,aterritoryenteredaperiodofrapiddevelopmentpopulationsspreadtohinterlandswithfewer,lessfertile,andmorescatteredcultivablefieldsArelativescarcityofthemostproductivelandsandtheemergenceofintermediatemarketsinruralrealestatewereprobablythechiefindependentvariablesAtvarioustimesduringtheT'ang,FiveDynasties,andearlySung,mostofSouthChinaenteredaperiodofacceleratedgrowthSettinganygeneralquantitativemeasureforthis"point"isclearlyarbitrary,but"takeoff"fromfrontiertodevelopmentseemstotakeplacewhenregionaldensitiesreachtentofifteenpercentoftheirmoderndensitiesPeriodsofdevelopmentendedeitherwhennaturalormanmadecatastrophesflood,famine,pestilence,rebellion,orwarabruptlyterminatedthemorwhenthemarginalreturnsonhusbandryreachedthelimitsofagriculturaltechnologyTheensuingeraswereonesofeithersystemicdeclineorequilibriumDuringperiodsofdecline,theprocessofdevelopmentreverseditselfthelessfertileandmorescatteredfieldsofthehinterlandswereabandonedfirstandtheperipheriesofintermediateregionslostpeoplemorerapidlythanthecoredistrictsMacroregionsindeclineincludeNorthChin

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/15

[美]郝若贝 750—1550年期间中国的人口、政治和社会变迁 (1982)

仅供在线阅读

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利