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首页 [以]苏拉密斯·萨哈:第四等级:欧洲中世纪妇女史(劳特里奇 2003)

[以]苏拉密斯·萨哈:第四等级:欧洲中世纪妇女史(劳特里奇 2003)

[以]苏拉密斯·萨哈:第四等级:欧洲中世纪妇女史(劳特里奇 2…

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2008-11-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[以]苏拉密斯·萨哈:第四等级:欧洲中世纪妇女史(劳特里奇 2003)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

dpsldpslTheFourthEstateDidwomenreallyconstitutea‘fourthestate’inmedievalsocietyand,ifso,inwhatsenseInthiswiderangingstudyShulamithShaharconsidersthisandthewholequestionofvaryingattitudestowomenandtheirstatusinWesternEuropebetweenthetwelfthandthefifteenthcenturiesShedrawsacohesivepictureofwomeninarangeofsituations:nunsandmarriedwomen,peasantsandnoblewomen,townswomenandwomeninvolvedinhereticalmovementsandwitchcraftTheFourthEstatehasbecomeaclassicintheareaofwomenintheMiddleAgesInhernewpreface,ShaharrevisitsthecontextinwhichTheFourthEstatewasfirstconceivedandlooksatnewdevelopmentsinmedievalwomen’shistorysincethefirsteditionShulamithShaharisAssociateProfessorandHeadofMedievalStudiesattheUniversityofTelAvivSheistheauthorofChildhoodintheMiddleAgesandGrowingOldintheMiddleAgesTheFourthEstateAhistoryofwomenintheMiddleAgesRevisedEditionSHULAMITHSHAHARTranslatedbyChayaGalaiLONDONANDNEWYORKFirstpublishedbyMethuenCoLtdSimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeWestthStreet,NewYorkNYThiseditionfirstpublishedRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroupThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,©,ShulamithShaharAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataShahar,ShulamithMa°amadharevi°iEnglishThefourthestate:ahistoryofwomenintheMiddleAgesShulamithShaharpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(paperback:alkpaper)WomenHistoryMiddleAges,–SocialhistoryMedieval,–ITitleHQS´´–dcISBNMasterebookISBNISBN(AdobeeReaderFormat)ISBN(PrintEdition)TothememoryofmyfatherContentsListofIllustrationsviiiPrefacexiForewordxviiIntroductionPublicandLegalRightsNunsMarriedWomenWomenintheNobilityTownswomenWomeninthePeasantryWitchesandtheHereticalMovementsNotesIndexListofIllustrationsTheillustrationsappearbetweenpagesandChristinedePisan(miniaturefrom‘WorksofChristinedePisan’French,earlyfifteenthcenturyMSHarlBritishLibrary)Thevirginandtheunicorn(fromMSDouceBodleianLibrary,Oxford)Miniaturefrom‘LaSainteAbbaye’(MSadd,folvBritishLibrary)Nunsintherefectory(fromthe‘PolyptychoftheBlessedUmilta’byPietroLorinzettiphoto:Alinari)TheVirginandChild(CrownCopyright,VictoriaandAlbertMuseum)SaintMargaret(CrownCopyright,VictoriaandAlbertMuseum)Scenesoffamilylife(BildarchivderÖsterreichischeNationalbibliothek)Wifebeating(German,)Aknightwatchesaladyinherbath(MS,folBritishLibrary)Amidwifehandsthemotherherbaby(OrielCollege,Oxford)Scenesofcourtlylove(fromManessischenLeiderhardschift,UniversityLibrary,Heidelberg)Ladycrowningherlover(CrownCopyright,VictoriaandAlbertMuseum)Ahawkingparty(CrownCopyright,VictoriaandAlbertMuseum)‘WhenAdamdelvedandEvespan’(CorpusChristiCollege,Oxford)LISTOFILLUSTRATIONSixWomenharvesting(MiniaturesfromDerJungfrauenspiegelNoRheinischesLandesmuseum,Bonn)Womencatchingrabbits(fromQueenMary’sPsalter,MSRoyalBVIIfolbBritishLibrary)Womenshearingandweavingwool(MSTrinCollCambRIfolTrinityCollege,Cambridge)Awomanmilkingacow(BodleianLibrary,Oxford)Womencardingwoolandweaving(MSRoyalGVfolBritishLibrary)Aladyhuntingastag(MSRoyalBVIIIfolBritishLibrary)Agameofchess(MSRoyalBVIIfolvBritishLibrary)Ahuntingscene(CrownCopyright,VictoriaandAlbertMuseum)Thetormentsofwitchesinhell(LambethPalaceLibrary)PrefaceThisbookwasfirstpublishedinEnglishinItisdifficulttooverestimatesubsequentdevelopmentintheresearchofitssubject:medievalwomen(eleventhfifteenthcenturies)ThehistoryofwomenandgenderasacategoryofanalysishavebecomeamainstreaminmedievalresearchThusonthesubjectofeverysinglechapterofthisbook,fromchapter(‘PublicandLegalRights’)tochapter(‘WitchesandtheHereticalMovements’),tensofarticleshaveappearedaswellasmanybooksSomeofthestudiesarelinkedtothehistoriographicalquestionsthathaveemergedinthestudyofmedievalsocialandculturalhistoryingeneralManyothersbearthefruitfulimpactofbothfeministandliterarytheoryCollectionsofwomen’swritingshavebeenpublishedinmoderncriticaleditionsandintranslationsMoresourcesaboutwomenorthatincludewomenhaveappearedinprintandhavebeenstudiedNewinterpretationsofwellknowntextshavebeenadvanced,andstudiesbasedonnewarchivalresearchhaveappearedInthisprefaceitisimpossibleeithertosurveythecontentofalltheworkthathasbeendonesincethepublicationofthisbook,ortodojusticetothenewunderstandingsthathaveevolvedWhatfollowsisapresentationofonlysomeofthenewtrendsinresearch,andreferencetoarestrictednumberofstudiesbywayofexampleonthetopicsofsomeofthechaptersofthebookAnimportantissuethathasbeenaddressedinsomestudiesandisstillopentofurtherresearchisthatofregionaldifferencesRegionalPREFACExiistudiesassucharenotnewThroughthemweknowthatthereweredifferencesinhouseholdstructure,inheritancelaw,economicsystemsandtheageofmarriageAlltheseaffectedwomen’slivesWorkopportunitiesofwomenalsodifferednotonlybyperiodbutalsobyregionHowever,recentresearchhasshownthatthesewerenottheonlydifferencesItappearsthatideasconsidereduniversalweremediatedthroughlocalconditions,customsandtraditionsThustherewerealsodifferencesingenderideologiesandinthedegreeofmisogynyThereareagreatnumberofthenewstudiesconcerningwomenandreligionrelatingtofemalesaints,nunsandwomen’sreligiouspietyNunneriesarenowstudiedthroughnewmethodologiesandtheusenotonlyofvisitationreportsbutalsoofcartularies,chartersandarchitectureThecollectionofessayseditedbyCatherineMooneypresentsstudiesofatypicaltextswrittenordictatedbyfemalesaintsTheessaysilluminateparticularandintimateexperience,andatthesametimeraiseissuesofinterpretationandmethodAsCarolineWalkerBynumputit:‘theeightessaysask:howdowediscernindividualvoicesHowarethesevoicesgenderedHowmuchofwhatsurvivesisdeterminedbygenre,bysocialorreligiousstereotypes,byindividualexperience’Othertextswrittenbyreligiouswomen,whilerevealingthepersonal,alsoindicatethechangeovertimeinwhatwastermed‘femininereligiosity’PassingfromorthodoxytoheresiestherearestudiesthathavemitigatedandnuancedtheacceptedviewthatinthehereticalmovementsassuchwomenachievedgreaterautonomythanintheCatholicChurchandenjoyedfullrightsofparticipationinholyaspectsWomendefinitelycontributedtothevarioussectsandhadmoreaccesstoreligiousritesthanintheCatholicChurchHowever,recentresearchontheCathars,WaldensiansandLollardshasshownthattoalesserorgreaterdegreetheirrightsascomparedtothoseofmenwererestricted,andthatattitudestowardsthemwerenotwithoutambivalence(mainlyintheCatharmovement)ItappearsthatthegenderingofpowerstructuresresembledthatwhichwasdominantinmedievalsocietyingeneralmorethanhashithertobeenrecognizedThetitleofchapterofthisbookis‘MarriedWomen’MoreresearchhasbeendoneonthisvastsubjecttooThereisanimpressivenumberofstudiesonpatriarchalideologies,legalandcustomarylaw,andpresentationsofmarriage,aswellasonthelifeofmarriedwomeninvariousregionsStudiesonwidowhoodaddresstheproblemofremarriageThepossibilitytoremarrywasdeterminedPREFACExiiibydemographicfactorsInlocationsandattimeswhenwomenoutnumberedmen,widowshadlittlechancetoremarryHowever,therewerealsowomenwhochosetoremainwidowsThesestudiesdealbothwiththerelativeindependenceofthewidowandherplightAsmallnumberofstudiesdealswithmotherhoodandmotherdaughterrelationsSomeofthestudiesonmedievalchildhoodprovidebetterunderstandingofmedievalmotherhoodMuchmoreresearchhasbeendoneontheageofmarriage,femalesexualityandmeansofcontrollingfertilityTheseissueshavealsobeentackledbydemographerswhoexaminedtheireffectonthegrowthanddeclineinpopulationnumbersatgivenperiodsandinparticularregionsThereisalsoastudyofspiritualmarriagevoluntaryabstinencewithinwedlockStudiesoffemalesexualityandbirthcontrolintersectwithcontemporaryresearchinthehistoryofmedicine,andthehistoryofthebodyResearchhasbeendoneonwomen’shealthandillnessesatdifferentstagesoflifeaswellasontheroleofwomeninthepracticeofmedicineItappearsthatwomennotonlycaredforthesickinthehouseholdandweretrainedingynaecologyandobstetrics,butwerealsopractisedinavarietyofothermedicalskillsFeministinterestshavepromotedvariousapproachestothehistoryofthebodybasedonliterarytexts,medicaltreatisesandavarietyofothersourcesAsprostituteswerecountedamongwageearners,theyaredealtwithinchapter(‘Townswomen’)ofthisbookLaterresearchhasemphasizedthesegregatingandregulatingofprostitutionfromthelatetwelfthcenturyonwardsinthecontextofthegeneraltighteningofthecontrolofwomenoftheperiodTheprofitabilityofthetradewasexploitedbyprinces,bishopsandmunicipalauthoritiesthroughlicensingsystemsandprotectedmonopoliesItwasalsoaperiodofpreoccupationwiththepollutionofthefemalebodyHistorianswhohavestudiedthephenomenonhavebeeninspiredbytheoriesofcultureandanthropologicalmodelsMoreresearchhasbeendoneonthecontributionofwomentotheproductiveeconomyItisnowanacceptedviewthatitisimpossibletodiscussthehistoryofeconomyandlabourinmedievalsociety,whenmanylivedontheedgeofsubsistenceandcouldhardlyforgothelabourforceofhalfofitsmembers,namelywomen,withoutdiscussingtheirroleinproductionandeconomiclifeTherewasamanifestdiscrepancybetweenthedisregardofwomen’seconomicactivityinmostmedievalsystemsofrepresentationanddiscourseaswellasineducationaltreatises,andtheirrealroleineconomiclifeResearchuptotheearlysshowedthatwomeninthetownsnotPREFACExivonlypractisedspecializedfemalecraftsbutalsoparticipatedasdaughtersorwivesintheproductionofthehouseholdworkshops,engagedinsomebyindustryoftheirownorworkedaswageearnersoutsidetheirhomesPeasantwomenworkednotonlyintheirhouseholdsandinthekitchengarden,butalsointhefieldsTheytookpartinalmosteveryagriculturalworkbothonthefamilyfarmandashiredagriculturallabourersIthasalsobeendemonstratedthattheonlyoccupationswomencouldengageinoutsidetheirhomeswithoutarousingobjectionwerelowpaying,lowskilledandlowstatusoccupations,outsidetheframeworkoftheguilds,whichdidnotcompetewithspecializedwork(chapters–ofthisbook)LaterresearchhasoffereddetailedstudybasedonarchivalresearchoffemaleworkinaspecifictradeorandinonetownorregionSomeofthestudiesbasedondemographicmaterialshaveconcentratedonthechangeovertimeinwomen’seconomicopportunities,legalandsocialrestrictionsnotwithstandingWiththeriseofdemandforalabourforceinthepostPlagueperiodthevalueofwomen’sworkincreasedandtheywerepaidhigherwagesThoughmostofthestudiesaboutfemalewritersareofsaintsandmystics,therearesomeaboutlaywomenandhereticsaswellSomewritingsofwomen,likethoseofHildegardofBingenorChristinedePisan,appearedinprintbeforetheearlys(referredtoinchaptersandofthisbook)MoretextsoftheirshavebeenpublishedsinceincriticaleditionsandmanyofthemhavealsobeentranslatedOnthebasisoftheirtextstherearenowmorestudiesofMechtildofMagdeburg,MargaretPorète,MargeryKempeandothers,aswellasnewstudiesaboutHildegardofBingenandChristinedePisan(Unlikewomeninlaterperiods,medievalwomenwritersdidnotusemalepseudonymsbutidentifiedthemselvesbynameandsex)Throughthepublicationofpreviouslyunknowntexts,thevoicesofmorewomenhavebeenheardandthereadingoftheirrhetoricandselfpresentationstrategieshasbecomemoresophisticatedandnuancedAnumberofbiographiesofnoblewomenandqueenshavebeenwritteninthelastdecadesThebiographyofEmpressMatildaisalsoareinterpretationofEnglishhistoryinthethcenturyAnotheroneisdedicatedtoEleanorofCastileSomemoreresearchhasbeendoneaboutnoblewomenascollectorsofbookswritteninthevernacularsortranslatedfromLatinSomeofthemassembledlibrariesofbooksofpietyaswellasnonreligiousbooksinvariousliterarygenresManyofthestudiesarebasedonsourcesthathavebeendiscoveredandfirstpublishedduringthelastdecades:textswrittenbymenPREFACExvaboutwomen,orthatincludewomen,orthatwerespecificallywrittenbythemforwomenAtthesametimenewresearchhasalsobeendonealsoonwellknowntexts,applyingnewtheoreticalinsightswithspecialattentiontogenderissuesAsalreadymentioned,itisimpossibletodojusticeinaprefacetoalltheworkthathasbeendonesinceTheresearchthathasbeendonesinceenrichesourknowledgeandunderstandingandpresentsafuller,morecomplexanddiversehistoricalrealityHowever,mostofthetopicsconcerningwomeninmedievalsocietyandculturearereferredtointhisbookastheverytitlesofitschaptersindicateItprovidesaprimaryframeworkwhichwillhopefullyencouragereaderstopursuethesubjectinallitscomplexityandrichnessSSOctoberNOTESMiriRubin,‘ADecadeofStudyingMedievalWomen–’,HistoryWorkshopJournal(),pp–Interalia:PenelopeDJonson,EqualinMonasticProfession:ReligiousWomeninMedievalFrance(Chicago)JoAnnMcNamara,SistersinArms:CatholicNunsthroughTwoMillennia(Cambridge)GenderedVoicesMedievalSaintsandtheirInterpreters,edCatherineMMooney(UniversityofPennsylvania),pxPeterBiller,‘CatharsandMaterialWoman’,inMedievalTheologyandtheNaturalBody,edsPeterBillerandAlastirJMinnis,YorkStudiesinMedievalTheology(York),pp–ShulamithShahar,WomeninaMedievalHereticalSectAgnesandHuguettetheWaldensians(BuryStEdmunds,Suffolk)ShannonMcSheffrey,GenderandHeresy:WomenandMeninLollardCommunities,–(Philadelphia)UponmyHusband’sDeath:WidowsintheLiteratureandHistoriesofMedievalEurope,edLouiseMirrer(AnnArbor)WifeandWidowinMedievalEngland,edSusanSheridanWalker(AnnArbor)Interalia:HandbookofMedievalSexuality,edsVernLBulloughandJamesBrundage(NewYork)MedievalSocietyandtheManorCourt,edsZviRaziandRichardSmith(Oxford)DyanEliott,SpiritualMarriage:SexualAbstinenceinMedievalWedlock(Princeton)PREFACExviMonicaHGreen,‘DocumentingMedievalWomen’sMedicalPractice’,inPracticalMedicinefromSalernototheBlackDeath,edsLuisGarciaBallesterandothers(Cambridge),pp–idem,‘Women’sMedicalPracticeandHealthCareinMedievalEurope’,Signs(–),pp–FeministApproachestotheBodyinMedievalLiterature,edsLindaLomperisandSarahStanbury(Philadelphia)FramingMedievalBodies,edsSarahKayandMiriRubin(Manchester)LeahLOtis,ProstitutioninMedievalSocietytheHistoryofanUrbanInstitutioninLanguedoc(Chicago)RuthMazoKarras,ProstitutionandSexualityinMedievalEngland(NewYorkandOxford)GailMcMurrayGibson,‘BlessingfromtheSunandMoon:ChurchingasWomen’sTheater’,inBodiesandDisciplinesIntersectionsofLiteratureandHistoryinFifteenthCentury,England,edsBarbaraAHanawaltandDavidWallace(Minneapolis),pp–JeremyPJGoldberg,Women,WorkandLifeCycleinMedievalEconomy:WomeninYorkandYorkshirec–(Oxford)Interalia:MedievalWomen’sVisionaryLiterature,edElizabethAPetroff(NewYork)BarbaraNewman,FromVirileWomantoWomanChrist:StudiesinMedievalReligionandLiterature(Philadelphia)MarjorieChibnall,TheEmpressMatildaQueenConsort,QueenMotherandLadyoftheEnglish(Oxford)JohnCParsons,EleanorofCastile:QueenandSocietyinThirteenthCenturyEngland(Basingstoke)SGroageBell,‘MedievalWomenBookOwners:ArbitersofLayPietyandAmbassadorsofCulture’,inWomenandPowerintheMiddleAges,edsMErlerandMKowaleski(Athens,Georgia),pp–Forexample:CarolynDinshaw,Chaucer’sSexualPolitics(Madison)ForewordThechronologicalframeworkofthisstudyencompassestheHighandLateMiddleAges,thatis,fromtheearlytwelfthcenturyuntilaboutthesecondquarterofthefifteenthIthassometimesbeennecessarytorefertoanearlierperiodinordertotracetheoriginsofaparticularidea,laworcustom,orthebeginningofaprocess,andinthesectiondealingwithwitchesitwasnecessarytofollowthesubjectintothesecondhalfofthefifteenthcentury,whichwaswhenthegreatwitchhuntingerabeganinWesternEurope,althoughtheideasandbeliefscomprisingthedoctrineofthewitchasSatan’saccomplicehadarisenintheLateMiddleAgesHerethechronologicalboundarieshadtobeexceeded,whileillustratingtheculminationofaprocesswhoseoriginsliewellwithintheperiodunderdiscussionGeographically,thestudycoversWesternEurope,notincludingtheScandinaviancountries,ScotlandandIrelandEngland,theLowCountries,Germany,France,ItalyandtheIberianpeninsulaallhadfeudalsocialsystemsThetwelfthandthirteenthcenturiesarecommonlydescribedasthesecondfeudalageinWesternEurope,whereasthefourteenthsawthedeclineoffeudalism,especiallyinthemilitaryandpoliticalspheresTheabovenamedcountrieshadmuchthesamekindofeconomicsystem,materialcultureandclassstructuretheywerealsounitedintheRomanfaithandChurchorganizationInallthesecountriesLatinwasthelanguageofhigherculture,andthesameliterarygenresprevailed,evenwhenwritteninthelocallanguagesFOREWORDxviiiGiventhisu

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